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Banjar Badung Tengah, Indonesia

Ancrenaz M.,Hutan | Ambu L.,Wisma Muis | Ahmad E.,Hutan | Manokaran K.,Hutan | And 2 more authors.

Background: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP) conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM) in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m3 ha-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations). Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. Conclusion/Significance: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation. © 2010 Ancrenaz et al. Source

Cardillo M.,Australian National University | Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International | Meijaard E.,Australian National University
Global Ecology and Biogeography

Aim: Islands have often been used as model systems in community ecology. The incorporation of information on phylogenetic relatedness of species in studies of island assemblage structure is still uncommon, but could provide valuable insights into the processes of island community assembly. We propose six models of island community assembly that make different predictions about the associations between co-occurrences of species pairs on islands, phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity. We then test these models using data on mammals of Southeast Asian islands. Location: Two hundred and forty islands of the Sundaland region of Southeast Asia. Methods: We quantified the co-occurrence of species pairs on islands, and identified pairs that co-occur more frequently (positive co-occurrence) or less frequently (negative co-occurrence) than expected under null models. We then examined the distributions of these significantly deviating pairs with respect to phylogenetic relatedness and ecological differentiation, and compared these patterns with those predicted by the six community assembly models. We used permutation regression to test whether co-occurrence patterns are predicted by relatedness, body size difference or difference in diet quality. Separate co-occurrence matrices were analysed in this way for seven mammal families and four smaller subsets of the islands of Sundaland. Results: In many matrices, average numbers of negative co-occurrences were higher than expected under null models. This is consistent with assemblage structuring by competition, but may also result from low geographic overlap of species pairs, which contributes to negative co-occurrences at the archipelago-wide level. Distributions of species pairs within plots of phylogenetic distance × ecological differentiation were consistent with competition, habitat filtering or within-island speciation models, depending on the taxon. Regressions indicated that co-occurrence was more likely among closely related species pairs within the Viverridae and Sciuridae, but in most matrices phylogenetic distance was unrelated to co-occurrence. Main conclusions: Simple deterministic models linking co-occurrence with phylogeny and ecology are a useful framework for interpreting distributions and assemblage structure of island species. However, island assemblages in Sundaland have probably been shaped by a complex idiosyncratic set of interacting ecological and evolutionary processes, limiting the predictive power of such models. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Samejima H.,Institute for Global Environmental Strategies | Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International | Meijaard E.,Australian National University
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology

The Sunda stink-badger Mydaus javanensis is a small carnivore inhabiting the South-east Asian islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Natuna Islands. It occurs in a wide variety of vegetation types and is presently listed by The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Least Concern. We analysed 15 (Balanced Model) or 77 (Spatial Filtering Model) location records to predict habitat suitability across Borneo. The analysis suggests that most of the suitable habitat is located in Sabah, northeast Sarawak and North Kalimantan. In addition, this species is also recorded, mostly historically, patchily in west Sarawak, and West, Central, South and East Kalimantan. Although this species appears to be disturbance-tolerant and is frequently observed in village areas, some conservation action – such as limiting large-scale forest conversion to oil palm plantations – is warranted because most lowland habitat is unprotected. Further research in central and southern Borneo needs to focus on showing if there are any further sizable populations. Also, hunting of Sunda stink-badger has been reported in some parts of Borneo and might be a possible driver for the species’s patchy distribution. More research is warranted to understand what determines the species’s distribution and density, based on which proper conservation strategies, if needed, can be developed to preserve the species. © 2016 National University of Singapore. Source

Fuller D.O.,University of Miami | Hardiono M.,Jl. Bukit Nusa Indah | Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International
Environmental Management

We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscapelevel fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International | Meijaard E.,University of Queensland | Meijaard E.,Center for International Forestry Research | Nijman V.,Oxford Brookes University
Biological Conservation

Lazarus species, species that were thought to be extinct until found again, are of considerable public interest and attract major media coverage as they offer a glimmer of hope in a generally glum conservation world. This publicity could potentially generate financial and political support to prevent the species from becoming 'extinct' once again. However, it can also back-fire when publicity creates threats that were previously absent. In 2013, evidence that the Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis still existed in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo, made global headlines. The species was thought to have been extinct there for over a quarter of a century. The threat of poaching for its horn, however, remains as strong as ever. We question the decision to publicise this rediscovery. We argue that in the decades the species was thought to be extirpated, the population in Kalimantan could persist precisely because of the lack of attention. Interviews with hunters suggests that without information on the presence of rhinos, the perceived financial benefits of hunting down widely dispersed rhinos no longer justified the actual costs. The "publicize-and-protect" strategy now envisaged following the widely announced rediscovery of rhinos in Kalimantan requires immediate major conservation intervention, which, given the track record of conservation in Indonesia, is unlikely to be effective. We suggest that a secrecy-based strategy for Kalimantan's rhinos would have had lower risks and potentially higher long-term returns for conservation. The trade-offs facing organizations with the exciting prospect of a Lazarus species is one between the costs and benefits of publicity. Costs and benefits change over time but may not do so at the same rate, and publicity can change these rates significantly. When, without publicity, costs are expected to remain relatively constant over time, or when publicity increases the risk significantly relatively to benefits, secrecy-based strategies should be favoured to develop ways that maximize the likelihood of benefits exceeding costs. For Kalimantan's rhinos the choice to publicize-and-protect has been made, closing the door for a strategy based on secrecy, and making effective conservation solutions now all the more urgent. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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