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Vadde R.,Pennsylvania State University | Vadde R.,Yogi Vemana University | Radhakrishnan S.,Pennsylvania State University | Reddivari L.,Pennsylvania State University | And 2 more authors.
BioMed Research International

Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the USA. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to drive continued expansion of the population of malignant cells. Therefore, strategies that target CSCs could be effective against colon cancer and in reducing the risk of relapse and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of triphala, a widely used formulation in Indian traditional medicine, on HCT116 colon cancer cells and human colon cancer stem cells (HCCSCs). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical composition (LC-MS-MS) of methanol extract of triphala (MET) were also measured. We observed that MET contains a variety of phenolics including naringin, quercetin, homoorientin, and isorhamnetin. MET suppressed proliferation independent of p53 status in HCT116 and in HCCSCs. MET also induced p53-independent apoptosis in HCCSCs as indicated by elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Western blotting data suggested that MET suppressed protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1, key proteins involved in proliferation, and induced apoptosis through elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, MET inhibited HCCSCs colony formation, a measure of CSCs self-renewal ability. Anticancer effects of triphala observed in our study warrant future studies to determine its efficacy in vivo. © 2015 Ramakrishna Vadde et al. Source

Chakravarthy A.B.,Vanderbilt University | Catalano P.J.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Martenson J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Mondschein J.K.,Vanderbilt University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: Although chemoradiation using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) is the standard of care in the treatment of anal cancer, many patients are unable to tolerate MMC. This Phase II clinical trial was performed to determine whether cisplatin could replace MMC in the treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with localized anal cancer were enrolled. One patient registered but never received any assigned therapy and was excluded from all analyses. Between February 1, 1993, and July 21, 1993, 19 patients were accrued to Cohort 1. Radiation consisted of 45 Gy to the primary tumor and pelvic nodes, followed by a boost to the primary and involved nodes to 59.4 Gy. A planned 2-week treatment break was used after 36 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU 1,000 mg/m 2/day on Days 1 to 4 and cisplatin 75 mg/m 2 on Day 1. A second course of 5-FU and cisplatin was given after 36 Gy, when the patient resumed radiation therapy. Between April 4, 1996, and September 23, 1996, an additional 13 patients (Cohort 2) were accrued to the study and received the same treatment except without the planned treatment break. Results: Complete response was seen in 78% (90% CI, 63-89) of patients and was higher in patients who did not get a planned treatment break (92% vs. 68%). The overall Grade 4 toxicity rate was 31%. One treatment-related death (Grade 5) occurred in a patient who developed sepsis. The 5-year overall survival was 69%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy, cisplatin, and 5-FU resulted in an overall objective response (complete response + partial response) of 97%. Although the 5-year progression-free survival was only 55%, the overall 5-year survival was 69%. Given the excellent salvage provided by surgery, this study affirms that cisplatin-based regimens may be an alternative for patients who cannot tolerate the severe hematologic toxicities associated with mitomycin-based chemoradiation regimens. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Vanamala J.K.P.,Pennsylvania State University | Vanamala J.K.P.,Pennsylvania State Hershey Cancer Institute | Knight R.,University of California at San Diego | Spector T.D.,Kings College London
Cell Metabolism

Prospects for using the gut microbiome for personalized medicine are substantial since the gut microbiome is known to modulate metabolism and varies substantially among individuals. Zeevi et al. (2015) demonstrate that the gut microbiota can be used to predict individualized blood glucose responses to particular foods, which differ between individuals. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gerber D.E.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Spigel D.R.,Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Giorgadze D.,Medulla Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy Clinic | Shtivelband M.,Ironwood Cancer and Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer

Background Bavituximab is a phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody with a selective tumor, vascular-directed immune response. In this phase II trial the efficacy and safety of bavituximab combined with docetaxel for previously treated, advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer were evaluated. Patients and Methods Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 21 days for up to 6 cycles combined with weekly, blinded infusions of placebo, bavituximab 1 mg/kg, or bavituximab 3 mg/kg until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR), with a predefined end point of 26% in the bavituximab arms. After study unblinding, vial-coding discrepancies were discovered in the placebo and bavituximab 1 mg/kg groups. In exploratory analyses, data from these groups were pooled to form the control group and compared with the 3 mg/kg group. Results Efficacy end points in the bavituximab 3 mg/kg group (n = 41) and in the placebo/bavituximab 1 mg/kg group (n = 80), respectively, were as follows: ORR, 17.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6%-28.6%) and ORR, 11.3% (95% CI, 4.3%-18.2%); median progression-free survival 4.5 and 3.3 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.45-1.21]; P =.24); median overall survival 11.7 and 7.3 months (HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.40-1.10]; P =.11). Toxicities were manageable and similar between arms. Conclusion The combination of bavituximab and docetaxel is well tolerated. Although no firm efficacy conclusions can be drawn and the trial did not meet the predefined primary end point, exploratory analyses suggest trends favoring the combination of bavituximab 3 mg/kg with docetaxel. This regimen is being evaluated in the ongoing, global, phase III SUNRISE trial. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hart L.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Dolloff N.G.,Pennsylvania State Hershey Cancer Institute | Dicker D.T.,Pennsylvania State Hershey Cancer Institute | Koumenis C.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Cell Cycle

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are recognized as contributors of cancer progression and therapeutic resistance in liquid and solid malignancies. We analyzed a panel of human colon cancer cell lines for CSC populations by side population and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. IGF-1 enriches these putative colon CSC populations in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Chemical inhibition of Akt depletes SP cells, and conversely, the overexpression of a constitutively active mutant version of Akt is sufficient to enrich CSC populations. CP-751,871, a fully human antibody with specificity to the IGF-1 receptor, is currently being tested in clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. CP-751,871 reduces CSC populations in colon cancer cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo. We have identified a novel role for IGF-1 in the enrichment of chemoresistant CSC populations. Our results suggest that CP-751,871 has preferential activity against putative CSC populations and therefore, may compliment current standard chemotherapeutic regimens that target cycling cells. © 2011 Landes Bioscience. Source

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