Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory

Willow Street, PA, United States

Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory

Willow Street, PA, United States
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Savage E.,Pennsylvania State University | Chothe S.,Pennsylvania State University | Lintner V.,Pennsylvania State University | Pierre T.,Pennsylvania State University | And 5 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2017

A study was conducted to evaluate Sensititre® Automated Reading and Incubation System 2x System (ARIS), API® (API), and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI) bacterial species identification systems using 132 diverse bacterial isolates from bovine milk samples and bulk tank milk received at the Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. The results were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which served as the reference method for species identification. The ARIS, API, and MALDI identified 0%, 40%, and 33.4% of species classified as Gram-positive rod isolates belonging to genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium, respectively. It was observed that 76.5%, 93.9%, and 96.9% of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n = 33; Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus) were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively, while 33.4%, 84.5%, and 97.7% of catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci (n = 45; Kocuria, Staphylococcus) were correctly identified to their species by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. A total of 48 isolates (Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pasteurella, Providencia, Pseduomonas, Serratia) of Gram-negative bacteria were examined, of which 85.4%, 93.7%, and 95.8% of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. In our laboratory, the MALDI had the least costs associated with consumables and reagents compared to ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification methods. Identification of bacterial species was accomplished in <2 h using MALDI and 24 h for ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification systems. © 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.


Campagnolo E.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Daverio S.A.,Williamsport West Veterinary Hospital | Tewari D.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Acland H.M.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Ostrowski S.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2011

We report the earliest recognized fatality associated with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in a domestic cat in the United States. The 12-year old, indoor cat died on 6 November 2009 after exposure to multiple family members who had been ill with influenza-like illness during the peak period of the fall wave of pH1N1 in Pennsylvania during late October 2009. The clinical presentation, history, radiographic, laboratory and necropsy findings are presented to assist veterinary care providers in understanding the features of this disease in cats and the potential for transmission of infection to pets from infected humans. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Tewari D.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Sandt C.H.,Bureau of Laboratories | Miller D.M.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Jayarao B.M.,Pennsylvania State University
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to identify Salmonella serotypes infecting cattle in Pennsylvania, to compare infection rates for the predominant serotype, Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro, with the infection rates for the same serotype in humans, and to study the clonal diversity and antimicrobial resistance for this serotype in cattle from 2005 to 2010. Clonal diversity among the selected isolates was studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and repetitive (rep)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Salmonella Cerro showed the single largest increase as a cause of cattle infections over the study period. The proportional distribution of Salmonella Cerro serotype among laboratory-submitted Salmonella positive cases in cattle was 36.1% in the year 2010 compared to 14.3% in 2005. A simultaneous decrease in serotype Newport infections was also observed in cattle (25% in 2005, to 10.1% in 2010). Studies of clonal diversity for cattle and human isolates revealed a predominant PFGE type but showed some variability. All tested isolates (n=60) were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but 2% of cattle isolates (n=1/50) and 20% of human isolates (n=2/10) showed resistance to tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. One human isolate showed additional resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. This study suggests an increase in Salmonella Cerro infections in the cattle population and a decrease in Salmonella Newport infections. The increase in Cerro infections appears to be restricted to the cattle population, but occasional human infections occur. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


PubMed | B.W. Furlong & Associates, Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University and Henderson Veterinary Associates
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine | Year: 2016

Equine neuroborreliosis (NB), Lyme disease, is difficult to diagnose and has limited description in the literature.Provide a detailed description of clinical signs, diagnostic, and pathologic findings of horses with NB.Sixteen horses with histologically confirmed NB.Retrospective review of medical records at the University of Pennsylvania and via an ACVIM listserv query with inclusion criteria requiring possible exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and histologic findings consistent with previous reports of NB without evidence of other disease.Sixteen horses were identified, 12 of which had additional evidence of NB. Clinical signs were variable including muscle atrophy or weight loss (12), cranial nerve deficits (11), ataxia (10), changes in behavior (9), dysphagia (7), fasciculations (6), neck stiffness (6), episodic respiratory distress (5), uveitis (5), fever (2), joint effusion (2), and cardiac arrhythmias (1). Serologic analysis was positive for B. burgdorferi infection in 6/13 cases tested. CSF abnormalities were present in 8/13 cases tested, including xanthochromia (4/13), increased total protein (5/13; median: 91 mg/dL, range: 25-219 mg/dL), and a neutrophilic (6/13) or lymphocytic (2/13) pleocytosis (median: 25 nucleated cells/L, range: 0-922 nucleated cells/L). PCR on CSF for B. burgdorferi was negative in the 7 cases that were tested.Diagnosis of equine NB is challenging due to variable clinical presentation and lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Negative serology and normal CSF analysis do not exclude the diagnosis of NB.


Khoo L.,University of Pennsylvania | Khoo L.,Mississippi State University | Rommel F.A.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Smith S.A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

Archived tissues from affected yellow perch Perca flavescens, as well as fresh submissions of juvenile yellow perch, walleye, fathead minnows, golden shiners and smallmouth bass cultured in the same pond or from a shared water source were examined for the presence of Myxo-bolus neurophilus. Archived tissues were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or with Giemsa, revealing myxozoan spores consistent with M. neurophilus. The myxospores were found beneath the ependymal lining of the central canal of the brain or free within the stratum periven-triculare, with minimal or no inflammation. Unstained and stained (Wright Giemsa or Lugol's iodine) touch impressions of the brains from fresh submissions of all 5 fish species revealed similar myxozoan spores only in the brains of yellow perch. These were Giemsa-positive, with no iodinophilous vacuoles evident. Portions of the affected brains were fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin and sectioned for histology. Pseudocysts containing myxospores were only evident in sections of the brains and spinal cords of yellow perch. Mild mononuclear meningoencephalitis was present when myxospores appeared outside of the pseudocysts. Brains fixed in 5% gluteraldehyde for scanning electron microscopic examination revealed pyriform myxospores with a smooth capsular surface. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA gene placed the organism within the family Myxobolidae, with no direct matches to sequences available via GenBank. Aquatic annelids from sediment obtained from the affected pond were negative for actinospores. © Inter-Research 2010, www.int-res.com.


Livengood J.L.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Lanka S.,Illinois College | Maddox C.,Illinois College | Tewari D.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles, is an important equine pathogen. Strangles is a highly contagious disease and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is used for protection, which although effective, may also result in clinical signs of the disease. A rapid means to differentiate between the MLV and wild-type infection is crucial for quarantine release and limiting the disease spread. This study describes the use of a pyrosequencing assay targeting a single nucleotide deletion upstream of the SzPSe gene to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. A set of 96 characterized clinical specimens and isolates were tested using the assay. The assay was successful in differentiating between wild-type S. equi and the vaccine strains and in discriminating S. equi from other Streptococci. The vaccine strain was identified in 61.7% (29/47) of the strangles cases in horses with a history of MLV vaccination. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory and Illinois College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles, is an important equine pathogen. Strangles is a highly contagious disease and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is used for protection, which although effective, may also result in clinical signs of the disease. A rapid means to differentiate between the MLV and wild-type infection is crucial for quarantine release and limiting the disease spread. This study describes the use of a pyrosequencing assay targeting a single nucleotide deletion upstream of the SzPSe gene to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. A set of 96 characterized clinical specimens and isolates were tested using the assay. The assay was successful in differentiating between wild-type S. equi and the vaccine strains and in discriminating S. equi from other Streptococci. The vaccine strain was identified in 61.7% (29/47) of the strangles cases in horses with a history of MLV vaccination.


Tewari D.,Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory | Hovingh E.,Pennsylvania State University | Linscott R.,IDEXX Laboratories | Martel E.,IDEXX Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

Vaccination for Johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. The vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. Johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. Temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, were measured in 2 dairy cattle herds using Johne's disease vaccine (Mycopar) over a period of 7 years. Vaccination against Johne's disease resulted in positive serum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody responses in both herds, and the responses persisted in vaccinated cattle up to 7 years of age. Some vaccinated animals (29.4% in herd A and 36.2% in herd B) showed no serological reactivity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses were also detected in milk from Johne's disease-vaccinated animals, but fewer animals (39.3% in herd A and 49.4% in herd B) had positive results with milk than with serum samples. With vaccination against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal shedding in both dairy herds was reduced significantly (P < 0.001). In addition, when selected Johne's disease-vaccinated and -infected animals were investigated for serological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis, no cross-reactivity was observed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc | Year: 2012

Bacterial identification using genetic sequencing is fast becoming a confirmatory tool for microbiologists. Its application in veterinary diagnostic laboratories is still growing. In addition to availability of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing has recently emerged as a unique method for short-read DNA sequencing for bacterial identifications. Its ease of use makes it possible to diagnose infections rapidly at a low cost even in smaller laboratories. In the current study, pyrosequencing was compared with Sanger sequencing for identification of the bacterial organisms. Fifty-four bacterial isolates spanning 23 different bacterial families encountered in veterinary diagnostic microbiology laboratories were sequenced using 16S ribosomal RNA gene with pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. Pyrosequencing was able to identify 80% of isolates to the genus level, and 43% isolates to the species level. Sanger sequencing with approximately 500 bp performed better for both genus (100%) and species (87%) identification. Use of different sequence databases to identify bacteria isolated from animals showed relative importance of public databases compared to a validated commercial library. A time and limited cost comparison between pyrosequencing and genetic sequencing of 500 bp showed pyrosequencing was not only faster but also comparable in cost, making it a viable alternative for use in classifying bacteria isolated from animals.


PubMed | Pennsylvania Veterinary Laboratory
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Foodborne pathogens and disease | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to identify Salmonella serotypes infecting cattle in Pennsylvania, to compare infection rates for the predominant serotype, Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro, with the infection rates for the same serotype in humans, and to study the clonal diversity and antimicrobial resistance for this serotype in cattle from 2005 to 2010. Clonal diversity among the selected isolates was studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and repetitive (rep)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Salmonella Cerro showed the single largest increase as a cause of cattle infections over the study period. The proportional distribution of Salmonella Cerro serotype among laboratory-submitted Salmonella positive cases in cattle was 36.1% in the year 2010 compared to 14.3% in 2005. A simultaneous decrease in serotype Newport infections was also observed in cattle (25% in 2005, to 10.1% in 2010). Studies of clonal diversity for cattle and human isolates revealed a predominant PFGE type but showed some variability. All tested isolates (n = 60) were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but 2% of cattle isolates (n = 1/50) and 20% of human isolates (n = 2/10) showed resistance to tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. One human isolate showed additional resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. This study suggests an increase in Salmonella Cerro infections in the cattle population and a decrease in Salmonella Newport infections. The increase in Cerro infections appears to be restricted to the cattle population, but occasional human infections occur.

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