Kamath K.P.,Peoples Dental Academy |
Anil S.,King Saud University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori -positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Sahay A.,Bhopal Memorial Hospital |
Goel P.,Peoples Dental Academy
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2012
Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children's intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (< 1.5 parts per million) and high (≥1.5 parts per million) fluoride areas. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the children's personal characteristics, residential history, medical history, educational level of the head of the family, and socioeconomic status of the family. Levels of lead, arsenic, and iodine in the urine and the levels of fluoride in the water and urine were analyzed. The children′s intelligence was measured using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Data analysis was done using the chi-square, one way analysis of variance, simple linear regression, and multiple linear regression tests. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Differences in participant's sociodemographic characteristics, urinary iodine, urinary lead, and urinary arsenic levels were statistically not significant (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000). Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000). The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000). Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.
Rammanohar M.,Educare Institute of Dental science |
Raju Ragavendra T.,Peoples Dental Academy
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010
Dental hard tissues are good candidates for age estimation as they are less destructive and procedures to determine age can be easily performed. Although cementum annulations and cementum thickness are important parameters in this regard, they are seldom used. This study was undertaken to review the methods, difficulties in execution of techniques, and accuracy of cementum thickness and annulations in estimating the age. Unstained and stained ground sections of tooth were used to measure cemental thickness and count cemental annulations based on which age was estimated and was compared with known age. Although there was positive relation between cemental thickness and annulations with age, only in 1-1.5% of cases, age could be predicted with accuracy. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Bhargava D.,Smile Mechanics Center for Maxillofacial Surgery and Dental Implantology |
Deshpande A.,Peoples Dental Academy |
Pogrel M.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012
Purpose: The World Health Organization (WHO) has reclassified 'odontogenic keratocyst' (OKC) to 'keratocystic odontogenic tumour' (KCOT) in 2005. Currently, this tumour is classified as a benign neoplasm of odontogenic origin and not as a cyst. This article reviews and discusses history, classification scheme, aetiology and pathogenesis, molecular and genetic basis, incidence, epidemiology and site, clinical features, imaging, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, treatment options, prognosis, recurrence and malignant transformation of KCOT, with emphasis on understanding the basis of reclassification as 'keratocystic odontogenic tumour'. Methods: A systematic search and review of the literature was carried out in the online database of the United States National Library of Medicine to identify eligible titles for the study. Results: Current evidence suggests that the scientific community still continues to use the term 'odontogenic keratocyst' more favourably than 'keratocystic odontogenic tumour'. Conclusion: The online database search indicates that the scientific community still continues to use the term 'odontogenic keratocyst' more favourably than 'keratocystic odontogenic tumour'. At this juncture, where the terminology has changed from a cyst to a tumour, a thorough review of literature on KCOT is presented. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Gondivkar S.M.,Mgvs Kbh Dental College And Hospital |
Gadbail A.R.,Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital |
Chole R.,Peoples Dental Academy |
Parikh R.V.,Parikh Hospital
Oral Oncology | Year: 2011
The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial region. Although it presents a widespread age distribution, peak incidence occurs predominantly among women, between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, perineural invasion, potential local recurrence and distant metastasis. Histopathologically it is composed of basaloid cells with primarily myoepithelial/basal cell differentiation. It presents three patterns, cribriform, tubular and solid; the solid type is related to a poor prognosis contrary to the cribriform type, which has a better prognosis. Surgical excision with wide margins is the treatment of choice, if it metastasizes to lymph nodules, post surgical radiotherapy is recommended. We presented herein the case of a 45 year old female patient who presented a palatal lesion, which was treated with surgery and radiotherapy as an additional treatment. We also described a brief literature review of adenoid cystic carcinoma. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanaparthy R.,Peoples Dental Academy
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry.
Kamath K.P.,Peoples Dental Academy
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2013
To retrospectively analyse the frequency and distribution of various biopsied lesions of the gingiva among patients attending a dental teaching institution in Karnataka state in India. Data collected from 153 gingival biopsies referred to the Department of Oral Pathology, Yenepoya Dental College in Mangalore, Karnataka state, India during a 5-year period from 2004-2008 were utilised for the purpose of this study. Lesions were categorised by their type and analysed for age, sex and location. Non-neoplastic lesions accounted for 51% while neoplastic and potentially malignant lesions accounted for 49% of the lesions. The most common non-neoplastic lesion was pyogenic granuloma (42.3%), the most common benign neoplasm was fibroma (34.5%) and the most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma (82.6%). Among all the lesions, the most common was squamous cell carcinoma (24.8% of all the lesions). Unlike in previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common gingival lesion. The proportion of malignant and potentially malignant lesions was also higher among subjects in the present study than in other populations. Hence, public oral health programmes need to be formulated to better tackle the burden of these diseases.
Jain M.,Peoples Dental Academy
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2015
Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright © Experimental Oncology, 2015.
Jain M.,Peoples Dental Academy
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to assess and compare the oral health status and the treatment needs of the institutionalised hearing-impaired and blind children and young adults in the city of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 498 institutionalised hearing-impaired and blind people, aged 4 to 23 years, in the city of Udaipur, Rajasthan. The World Health Organization oral health assessment basic methods and form (1997) were used for data collection. Clinical examinations were carried out in the institute's medical room or classroom by single examiner with the aid of a mouth mirror, explorer and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) probe under adequate natural light (Type III examination). The resulting data were entered into statistical software and analysed by applying the chi-square test, ANOVA, t-test and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The total mean DMFT (decayed-missing-filled teeth) and mean dft scores were 1.77 and 0.27 respectively. The largest component of DMFT was the D, with a mean of 1.49. The F component of 0.08 was very low. Mean DMFT/dft was greater among hearing-impaired than among blind subjects. Overall, 159 (32%) were periodontally healthy (CPI=0), 162 (32%) had shallow pockets (CPI=3) and 36 (7%) had deeper pockets (CPI=4). A higher percentage of the blind (87; 43%) than the hearing-impaired (72; 24%) subjects were periodontally healthy (CPI score=0). One-surface fillings were the most commonly provided form of past treatment. The findings in this study highlight the lack of dental treatment for this group. Overall oral health status was poorer in the hearing-impaired than in the blind subjects.
Shekar C.,Peoples Dental Academy
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2012
The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt) . 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean's fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3%) and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.