Hessburg P.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Spies T.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Perry D.A.,Oregon State University |
Skinner C.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 14 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2016
Increasingly, objectives for forests with moderate- or mixed-severity fire regimes are to restore successionally diverse landscapes that are resistant and resilient to current and future stressors. Maintaining native species and characteristic processes requires this successional diversity, but methods to achieve it are poorly explained in the literature. In the Inland Pacific US, large, old, early seral trees were a key historical feature of many young and old forest successional patches, especially where fires frequently occurred. Large, old trees are naturally fire-tolerant, but today are often threatened by dense understory cohorts that create fuel ladders that alter likely post-fire successional pathways. Reducing these understories can contribute to resistance by creating conditions where canopy trees will survive disturbances and climatic stressors; these survivors are important seed sources, soil protectors, and critical habitat elements. Historical timber harvesting has skewed tree size and age class distributions, created hard edges, and altered native patch sizes. Manipulating these altered forests to promote development of larger patches of older, larger, and more widely-spaced trees with diverse understories will increase landscape resistance to severe fires, and enhance wildlife habitat for underrepresented conditions.Closed-canopy, multi-layered patches that develop in hot, dry summer environments are vulnerable to droughts, and they increase landscape vulnerability to insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. These same patches provide habitat for species such as the northern spotted owl, which has benefited from increased habitat area. Regional and local planning will be critical for gauging risks, evaluating trade-offs, and restoring dynamics that can support these and other species. The goal will be to manage for heterogeneous landscapes that include variably-sized patches of (1) young, middle-aged, and old, closed-canopy forests growing in upper montane, northerly aspect, and valley bottom settings, (2) a similar diversity of open-canopy, fire-tolerant patches growing on ridgetops, southerly aspects, and lower montane settings, and (3) significant montane chaparral and grassland areas. Tools to achieve this goal include managed wildfire, prescribed burning, and variable density thinning at small to large scales. Specifics on "how much and where?" will vary according to physiographic, topographic and historical templates, and regulatory requirements, and be determined by means of a socio-ecological process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Coble M.D.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology |
Buckleton J.,ESR |
Buckleton J.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology |
Butler J.M.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology |
And 16 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2016
The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations. With larger multiplexes, more complex mixtures, and increasing requests for extended family testing, laboratories are relying more than ever on specific software solutions and sufficient validation, training and extensive documentation are of upmost importance. Here, we present recommendations for the minimum requirements to validate bio-statistical software to be used in forensic genetics. We distinguish between developmental validation and the responsibilities of the software developer or provider, and the internal validation studies to be performed by the end user. Recommendations for the software provider address, for example, the documentation of the underlying models used by the software, validation data expectations, version control, implementation and training support, as well as continuity and user notifications. For the internal validations the recommendations include: creating a validation plan, requirements for the range of samples to be tested, Standard Operating Procedure development, and internal laboratory training and education. To ensure that all laboratories have access to a wide range of samples for validation and training purposes the ISFG DNA commission encourages collaborative studies and public repositories of STR typing results. © 2016
Moratz R.,University of Maine |
Wallgrun J.O.,The Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Spatial Information Science | Year: 2012
We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus, point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We focus on the cardinal direction calculus and extend it to a multi-granular positional calculus called EPRAm. We provide a formal specification of EPRAm including a composition table for EPRA2 automatically determined using real algebraic geometry. We also report on an experimental performance analysis of EPRA2 in the context of a topological map-learning task proposed for benchmarking qualitative calculi. Our results confirm that our approach of adding a relative distance component to existing calculi improves the performance in realistic tasks when using algebraic closure for consistency checking. © by the author(s).
News Article | February 20, 2017
Researchers developing technologies to improve therapeutic success among radiotherapy patients, prevent chest wall collapses in pre-term infants with respiratory distress, and assist surgeons with pre-operative planning for femur fracture alignments will receive a total of $600,000 in funding through the ninth round of the University City Science Center’s QED Proof-of-Concept Program. The program, started in 2009, funds novel university technologies with market potential, bridging the gap between academic research and product commercialization. The awardees were selected from a pool of 64 applicants from 15 academic and research institutions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. The QED grants will support researchers at Penn State College of Medicine, Rowan University, and the University of Pennsylvania. Each team will receive $200,000; half of which will be contributed by the Science Center and half by the researchers’ institutions. Each project will also receive guidance from the Science Center’s experienced team of Business Advisors. Mohammad Abedin-Nasab, Ph.D. of Rowan University is improving patient outcomes with Robossis™, a robotic surgery device designed to assist surgeons with pre-operative planning and alignment of long bone fractures, leading to faster surgeries. David Cormode, D.Phil., M.Chem. of the University of Pennsylvania is revolutionizing cancer treatment options with a biodegradable gold nanoparticle-based technology that increases radiation absorption in tumors, creating improved therapeutic efficacy in cancer. Charles Palmer, MB, ChB, FCP, FAAP of Penn State College of Medicine is transforming neonatal care though a noninvasive assisted breathing device for pre-term infants with respiratory distress that uses negative pressure to prevent chest wall collapse. “Now in its ninth year, the QED program continues to highlight the treasure trove of technologies at our region’s universities. But as last year’s study into the impact of QED shows, the program’s value lies in its people,” says Science Center President & CEO Stephen S. Tang, Ph.D., MBA. “QED matches some of our region’s most accomplished scientists with Business Advisors and industry and investor professionals. This carefully facilitated connectivity and awareness among academic, entrepreneurial, and investor communities leads to more collaboration, research and commercialization throughout the region.” “The quality of proposals and teams coming through the QED program is a testament to the robust research coming out of Greater Philadelphia’s academic institutions” says QED Selection Team member, Jeannie Rojas, Ph.D., MBA, Portfolio Leader at Johnson & Johnson. “The powerful combination of innovative researchers matched with QED Business Advisors is bridging the gap between academic research and product commercialization – all with the potential to positively impact the region and the world.” Since the program’s inception in 2009, QED has screened 539 proposals from 21 participating academic and research institutions. Of the technologies screened, 105 projects have been accepted into the competitive program and paired with scientists and industry professionals. QED has awarded a total of $5.45 million to 31 projects, primarily in the therapeutic/biologic, device/diagnostic, and digital health sectors. Of these 31 projects, eight technologies have been licensed, while five have gone on to form startup companies. Projects awarded funding by the QED program have raised over $19 million in follow-on funding. A study of the impact of the program was completed by the Economy League of Greater Philadelphia in 2016. QED has received support from the U.S. Economic Development Administration, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Department of Health, the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation, William Penn Foundation, and Wexford Science and Technology. About the Science Center Located in the heart of uCity Square, the Science Center is a mission-driven nonprofit organization that catalyzes and connects innovation to entrepreneurship and technology commercialization. For 50+ years, the Science Center has supported startups, research, and economic development in the life sciences, healthcare, physical sciences, and emerging technology sectors. As a result, graduate firms and current residents of the Science Center’s incubator support one out of every 100 jobs in the Greater Philadelphia region and drive $13 billion in economic activity in the region annually. By providing resources and programming for any stage of a business’s lifecycle, the Science Center helps scientists, entrepreneurs and innovators take their concepts from idea to IPO – and beyond. For more information about the Science Center, go to http://www.sciencecenter.org About the QED Program The QED Program was launched in April 2009. A common participation agreement that defines matching funds, indirect costs, and intellectual property management, has been signed by 21 universities and research institutions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware: The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Delaware State University, Drexel University, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Lehigh University, Monell Chemical Senses Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia University, Rowan University, Rutgers University, Temple University, Thomas Jefferson University, University of Delaware, University of Pennsylvania, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Widener University, and The Wistar Institute.
News Article | December 20, 2016
CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Fuze, the leading cloud-based communications solution for the modern global enterprise, today announced it has strengthened its leadership team with the appointments of Brian Day as Chief Financial Officer and Mary Good as Chief People Officer. As CFO, Brian Day will oversee financial strategy, planning, and operations for Fuze, reporting directly to CEO Steve Kokinos. Day has a 25-year track record as a successful financial leader and operator at high-growth companies, most recently at Apperian where he served first as CFO and then President and CEO of the firm. Prior to Apperian, Day held senior leadership roles at Goal.com (acquired by Perform Media PLC), Gomez, Inc. (acquired by Compuware), and Octave Communications, Inc., among others. He began his career with Fleet Financial Group as a Vice President in the bank’s structured finance group. Day earned a B.A. in Economics from the University of New Hampshire and a J.D. from Suffolk University Law School in Boston. Day joins Fuze at a time of tremendous growth for the organization. In February, Fuze closed $112 million in financing led by Summit Partners to expand global operations and support continued investment in simplifying enterprise communications. This investment brought the Company’s total funding to $200 million. Most recently, Forbes named Fuze one of 2016’s Next Billion-Dollar Startups, a list of 25 companies that are transforming their industries and showing tangible results. Mary Good joins Fuze from hCentive, a SaaS-based healthcare technology company, where she served as Chief Human Resource Officer. As Fuze’s CPO, Good will focus on attracting, developing, and retaining the talent Fuze needs to successfully deliver on its mission while also creating a challenging and rewarding environment that makes Fuze a great place to work. In addition to hCentive, Good has led the people function for four public technology companies including Blackboard, CACI, SRA International, and AMS, Inc. She holds an MBA with a concentration in HR Management from Syracuse University and a B.S. degree in Human Development and Family Studies from The Pennsylvania State University. Good serves on the Penn State Research Foundation Board, as well as on the boards of several early stage companies. She also holds an Executive Coaching Certification from the College of Executive Coaching and is a National Association of Corporate Directors Fellow. A global, unified communications as a service (UCaaS) platform, Fuze empowers productivity and delivers insights across enterprises with mobile-enabled and analytics-driven business communications. By seamlessly integrating voice, video, and messaging into a simple, intuitive experience, Fuze is designed for the end user with the enterprise-grade strength, reliability, and security that leading businesses require to make a successful move to UCaaS. In October, Fuze released a new user interface featuring a best-of-breed, enterprise-grade platform supported by a high degree of quality, reliability, security, and analytics demanded by today’s businesses. “We are excited to welcome Brian and Mary to the executive leadership team at a time of such high growth and momentum,” said Kokinos. “They each bring unique skill sets that will continue to propel the company forward, both from a financial standpoint and with respect to our talent brand and culture.” About Fuze Fuze is a global, cloud-based unified communications platform that empowers productivity and delivers insights across the enterprise by enabling simplified business voice communications, flexible video conferencing, and always-on collaboration. Formerly ThinkingPhones, Fuze allows the modern, mobile workforce to seamlessly communicate anytime, anywhere, across any device. Headquartered in Cambridge, MA, Fuze has additional locations including New York, San Francisco, Seattle, Ottawa, London, Amsterdam, Aveiro (Portugal), Paris, Munich, Zurich, Madrid, Copenhagen, and Sydney. For more information, visit www.fuze.com.
News Article | October 31, 2016
The University City Science Center will unveil a new evaluation report of the QED Proof-of-Concept program at the QED Round Seven Showcase on November 2, 2016 at Quorum at the University City Science Center. Closing the Gap: University City Science Center’s QED Proof-of-Concept Program, prepared by the Economy League of Greater Philadelphia, quantifies the performance and impact of the program on the Greater Philadelphia region’s innovation ecosystem. Since the program’s inception in 2009, QED has screened 475 proposals from 21 participating academic and research institutions. Of the technologies screened, 94 projects have been accepted into the competitive program and paired with scientists and industry professionals. QED has awarded a total of $4.85 million to 28 projects, primarily in the therapeutic/biologic, device/diagnostic, and digital health sectors. Of these 28 projects, eight technologies have been licensed, while five have gone on to form startup companies. Projects awarded funding by the QED program have raised over $19 million in follow-on funding. The four researchers who received awards in the seventh round of the QED Program in 2014 will have an opportunity to share their progress over the last two years at the QED Round Seven Showcase. Dr. Chao Zhou of Lehigh University is developing a diagnostic instrument that will allow faster, more sensitive eye exams for macular degeneration and glaucoma, improving an approach known as optical coherence tomography (OCT). Dr. Steven Levison of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is developing a new product for culturing neural stem cells that simplifies and improves the ability of researchers to grow these cells for experimental and therapeutic use. Dr. William Wuest of Temple University is developing the next generation of disinfectants for a variety of commercial industries including healthcare, transportation, water, and energy. Dr. Sunday Shoyele of Thomas Jefferson University is developing a product for delivering highly-degradable gene inhibitors to cancer and other cells using antibody-based nanoparticles. 5:00 - 5:30 PM – Registration and networking 5:30 - 5:40 PM – Welcoming Remarks and QED Impact Study Highlights 5:40 - 5:50 PM – Round 7 Awardee Presentations 5:50 - 7:30 PM – Networking and refreshments among Round 7 Awardee Exhibit Tables The QED Program provides business development support and critical funding for academic researchers developing early-stage life sciences and healthcare IT technologies with high commercial potential. The program’s primary goal is to reduce commercialization risk in early-stage projects, thus increasing their attractiveness to,established companies and private investors. QED has received support from the U.S. Economic Development Administration, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Department of Health, the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation, William Penn Foundation, and Wexford Science and Technology. About the Science Center Located in the heart of uCity Square, the University City Science Center is a dynamic hub for innovation, and entrepreneurship and technology development in the Greater Philadelphia region. Founded in 1963 as the nation’s first urban research park, it provides business incubation, programming, lab and office facilities, and support services for entrepreneurs, start-ups, and growing and established companies. Graduate firms and current residents of the Science Center’s business incubator support one out of every 100 jobs in Greater Philadelphia and drive $12.9 billion in economic activity in the region annually. For more information about the Science Center, go to http://www.sciencecenter.org. About the QED Program The QED Program was launched in April 2009. A common participation agreement that defines matching funds, indirect costs, and intellectual property management, has been signed by 21 universities and research institutions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware: The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Delaware State University, Drexel University, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Lehigh University, Monell Chemical Senses Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia University, Rowan University, Rutgers University, Temple University, Thomas Jefferson University, University of Delaware, University of Pennsylvania, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Widener University, and The Wistar Institute.
News Article | October 28, 2016
Albireo Energy, LLC (“Albireo Energy”) today announced the appointment of Jason Richards as Albireo Energy’s Chief Operating Officer. Jason brings more than 25 years of business operations experience to his new role, having recently served as the North American Vice President of Energy and Construction Services for Sodexo, a Fortune Global 500 company providing services in 80 countries globally. As an officer of Sodexo, Jason was most recently responsible for North American profit and loss (P&L), and business line development for the construction and energy services side of the business, leading the growth of Sodexo’s North American Facility Management business by $360 Million in the last five years. He also served as the head of Sodexo’s World Wide Energy Services Network. Prior to this role, Jason served as the National Vice President of Business Development in Sodexo’s Health Care business, leading a team that delivered record high sales revenues of $170 Million in six years, establishing the division as the leading provider of outsourced Facility Management to the Health Care industry. “We are thrilled to have Jason on the team. He is a well-rounded leader with significant domain expertise and perfectly aligned experience in our markets,” said Phil Bomrad, Chief Executive Officer, Albireo Energy. “We have grown rapidly and built a strong and profitable business, and Jason will be instrumental in driving operational improvements across all business functions.” “I’m excited to be working with Phil and the Albireo Energy team,” said Richards. “They have built a solid foundation and I look forward to working with the team to optimize the business across all facets.” Prior to joining Sodexo, Jason was the Business Development Manager and then General Manager for PPL Corporation, a global energy company delivering electricity and natural gas to more than 10.5 million customers, and he held various engineering, project management, and sales roles for both Siemens and Honeywell. Jason is a Licensed Professional Engineer, a Certified Energy Manager, and earned a Bachelor’s of Science in Mechanical Engineering from The Pennsylvania State University. About Albireo Energy Albireo Energy provides building automation solutions and energy services to commercial and institutional buildings nationally. Their solutions and services help building owners and managers improve efficiency and reduce operational costs while improving comfort for tenants. Through its operating divisions, Albireo Energy has a history of providing exceptional solutions to mission critical facilities such as data centers, labs, military installations, and hospitals. For more information, visit http://www.AlbireoEnergy.com.
News Article | January 27, 2016
In the early fifties, before Richard Feynman famously seeded the concept of nanoscience in his 1959 talk “there’s plenty of room at the bottom” , and well before the concept of nanotechnology became popular in the late 80’s, a significant research effort was already underway into the fundamental nanoscience associated with high-field effects at surfaces and the resulting emission of ions and electrons . Born from this work, in 1955, field ion microscopy (FIM) became the first true atomic scale microscopy technique, allowing us to ‘see atoms’ for the very first time . The technique, invented by Erwin Müller in 1951 employed a specimen shaped into a sharp point, enabling it to act as a point projection field ion emitter. The specimen was cooled to 78K in the presence of He gas. This gas was adsorbed and subsequently field ionized and detected, with the distribution of detected atoms showing the arrangement of the specimen atoms at the surface of the tip. Sixty years on, this seminal work by Erwin Müller has spurred important and wide-ranging research, including many significant discoveries and inventions . Progressive field evaporated of surface atoms can be detected  and their positions reconstructed to create high-resolution 3D atom maps in a technique known as atom probe tomography , which has become an established microscopy technique. It’s use in materials characterisation has led to ground-breaking research including the first 3D images of segregation to dislocations , understanding the growth of nanowires , determining the kinetics of elemental steps of catalytic surface reactions , revealing precipitation pathways in important engineering alloys  and confirmation of the dating of the oldest minerals on earth , to name just a few examples. Other contributions from field-emission science include the development of the liquid metal ion source that now forms the basis of focused ion beam instruments , field electron emission from new forms of emitter  along with the sustained development of theory around high-field effects at surfaces . It is timely that we recognize these exceptional contributions. The International Field Emission Society (IFES) originally grew from pioneering research on high-field nanoscience, and supports the development and application of techniques and instruments based on these effects. It has hosted symposia since 1952 occurring every one to two years. In 2016, this conference, “Atom Probe Tomography & Microscopy (55th IFES)” will be held in Gyeongju, South Korea (June 12-17). At the event, the Steering Committee of the IFES (see note at end of this article for a list of members) is proud to award an inaugural round of “Fellows of the International Field Emission Society”, elected in recognition of eminence in the field of field emission, field ionization, and related phenomena. These individuals have been nominated and elected by their peers for outstanding research that has pushed the frontiers of knowledge in the field. Many have also undertaken distinguished service to the IFES. Those to be honored as IFES fellows in 2016 are listed below: Hans-Olof Andren, Chalmers University of Technology: For development of atom probe techniques, and for his use of atom probe instruments as materials science tools to study the detailed microstructure of primarily metallic materials. Didier Blavette, Université de Rouen: For unique contributions to atom probe field ion microscopy spanning the fundamental physics of the technique, instrumentation, and cutting-edge materials characterization. Alfred Cerezo, University of Oxford: For development of the position sensitive atom probe, which opened new dimensions and perspectives in both material science and instrumentation. Paul Cutler, The Pennsylvania State University: For working on theory of field electron and ion emission over more than 50 years, developing quantum mechanical models to explain and predict the behavior of field electron emitters. Richard Forbes, University of Surrey: For his many contributions to the growth of the theory and understanding of field electron and ion emission as well as his contributions to the society. Georgiy Fursey, St Petersburg University of Telecommunications: For wide-ranging, outstanding contributions to field electron emission science and technology, particularly explosive emission and emission from semiconductors. Robert Gomer, University of Chicago: For outstanding contributions to science, especially areas of field electron and ion emission and their application to problems in surface chemistry, and for public service. Kazuhiro Hono, National Institute for Materials Science: For key contributions to the growth of atom probe, developments in instrumentation, and broad utilization of the technique to impact the study of magnetic materials and precipitation hardening. Gary Kellogg, Retired: For fundamental technical contributions to laser-pulsed atom probe instrumentation and numerous aspects of surface and materials science, and for extraordinary service to the nanoscience community. Thomas Kelly, Cameca Inc.: For revolutionizing atom probe technology with the invention of the LEAP, and for service to the IFES community as President of the society. Hans-Juergen Kreuzer, Dalhousie University: Published more than 325 papers, 8 books, and 6 patents in the area of physics and chemistry of high electric fields. Norbert Kruse, Washington State University: For sustained contributions towards understanding chemical physics at materials surfaces and outstanding service to the high field nanoscience and atom probe communities. Allan Melmed, Retired: One of the most distinguished scientists of the IFES community, with a lifetime experience in field emission since his PhD thesis with the late EW Müller. Michael Miller, Retired: For seminal contributions in the development and application of atom probe tomography as demonstrated by his 600+ publications, service to the community, and impactful collaborations with numerous international scientists and engineers in their development and use of atom probe tomography. Marwan Mousa, Mu'tah University: For outstanding contributions to field emission science and for service to the society including organization of the 45th IFES. Osamu Nishikawa, Kanazawa Institute of Technology: For outstanding contributions to atom probe becoming a mainstream scientific instrument in hundreds of laboratories around the world. John Panitz, University New Mexico: As one of the inventors of the atom probe technique, John Panitz’ contributions and vision for the technique enabled its large acceptance in the international realm of materials characterization. Simon Ringer, The University of Sydney: For outstanding research in atom probe science, sustained IFES community service, including as Vice President and conference organiser and his role in training a new generation of field emission scientists. Guido Schmitz, University of Stuttgart: For his contribution to understanding diffusion and other atomic scale metallurgical processes studied using atom probe tomography. David Seidman, Northwestern University: Having advised more than 120 individuals and with 450+ publications, David Seidman's materials research based on APT and technique developments has laid a solid groundwork for atom probe groups worldwide. George Smith, University of Oxford: For more than 45 years of contributions and commitment to the field of atom probe field ion microscopy. Krystyna Stiller, Chalmers University of Technology: For fruitful use and development of atom probe techniques contributing to understanding of radiation damage, phase transformations, interfacial segregation and high temperature oxidation, and for promoting atom probe techniques. Lynwood Swanson, FEI: For outstanding scientific contributions to characterisation and development of field electron/ion emitters, and technical and managerial leadership of FEI Company in commercially developing these emitters and related instruments. Tien Tsong, Academia Sinica: For observation of the interaction between adsorbates on metal surfaces and for seminal research involving the use of a laser to promote thermal field evaporation. The Steering Committee of the IFES currently consists of:  Feynman RP. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Engineering and Science 1960:22-36.  Cerezo A, Godfrey TJ, Smith GDW. Application of a position-sensitive detector to atom probe microanalysis. Review of Scientific Instruments 1988;59:862-6.  Perea DE, Hemesath ER, Schwalbach EJ, Lensch-Falk JL, Voorhees PW, Lauhon LJ. Direct measurement of dopant distribution in an individual vapour-liquid-solid nanowire. Nature Nanotechnology 2009;4:315-9.  Kruse N, Abend G, Block JH. The kinetics of adsorption and thermal desorption of NO on stepped Pt single crystal surfaces. The Journal of Chemical Physics 1988;88:1307-12.  Ringer SP, Hono K. Microstructural evolution and age hardening in aluminium alloys: atom probe field-ion microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies. Materials Characterization 2000;44:101-31.  Valley JW, Cavosie AJ, Ushikubo T, Reinhard DA, Lawrence DF, Larson DJ, et al. Hadean age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-probe tomography. Nature Geoscience 2014;7:219-23.  Li Z, Xu N, Kreuzer HJ. Coherent field emission image of graphene predicted with a microscopic theory. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 2012;85.  Forbes RG, Edgcombe CJ, Valdrè U. Some comments on models for field enhancement. Ultramicroscopy 2003;95:57-65.
Luo F.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Zheng J.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Chu G.,CAS Institute of Physics |
Liu B.,CAS Institute of Physics |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Chimica Sinica | Year: 2015
Alloy anode materials, such as Si, Sn, have attracted much attention due to their much higher theoretical capacities than that of the commercially used graphite electrodes. However, their commercial applications are limited because of the short cycle life due to the large volume changes and non-healable fracture during electrochemical cycling. In this work, we prepared metal Ga thin film electrodes on stainless steel substrate (diameter 1.4 cm, mass load 1.5~2 mg/cm2) to study the self-healing behavior of Ga anodes. After 25 cycles, the cells were disassembled in Ar-filled glove box and the metal Ga thin film electrodes were washed by dimethyl carbonate (DMC) to remove residual LiPF6 and then dried in the vacuum chamber for more than 2 hours before SEM analysis. Based on SEM observation and crack size statistical distribution, we found that the characteristic size of the self-healing area reduced to 34 μm after 25 cycles and gradually reduced with the increasing cycles using low-melting point metal Ga film electrodes at a temperature above the melting point of Ga. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that there was a large amount of F, O and C at the surface of metal Ga thin film electrodes, which are considered as main components of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer. The formation of the SEI layer degrades the self-healing capability of Ga metal thin films because the layer may attach on the crack surfaces after full delithiation, hindering self-healing of the Ga films. Metal Ga powder electrodes (mass load 4.3 mg/cm2) were prepared by simple liquid dispersion method. The size of the Ga metal powder was 3.43 μm, which is smaller than that of effective self-healing area. Electrochemical performance showed improved durability of the metal Ga powder electrodes compared to the metal Ga thin film electrodes. After 25 cycles, the average crack size of the metal Ga powder electrodes was 1 μm based on SEM images. This shows that the self-healing ability of metal Ga in liquid electrolyte is limited. Metal Ga is expected to be used as crack healing agent in non-liquid electrolyte systems, such as the solid-state batteries. © 2015 Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Deng C.,China University of Geosciences |
Deng C.,Coal Reservoir Laboratory of National Engineering Research |
Tang D.,China University of Geosciences |
Tang D.,Coal Reservoir Laboratory of National Engineering Research |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering | Year: 2015
Mineral matter is widely accepts as one of the important factors influencing the gas sorption capacity of coal. By analyzing ash content and Langmuir volume of coals, studies have reported positive, negative, and poor impacts of mineral matter on sorption capacity without convincing reasons explaining the contradictory results. This paper proposes a new analysis method to correlate minerals and gas sorption capacity by connecting the mineral matter compositions to sorption capacity through the variations in the microstructure. In addition to mineral content, mineral occurrence modes and compositions were also studied to investigate their relations with gas sorption capacity.A total of 22 coal samples are used to interpret the characterization of minerals, including mineral content by proximate analysis, mineral occurrence mode by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses, and mineral compositions by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and high pressure methane adsorption analyses of selected samples are applied to characterize microstructure and gas adsorption capacity.We found that mineral content, occurrence mode, and composition are three controlling factors that together determined the influence of mineral matter on gas sorption capacity. In fact, some factors have potential for both positive and negative influence. This is why both negative and positive influences have been previously observed. The direction and magnitude of influence depends on the relative weights of the driving factors. For samples in this study, clay mineral content showed the strongest positive relation to SBET, total VBJH, and VL, compared to total mineral and brittle mineral content. The relation of other minerals to SBET, total VBJH, and VL is weak. The final result indicated that mineral matter had a positive influence on gas sorption capacity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Fu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Wu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Sun R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Ding Z.-R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
And 2 more authors.
Yiyong Shengwu Lixue/Journal of Medical Biomechanics | Year: 2015
Objective: To study the effect of ghost red blood cells (GRBCs) on white blood cell (WBC)-mediated adhesion of tumor cells (TCs) on endothelial cells (ECs) in shear flow. Methods: GRBCs with hematocrit (Hct) of 20% were added in the parallel plate flow chamber to observe changes in the number of tethered WBCs on ECs, the collision between TCs and adhesive WBCs, and the number of firmly adhered TCs at different shear rates of 62.5, 100, 200 s-1, respectively. Results: GRBCs could increase the number of adhered WBCs on ECs and the collision between TCs and adhesive WBCs, and finally enhance the adhesion of TCs on ECs, especially at high shear rate (200 s-1). However, the adhesion efficiency of TCs was not significantly influenced by GRBCs. Conclusions: GRBCs in shear flow can promote TC adhesion on ECs, and the research finding will provide a theoretical basis for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 by the Editorial Board of Journal of Medical Biomechanics.
Laube P.,University of Zürich |
Gottfried B.,University of Bremen |
Klippel A.,The Pennsylvania State University |
Billen R.,University of Liège |
van de Weghe N.,Ghent University
Journal of Spatial Information Science | Year: 2011
This paper reports on the first Workshop on Movement Pattern Analysis, held as a pre-GIScience 2010 workshop in September 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The report outlines the scientific motivation for the event, summarizes its main contributions and outcomes, discusses the implications of the gathering, and indicates directions for the road ahead. © by the author(s).