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Newsome A.G.,Illinois College | Culver C.A.,Pepsi Cola Company | Van Breemen R.B.,Illinois College
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Wrolstad R.E.,Oregon State University | Culver C.A.,Pepsi Cola Company
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Replacement of artificial food dyes with natural colorants is a current marketing trend, notwithstanding the fact that neither the United States nor the European Union (EU) has defined natural with respect to food colors. Consumer groups have concerns over the safety of synthetic colorants, and in addition, many of the naturally derived colorants provide health benefits. Food scientists frequently have the assignment of replacing artificial colorants with natural alternatives. This can be challenging, as naturally derived colorants are usually less stable, and all desired hues might, in fact, not be obtainable. In this review, the chemical and physical properties, limitations, and more suitable applications for those colorants that are legally available as substitutes for the synthetic colorants are summarized. Issues and challenges for certain foods are discussed, and in addition, colorants that may be available in the future are briefly described. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews.

Gulseren I.,University of Guelph | Fang Y.,Pepsi Cola Company | Corredig M.,University of Guelph
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Whey protein isolate (WPI) nanoparticles were prepared using ethanol desolvation, and their capacity to incorporate ZnCl2 was analysed. Desolvation was carried out at pH 9 and the volume of added ethanol was 0-3 times the volume of protein solution. The desolvated solutions were dispersed in acidified water (pH 3) immediately after desolvation. The size of the WPI nanoparticles increased with the volume ratio of ethanol:water used, as well as with the amount of ZnCl2. The nanoparticles showed high incorporation efficiencies, and remained stable after 30 days of storage at 22°C. The amount of zinc incorporated in the WPI particle suspensions was within the range of daily zinc requirements for healthy adults. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gulseren T.,University of Guelph | Fang Y.,Pepsi Cola Company | Corredig M.,University of Guelph
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2012

Whey protein isolate (WPI) nanoparticles were prepared by diluting an alkaline solution of protein in ethanol at concentrations varying between 50 and 80%. The nanoparticles were then immediately diluted in buffer. While the nanoparticles were not stable at pH 7, they showed no changes in size when diluted at pH 3. When 75-80% ethanol was added during preparation, the size of the WPI nanoparticles ranged between 10 and 100 nm, with no change in size after dilution and storage at pH 3 for 96 h at 22 °C. When heating was applied, particle aggregation occurred, and large aggregates (>1 μm) were observed at temperatures > 60 °C. The particle size of the heat-induced aggregates could be reduced by homogenization. The nanoparticles prepared by desolvation showed interfacial pressure values similar to those of the corresponding protein solutions, indicating similar interfacial properties and the potential to be used to stabilize emulsions but as supramolecular aggregates of WPI. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PepsiCo and Pepsi Cola Company | Date: 1960-05-10


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