Penza State Pedagogical University
Penza, Russia
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Payne R.J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Payne R.J.,University of Manchester | Lamentowicz M.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Der Knaap W.O.V.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2012

Among the non-pollen micro-fossils commonly encountered in Quaternary sediment samples prepared for pollen analysis are many shells of testate amoebae. Testate amoebae are eukaryotic micro-organisms which are increasingly used in ecological and palaeoecological studies, particularly as indicators of hydrological change in . Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. In this study we address the extent to which testate amoebae are used in palynological research, the key challenges to more widespread use, and the extent to which ecological information is retained in the testate amoeba assemblages of standard palynological slides. To achieve this we review the literature on the use of testate amoebae in palynology, compare testate amoeba records produced by palynological and water-based preparation methods and carry out simulations using previously-derived datasets. Our results show that testate amoebae are widely encountered in Quaternary palynological studies, primarily in peatlands, but the information which they can provide is undermined by limited taxonomic knowledge. Many taxa are destroyed in pollen preparations, but for taxa that are retained patterns of abundance parallel those determined using water-based preparation methods. Although the loss of sensitive taxa limits the ecological information contained in testate amoeba assemblages the information preserved is likely to be useful in a multiproxy approach to palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. To help improve taxonomic awareness and encourage the use of testate amoebae in palynology we present a basic introduction to testate amoeba taxonomy and a guide to the taxonomic literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Bobrov A.,Moscow State University | Shimano S.,Miyagi University of Education | Mazei Y.,Penza State Pedagogical University
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2012

Two new species of Deharvengia and Assulina are described from samples in the mountain forests of Honshu Is. (Japan). Morphometric analysis showed low variability of their morphological characteristics with coefficients of variation ranging between 1.4 and 9.1% for the two new species. An amended description of the genus Deharvengia is provided.

Soldatova N.A.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Khryanin V.N.,Penza State Pedagogical University
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

We studied the effects of heavy metal salts (Pb(NO3)2, CuSO4, and ZnSO4) on phytohormonal status and sex expression in various cultivars of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.), a dioecious plant, grown on Knop nutrient medium. Pb(NO3)2 and ZnSO4 were added to the medium at the concentration of 10-9 M, and CuSO4, at the concentration of 10-10 M. Plant were grown under controlled conditions at luminescent illumination, 22-24°C, and 80% humidity. The contents of GA and zeatin were determined by HPLC. Copper and zinc salts induced plant feminization, and this effect was coupled with zeatin accumulation. Lead salts favored plant masculinization coupled with GA accumulation. Thus, a shift in sex expression in marijuana plants was correlated with the heavy metal action on the balance of phytohormones, GA and zeatin. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.

Azovsky A.,Moscow State University | Mazei Y.,Penza State Pedagogical University
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim The biogeography and global distribution of protists has long been disputed, with two primary, opposing views. To test these two sets of views in greater detail, we have compiled the available data for marine benthic ciliates and assessed the general patterns of their diversity and distribution compared with Metazoa. Location World-wide. Methods A comprehensive database (1342 species, over 350 sources) was used to analyse the diversity, distribution, species occurrences and range size distribution of free-living ciliates that inhabit marine sediments in 17 geographical regions. Results Twenty-five per cent of the species have been found in a single region only, whereas 18% are widespread (they occur in more than half the regions covering both hemispheres). Only 5-7% of regional faunas are endemic, which is much lower than for macroorganisms. Regional diversity depends neither on total area nor on coastline length and does not show any obvious latitudinal trends, but correlates highly with the investigation effort expended in a region and (negatively) with the average salinity. A comparison of species composition reveals distinctions between the Arctic Area (the White, Barents and Kara seas), Laurasian Area (north Atlantic, north Pacific and European seas), Gondwanian Area (Southern Ocean) and the Antarctic. No clear geographical correlations are found for faunistic composition at the genus or family levels. There is the tendency to narrow the latitudinal ranges for species found at high latitudes (reversal of Rapoport's rule). Main conclusions Undersampling and data insufficiency are the key factors affecting the observed diversity and distribution of microorganisms. Nevertheless, marine benthic ciliates demonstrate certain patterns that generally agree with the 'moderate endemicity' model (Foissner, 2004, 2008), but consistently contradict the regularities commonly observed for multicellular taxa. Thus, ciliates do have a biogeography, but their macroecological patterns may be different in some respects from that of macroorganisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bobrov A.A.,Moscow State University | Mazei Y.A.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Tiunov A.V.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2010

The composition (143 species and forms) of testate amoebae communities from 68 samples of soils and lake sediments from South Vietnam (Cat Tien National Park) was investigated. In most terrestrial habitats, hydrophilous, soil and even xerophilous testaceans were co-occurring. The likely reason for this phenomenon are sharp seasonal changes in hydrological regime including temporal over-wetting or inundation. Typical members of soil communities were Plagiopyxis callida, Tracheleuglypha acolla, Euglypha cristata, E. tuberculata, Trinema complanatum. The fauna was composed mainly of eurybiont species. Less abundant but still common were moss-dwelling species from the genera Heleopera, Hyalosphenia, Nebela and Sphenoderia. Calciphilous species were also present, including Centropyxis plagiostoma, Geopyxella cf. sylvicola, Schwabia terricola, Plagiopyxis callida, P. intermedia v. cyrtostoma, Heleopera petricola v. humicola. Species from the genera Hoogenraadia, Planhoogenraadia, Apolimia were found in this region of South-East Asia for the first time. The variations in the species composition and diversity of testate amoebae in soils was likely caused by several mechanisms including local variations in hydrological regime, the differences in chemical and physical properties and decomposition rates of plant litter, and mineralogical features of soils. The fauna of lake sediments was very distinct with characteristic species Difflugia bacillariarum, Lesquereusia modesta, Arcella gibbosa, Euglypha acanthophora. In the relatively uniform lake sediments local microcommunities were rich in species but very similar in species composition (low beta-diversity). In contrast, in soil samples the micro-scale heterogeneity was usually very pronounced, though the alpha-diversity was lower than in lake sediments. The updated list of testate amoebae of Vietnam includes 237 taxa. Taxa with restricted geographical distribution form up to one tenth of the total species richness.

Smirnov D.G.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Vekhnik V.P.,Zhiguli Reserve
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2014

For eight settled species ofbats inhabiting the Middle Volga River basin, a sex ratio in different periods of their activity was determined. Myotis daubentonii and Plecotus auritus females were shown to prevail in places of mass hibernation of animals, whereas in the other species, males predominated. In summertime, in the areas nearby the hibernation places, the number of M. brandtii, M. daubentonii, M. dasycneme and P. auritus males was much higher; the equal sex ratio was noted for M. nattererii, M. mystacinus and Eptesicus serotinus; the number of E. nilssonii females predominated over that of its males. Beyond the hibernation area, the share of males was lower. A scheme of variants reflecting the degree of overlap and differentiation of the areas of hibernation and reproduction and the spatial ratio between the sex groups is proposed. It is shown that for many settled bat species, a wide overlap and some differentiation of these areas are characteristic features. The most spatial segregation between adult males and reproductive females was determined in M. daubentonii and M. dasycneme. In M. nattereri and probably in PI. auritus, it is expressed to a lesser extent. The wide overlap of the hibernation and reproductive areas was noted for M. mystacinus, E. nilssonii, and E. serotinus. The cases of overlap and separation of the same areas were fixed in M. brandtii.

Mazei Y.A.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Chernyshov V.A.,Penza State Pedagogical University
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2011

The species composition and community structure of soil-inhabiting testate amoebae communities have been studied in biotopes of different types in the southern tundra and forest-tundra of the Tazovskaya Lowland, Western Siberia. A total of 93 species and forms have been identified. It has been found that the species richness of testate amoebae is much lower in dry than in moist biotopes due to a lower level of beta-diversity, with alpha diversity being the same (on average, 16.9 and 17.1 species per sample, respectively). Factors acting at the microbiotope level (biotope type and moisture) play the most important role in the formation of species richness; biotope features (soils and vegetation) are second in importance. In moist habitats, local communities of testate amoebae from different microbiotopes (mosses, lichens, or litter) are fairly similar in species structure, and communities from different moist biotopes are heterogeneous. In dry areas, the opposite situation is observed: local communities differ at the microbiotope level but are similar at the biotope level. The abundance of testate amoebae in moist biotopes reaches 200 × 10 3 ind./g dry soil, being an order of magnitude lower in dry biotopes. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Smirnov D.G.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Vekhnik V.P.,Zhigulevsk State Reserve
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2013

The trophic ecology of Nyctalus lasiopterus in the Samara Bend during July 2008-2010 has been studied. It has been revealed that the main feeding stations for this species are old ecotonal black poplar stands and willow groves. N. lasiopterus keeps to opportunistic foraging by using easily accessible and properly sized food objects. Having analyzed 129 fecal samples, we singled out 10 categories of food objects belonging to six orders of insects. The representatives of Lepidoptera constitute the major part of the ration. Their abundance rates undergo asynchronous changes relative to each other. Homoptera and Neuroptera are found more rarely in the feces. Orthoptera and Diptera are extremely rare. Besides insects, bird feathers were found in 14 faecal samples of N. lasiopterus. They made up from 60 to 90% of the total fecal mass. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Fournier B.,University of Neuchatel | Fournier B.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Malysheva E.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Mazei Y.,Penza State Pedagogical University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2012

Functional traits (FT) offer a new framework to understand the ecology of organisms and overcome taxonomic difficulties that currently limit the study of minute soil taxa. FT are likely to be selected by environmental filters and hence they may provide more direct information on ecosystem characteristics than the species composition of a community.We tested the potential of testate amoeba (TA) functional traits as bioindicators of selected ecosystem processes in the context of a restored floodplain in north-western Switzerland. The floodplain was divided into six functional process zones (FPZs) associated to distinct post-restoration successional stages. We selected TA FT and computed three functional indices: functional richness (FRic), divergence (FDiv), evenness (FEve), and dispersion (FDis). We then compared the patterns of functional indices and classical diversity indices such as species richness, diversity and evenness. We assessed whether traits converged or were over-dispersed in the different FPZs using a randomization procedure. Finally, we related environmental variables and functional traits using the " Fourth Corner" statistic. This procedure enabled us to highlight relations that can potentially be used for bioindication. Promising candidates include the relationships between shell biovolume and vegetation structure and between shell compression and plant litter input variables. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Burkovskii I.V.,Moscow State University | Mazei Y.A.,Penza State Pedagogical University | Esaulov A.S.,Moscow State University
Russian Journal of Marine Biology | Year: 2011

The community structure of psammophile (interstitial) ciliates was studied in three areas of the silty sand intertidal zone of the White Sea, the background (a natural community formed under conditions of high siltation) and two experimental areas (the first, unsilted sandy "island" formed in the autumn of 2006, was originally uninhabited and the second was a similar island formed in the autumn of 2008). The experimental biotopes were more aerated and less silted than the background. The principle difference of experimental sites was the duration of their existence. Despite the remaining biotope differences between the background and first experimental site after 3 years of the experiment, the communities were of the same structural pattern. The second experimental biotope, which existing for a short time period, had considerable biotopic similarity to the first experimental one, but significantly differed from it and from the background in the course of succession and structural pattern of the formed community. It was shown that quantitatively and qualitatively (by density and number of species) the community of ciliates formed rather quickly during the first seasonal cycle of development in the new created biotope. However, one annual cycle is not sufficient for the formation of a community species structure, including the species ratio reflecting its niche structure. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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