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Zaidi K.U.,Peoples University
Biochemistry Research International | Year: 2014

Tyrosinase is a natural enzyme and is often purified to only a low degree and it is involved in a variety of functions which mainly catalyse the o-hydroxylation of monophenols into their corresponding o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen, which then polymerizes to form brown or black pigments. The synthesis of o-diphenols is a potentially valuable catalytic ability and thus tyrosinase has attracted a lot of attention with respect to industrial applications. In environmental technology it is used for the detoxification of phenol-containing wastewaters and contaminated soils, as biosensors for phenol monitoring, and for the production of L-DOPA in pharmaceutical industries, and is also used in cosmetic and food industries as important catalytic enzyme. Melanin pigment synthesized by tyrosinase has found applications for protection against radiation cation exchangers, drug carriers, antioxidants, antiviral agents, or immunogen. The recombinant V. spinosum tryosinase protein can be used to produce tailor-made melanin and other polyphenolic materials using various phenols and catechols as starting materials. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of microbial tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the industrial use of these enzymes. After that, their most promising applications in pharmaceutical, food processing, and environmental fields are presented. © 2014 Kamal Uddin Zaidi et al.


Zaidi K.U.,Peoples University
Enzyme Research | Year: 2014

Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase fromAgaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimumvalues are pH7.0 and temperature 35°C.Thehighest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM.This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Kamal Uddin Zaidi et al.


Zhao Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhao Y.,Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute | Xu S.,Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute | Wang L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 14 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The available information on the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China is based on local or regional surveys. In 2007, we carried out a national survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. METHODS: We estimated the proportion of tuberculosis cases in China that were resistant to drugs by means of cluster-randomized sampling of tuberculosis cases in the public health system and testing for resistance to the first-line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin and the second-line drugs ofloxacin and kanamycin. We used the results from this survey and published estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis to estimate the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Information from patient interviews was used to identify factors linked to drug resistance. RESULTS:Among 3037 patients with new cases of tuberculosis and 892 with previously treated cases, 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 7.0) and 25.6% (95% CI, 21.5 to 29.8), respectively, had multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin). Among all patients with tuberculosis, approximately 1 of 4 had disease that was resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, or both, and 1 of 10 had MDR tuberculosis. Approximately 8% of the patients with MDR tuberculosis had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid, rifampin, ofloxacin, and kanamycin). In 2007, there were 110,000 incident cases (95% CI, 97,000 to 130,000) of MDR tuberculosis and 8200 incident cases (95% CI, 7200 to 9700) of XDR tuberculosis. Most cases of MDR and XDR tuberculosis resulted from primary transmission. Patients with multiple previous treatments who had received their last treatment in a tuberculosis hospital had the highest risk of MDR tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio, 13.3; 95% CI, 3.9 to 46.0). Among 226 previously treated patients with MDR tuberculosis, 43.8% had not completed their last treatment; most had been treated in the hospital system. Among those who had completed treatment, tuberculosis developed again in most of the patients after their treatment in the public health system. CONCLUSIONS: China has a serious epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. MDR tuberculosis is linked to inadequate treatment in both the public health system and the hospital system, especially tuberculosis hospitals; however, primary transmission accounts for most cases. (Funded by the Chinese Ministry of Health.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


PubMed | JSS University, Peoples University, Rama Dental College and Pacific University at Udaipur
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Dental research journal | Year: 2016

The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukeys post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05.All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 1.8 mm).All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the polyherbal combinations in animal models and effectiveness has to be assessed using in vivo studies on humans.


PubMed | Surgery Academy, P.A. College, Peoples University, Peoples Dental Academy and Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oral and maxillofacial surgery | Year: 2016

To determine systemic absorption of dexamethasone by detection of plasma concentration using high performance liquid chromatography following its administration along with local anesthetic agent as a mixture via pterygomandibular space.A prospective randomized double-blind clinical study was undertaken to analyze the plasma concentration of dexamethasone after intra-space pterygomandibular injection along with local anesthesia. The study was performed as per split mouth model where the mandibular quadrant allocation was done on a random basis considering each of the 30 patients is included in the two study interventions (SS and CS). For the study site (SS) procedures, dexamethasone was administered as a mixture (2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4mg dexamethasone) intra-space. In the control site (CS) procedures, a regular standard inferior alveolar nerve block was administered, and dexamethasone was given as intramuscular injection. The plasma dexamethasone determination was done in venous blood 30- and 60-min post injection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical parameters like pain; swelling; and mouth opening on the first, third, and seventh post-operative day were analyzed and compared.No significant difference was found in the clinical parameters assessed; comparative evaluation showed less swelling in the SS interventions. The plasma concentration of dexamethasone for the CS interventions was 22647ng/ml at 30-min and 31681.6ng/ml at 60-min post injection, and for SS, it was 22181.6ng/ml at 30-min and 340105ng/ml at 60-min post injection. On inter-site (CS and SS) comparison, no statistically significant difference was ascertained in dexamethasone plasma concentration at 30-min post injection (P=0.77) and at 60-min post injection. (P=0.32).Intra-space (pterygomandibular space) administration of dexamethasone can achieve statistically similar plasma concentration of the drug as when the same dose is administered intramuscularly with demonstration of similar clinical effects.


PubMed | University of Alberta, Peoples University and Mangalayatan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

In vitro anti-mycobacterial activities of novel 4-amino-5-alkynylpyrimidine-2(1H)-ones were investigated. 4-Amino-5-heptynylpyrimidine-2(1H)-one (3) and 4-amino-5-(2-phenylethynyl)pyrimidine-2(1H)-one (7) displayed potent in vitro activity against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 3 and 7 were also assessed for their in vivo activity in BALB/c mice infected with M. tuberculosis (H37Ra). Both compounds showed promising in vivo efficacy at a dose of 25 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Importantly, compounds 3 and 7 interacted synergistically with the front-line anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that this class of compounds has strong anti-mycobacterial potential.


Xie Y.-S.,Changwon National University | Xie Y.-S.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Kumar D.,Changwon National University | Bodduri V.D.V.,Changwon National University | And 5 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

A series of benzofuran-2-carboxamides of biological and medicinal significance were synthesized by a microwave-assisted one-pot parallel approach via O-alkylation/Knoevenagel condensation. All the compounds were characterized and assayed for their in vivo anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The activity data of all compounds were listed and discussed in detail, among which some derivatives exhibited potent activities of particular interest. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Torwane N.,Peoples University | Hongal S.,Peoples University | Goel P.,Peoples University | Chandrashekar B.,Peoples University
Pharmacognosy Reviews | Year: 2014

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders.


PubMed | Peoples University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP | Year: 2016

To assess the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on oral hygiene practices of adolescents in Bhopal City, India.Cross-sectional study.Arts College, Bhopal, from February to March 2014.Aconvenience sample of 17 - 23 years college-going adolescents from Arts College, Bhopal city was selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess BMI and oral hygiene attitude, knowledge and practices was used. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied.Out of the total study population, 53.54% (n=166) were males and 46.45% (n=144) were females. Two hundred and six (66.45%) were of optimal weight, 27.74% (n=86) were underweight and only 4.52% (n=14) were overweight. There was a significant association between BMI and oral hygiene practice of toothbrushing (p < 0.001) and mouth rinsing (p=0.001) among both male and female subjects.Hence, BMI is significantly associated with the oral hygiene practices of adolescent population. There is growing interest in the relationship between BMI and oral health because both are significant public health concerns. These public health problems are related to common lifestyle factors such as unhealthy eating habits and smoking among children. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of increased BMI and oral health problems. Hence, it is required that the dentists are aware of the influence of body mass Index and lifestyle on oral health practices among children and adolescents.


PubMed | JSS University, Rama Dental College and Peoples University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research | Year: 2016

The rise in disease incidence, increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria to currently used antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, and financial considerations in developing countries necessitates alternate preventive and treatment strategies for oral diseases.The objective of the study is to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of triple and quadruple combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii (Linn.) (MKL) Sprengel, Eucalyptus (Euca), and Psidium guajava (PS) on primary plaque colonizers.The phytochemicals in four plants were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. The dried extracts were diluted with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to prepare stock solutions (100 mg/ml) of each plant. The triple and quadruple combinations were prepared after mixing equal quantities of stock solutions from each plant extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius using agar well diffusion method. Chlorhexidine of 0.2% composition and DMSO were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mean diameter of inhibition zone between different categories was compared using one-way analysis of variance.The combination of AN + MKL Sprengel + Euca + PS produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (23.5 2.17 mm) against S. mutans. The combination of AN + MKL Sprengel + Euca produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against S. sanguis (19.83 1.33).All the triple and quadruple combinations of the plant extracts offered antimicrobial benefits either superior or comparable to 0.2% chlorhexidine against S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius.

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