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Bhopal, India

Xie Y.-S.,Changwon National University | Xie Y.-S.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Kumar D.,Changwon National University | Bodduri V.D.V.,Changwon National University | And 5 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters

A series of benzofuran-2-carboxamides of biological and medicinal significance were synthesized by a microwave-assisted one-pot parallel approach via O-alkylation/Knoevenagel condensation. All the compounds were characterized and assayed for their in vivo anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The activity data of all compounds were listed and discussed in detail, among which some derivatives exhibited potent activities of particular interest. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zhao Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhao Y.,Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute | Xu S.,Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute | Wang L.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 14 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: The available information on the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China is based on local or regional surveys. In 2007, we carried out a national survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. METHODS: We estimated the proportion of tuberculosis cases in China that were resistant to drugs by means of cluster-randomized sampling of tuberculosis cases in the public health system and testing for resistance to the first-line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin and the second-line drugs ofloxacin and kanamycin. We used the results from this survey and published estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis to estimate the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Information from patient interviews was used to identify factors linked to drug resistance. RESULTS:Among 3037 patients with new cases of tuberculosis and 892 with previously treated cases, 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 7.0) and 25.6% (95% CI, 21.5 to 29.8), respectively, had multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin). Among all patients with tuberculosis, approximately 1 of 4 had disease that was resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, or both, and 1 of 10 had MDR tuberculosis. Approximately 8% of the patients with MDR tuberculosis had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid, rifampin, ofloxacin, and kanamycin). In 2007, there were 110,000 incident cases (95% CI, 97,000 to 130,000) of MDR tuberculosis and 8200 incident cases (95% CI, 7200 to 9700) of XDR tuberculosis. Most cases of MDR and XDR tuberculosis resulted from primary transmission. Patients with multiple previous treatments who had received their last treatment in a tuberculosis hospital had the highest risk of MDR tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio, 13.3; 95% CI, 3.9 to 46.0). Among 226 previously treated patients with MDR tuberculosis, 43.8% had not completed their last treatment; most had been treated in the hospital system. Among those who had completed treatment, tuberculosis developed again in most of the patients after their treatment in the public health system. CONCLUSIONS: China has a serious epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. MDR tuberculosis is linked to inadequate treatment in both the public health system and the hospital system, especially tuberculosis hospitals; however, primary transmission accounts for most cases. (Funded by the Chinese Ministry of Health.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Pillai A.,Surgery Academy | Moghe S.,Peoples Dental Academy | Guru K.N.,Peoples University
BMJ Case Reports

The ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a rare, benign, mixed neoplasm composed of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchymal tissue and varying degrees of dental hard tissue formation. It occurs exclusively as an intraosseous lesion. It usually exhibits slow growth and is commonly seen in children and young adults. Radiologically, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma appears as a circumscribed radiolucency which may contain radiopaque foci. Most cases of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma exhibit benign behaviour, but cases of malignant transformation have been reported. The treatment modality in most cases involves conservative surgery, but in cases with malignant transformation more radical treatment will be required. A massive ameloblastic fibro-odontoma involving the mandible is being described here with its clinical, radiological and histopathological features. Copyright 2012 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Goel P.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Ashok G.,Rajasthan Dental College | Torwane N.A.,Peoples University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Aim: Innovation in primary oral healthcare delivery is a potential yet relatively unexplored area in Dental literature. Aim of the present study was to assess the economic gains that can be made by designing and operating an indigenously fabricated portable dental unit in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Cost-efficiency was determined by comparing total revenue (number of patients treated) with total costs (direct - capital cost of fabrication; and indirect - dental materials, disposables, transport, miscellaneous) over a period of seven years (2005 to 2012). Operational efficiency of portable dental units was also compared with dental vans on various categories of performance indicators. Data analysis was based on institutional records of Rajasthan Dental College, Jaipur, India. Results: Results show that a total of 52,900 patients who attended 223 camps during this period were provided various primary oral healthcare services using four such portable dental units that were developed @ Rs. 24,000 ($ 417) per unit. Based on a cost-efficiency of Rs 35.53 ($ 0.65) per person, which is among the lowest reported from any part of the world, the authors conclude that indigenously fabricated portable dental units provide a cost-efficient service. The other aspects most relevant to portable equipment were ease of transportation and feasibility in domiciliary care provision. Conclusion: The Limitations of productivity due to time spent in setting up the unit and need for additional space/equipment was their main drawbacks vis-à-vis dental vans. Source

Tyrosinase is a natural enzyme and is often purified to only a low degree and it is involved in a variety of functions which mainly catalyse the o-hydroxylation of monophenols into their corresponding o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen, which then polymerizes to form brown or black pigments. The synthesis of o-diphenols is a potentially valuable catalytic ability and thus tyrosinase has attracted a lot of attention with respect to industrial applications. In environmental technology it is used for the detoxification of phenol-containing wastewaters and contaminated soils, as biosensors for phenol monitoring, and for the production of L-DOPA in pharmaceutical industries, and is also used in cosmetic and food industries as important catalytic enzyme. Melanin pigment synthesized by tyrosinase has found applications for protection against radiation cation exchangers, drug carriers, antioxidants, antiviral agents, or immunogen. The recombinant V. spinosum tryosinase protein can be used to produce tailor-made melanin and other polyphenolic materials using various phenols and catechols as starting materials. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of microbial tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the industrial use of these enzymes. After that, their most promising applications in pharmaceutical, food processing, and environmental fields are presented. © 2014 Kamal Uddin Zaidi et al. Source

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