Clem D.J.,Pennoni Associates Inc. |
Schumacher T.,University of Delaware |
Deshon J.P.,University of Delaware
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015
Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques have become important means to inspect concrete bridge members. In particular, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has the ability to provide valuable information with respect to geometry and location of reinforcing bars, and, in some cases, areas of deterioration such as corrosion or potential delaminations. In this paper, we present a consistent methodology to process and interpret data from a hand-held GPR device. These small devices are often used by practitioners to more accurately inspect areas of interest while traffic control is maintained. Our methodology uses an exact non-linear time-depth relationship and cross-correlation to locate and visualize reflectors. The polarity and amplitude of the reflected pulse is also extracted and gives further information on the type of reflector, e.g., air vs. steel. Data collected and processed from three laboratory mock-up specimens are presented and discussed, and further work is proposed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
McConnell J.R.,University of Delaware |
Brown H.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Engineering Structures | Year: 2011
The alternate load path method is a convenient, "threat-independent" method used in progressive collapse analysis and design. Because no actual loadings are considered in this method, the resistance provided by the alternate load path method for specific extreme events is not well quantified. However, such quantification allows for an understanding of what real scenarios can be efficiently represented by alternate load path analyses. As blast loading is one of the abnormal loading events typically motivating an alternate path analysis, this load type is selected for evaluation in the present work. In order to find the blast threat that is representative of the alternate load path method in steel-framed buildings, finite element analyses of steel columns being subjected to blast loads were analyzed in the program LS-Dyna. Prior to this, sensitivity and validation studies were also completed, which are described herein. The results of the column analyses show that failure is governed by a stability-based deflection criterion. Conclusions regarding the charge sizes that the alternate load path method may be considered to be representative of, as well as the influence of column spacing, size, and end fixity on these results are given. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Finch S.,Pennsylvania Environmental Council |
Morfei M.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Green Streets and Highways 2010: An Interactive Conference on the State of the Art and How to Achieve Sustainable Outcomes - Proceedings of the Green Streets and Highways 2010 Conference | Year: 2010
Transportation investments in America throughout history have come at many different scales and from varying funding sources. Over time, investments have varied from public to private sources and back: From the private investments in construction of tolled "turnpikes" to connect the original 13 colonies; to a shift to public investment in the mid-19th century, best exemplified by Abraham Lincoln's support for "internal Improvements" early in his political career and for railroad construction subsidies later; from private investments in streetcars and streetcar suburbs in the turn of the 20th century; to the Eisenhower-era public investment in the national interstate highway system. Today, America is again trying to decide how best to fund repairs to its aging transportation infrastructure and what kinds of innovations will be needed in the 21 st Century. The American Society of Civil Engineers reports every year on the state of American infrastructure. The assessment is poor. In 2009, America's best ranking stood at a "C plus" for Solid Waste facilities, while Drinking Water, Inland Waterways, Levees, Roads, and Wastewater infrastructure all stood at the opposite end, each with a "D minus". © 2010 ASCE.
Fernstrom E.V.,University of Arkansas |
Carreiro J.L.,University of Arkansas |
Grimmelsman K.A.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Sound and Vibration | Year: 2014
Quantitative data describing condition and performance is essential for evaluating the structural health of bridges. Dynamic testing is a common approach for globally characterizing bridges in a quantitative sense. Dynamic testing is most commonly accomplished for full-scale bridge structures through either forced vibration testing or ambient vibration testing methods. Forced vibration testing offers many advantages but is generally not a practical or economical approach for many bridges due to the high cost of providing controlled excitation, limits to the excitation that can be supplied, and interference with the normal operation of the bridge. We have been investigating the feasibility of using low-cost, small-scale dynamic exciters for forced vibration testing of short- to medium-span bridges. The exciters being evaluated have a unit cost that is comparable to a typical accelerometer and could be deployed in numbers using a spatially distributed setup for forced vibration testing. This article presents and describes the results of a laboratory evaluation program conducted for these devices. Their capabilities and operating characteristics are compared with a laboratory-quality linear mass shaker. The preliminary results of a vibration test using these devices on an in-service highway bridge are also discussed.
Greene C.,Pennoni Associates Inc. |
Kannan V.,SRF and Associates
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2011
A study that was conducted by SRF & Associates by using 14 different coffee/donut shops for the purposes of documenting trip generation volumes during the a.m. peak period is presented. A majority of the data was collected during the first half of December 2007 on typical weekdays; Mondays and Fridays were excluded from the data collection. Twelve out of the 13 shops studied were standalone buildings with one or two points of access, which made it easier to document trip generation volumes. The number of lanes adjacent to the store was determined by on-site observations. The population and median age within a three-quarter-mile radius of the store was determined by 2000 census data. Average daily traffic (ADT) volumes on the adjacent roadway were obtained from most recent data available on the study section of roadway adjacent to the study store. Considering that all of the factors that affect vehicle queuing vary from day to day, averages were developed based on our observations and combined into a simplified planning level formula.
Pezzotti J.J.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Structures Congress 2010 | Year: 2010
In today's economic climate - of making every infrastructure dollar count - it is critically important to properly inspect and maintain our older long span bridges. Routine bridge inspections and maintenance not only provide the user with a safer structure, but also provides the owner with a bridge that will stand the test of time. Bridge inspection/maintenance procedures, however, can be costly to the owner and a major inconvenience to the user when access to the underside of the structure can only be achieved from inspection vehicles parked on the bridge deck. Travel lane closures to complete the required work can cause significant safety and traffic problems, especially on narrow bridges. To address these concerns, the Burlington County Bridge Commission made the decision to install a motorized rolling traveler platform beneath its Burlington-Bristol Bridge. The Burlington-Bristol Bridge is a long span moveable toll structure that crosses the Delaware River, connecting southeastern Pennsylvania with New Jersey. The bridge carries two 10' travel lanes and a 4' sidewalk, thus requiring a night time bridge closure when inspection or construction access vehicles, such as snoopers, are required. The traveler system was installed on the Burlington-Bristol Bridge during the summer of 2009. When suspended from the underside of the bridge, the traveler platform will be guided by motorized carriages that will travel along steel track beams. The total travel range of the platform is 940' and includes access to the 540' moveable vertical lift main span and the two adjacent 200' tower spans. When needed, the traveler platform will be lifted in place from a small boat along the river, eliminating traffic disruptions on the bridge, and used for bridge inspection, maintenance and repairs. It will only occupy the underside of the bridge when being used; once work is complete it will be removed. The traveler platform will greatly benefit the owner as well as the user by providing a more economical, safer and non-disruptive underside inspection and repair alternative when compared to past procedures that required travel lane closures. © 2010 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Chen Y.,Binghamton University State University of New York |
Twigg C.M.,Binghamton University State University of New York |
Sadik O.A.,Binghamton University State University of New York |
Tong S.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
2011 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PERCOM Workshops 2011 | Year: 2011
Efficient monitoring and control of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has become an important public issue as the cost of electricity continues to grow and the quality requirements of processed water tightens. However, the development, deployment, and maintenance of highly efficient monitors and controllers for wastewater processing tanks are significantly challenging. Self-powered, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an ideal candidate for this application, since their deployment would have the least impact on the existing infrastructure. A novel wireless sensor network is presented in this paper that integrates microbial fuel cells (MFCs), field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs), and low-power networking protocols into the sensors to make them self-powered, highly flexible, and adaptive. MFCs convert chemicals in the waste water into electrical energy, while FPAAs provide a means of performing ultra-low-power, real-time, and adaptive processing of the sensor signals. This design achieves sustainable monitoring and control of wastewater treatment with minimal impact to existing infrastructure. © 2011 IEEE.
Terry J.D.,Pennoni Associates Inc. |
Sander E.J.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011
Often times when a project site exhibits poor subsurface conditions not suitable for foundation support the most logical solution is a deep foundation system supported on/in an underlying dense/hard stratum. However, in some instances ground modification associated with shallow spread footings can be a more cost effective solution. Compaction grouting is an extremely flexible and customizable approach that can be applied to numerous poor subsoil conditions to stiffen and densify the subsoils to a desired degree applicable to the proposed construction. Compaction grouting is not a new technique; its application in areas of Karst geology where acute subsurface stabilization is necessary has been effectively used in many instances since the early 1950's (Warner 2004). Subsurface erosion in Karst areas is prevalent in an area of eastern Pennsylvania that spans from as far west as Shippensburg through Lancaster, Reading, and Allentown to the eastern border in Easton. Two case histories are presented - one involves "stiffening" the foundation subsoils encountered beneath additions to an existing 2-story structure in Millersville, PA. The second case history is the improvement of soils impacted by a water main break in Bethlehem, PA. These case histories describe subsurface conditions that compaction grouting was applied to and the methods used to ensure a successful grouting program. Also discussed are real time field results used to modify the compaction grouting program and monitor its effectiveness. Full-time monitoring was provided throughout the field work on each project. © ASCE 2011.
Linzell D.G.,Pennsylvania State University |
Shura J.F.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2010
The effects of construction procedures on the stresses and deformations in a large radius, horizontally curved, plate girder, bridge were examined along with the accuracy with which grillage models predicted the construction behavior. The examination included a study of the stresses and deformations during construction and a comparison of those quantities to the grillage model predictions. Results from the study indicated that, for the structure that was examined: (1) appreciable warping stresses were generated during girder erection; (2) the classical grillage model predictions were less accurate during girder erection while the "modified" model predictions were more accurate during deck placement; and (3) the predicted grillage model deflections were smaller for an exterior-to-interior girder erection procedure than an interior-to-exterior procedure. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nale S.K.,Pennoni Associates Inc.
Shale Energy Engineering 2014: Technical Challenges, Environmental Issues, and Public Policy - Proceedings of the 2014 Shale Energy Engineering Conference | Year: 2014
As oil and gas infrastructure is developed, it has become increasingly important for the roadway users (heavy haulers) to obtain release from their PennDOT roadway bonds as quickly and efficiently as possible. Heavy roadway users are interested in being released from permits on many roads across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to free resources for additional infrastructure construction and reduce liability for repair of damages. This presentation would serve to discuss the release process currently being used in PennDOT District 12-0. The process overview will include a discussion of the release requests, video review procedures, coordination within the District, and recommendations on best practices to achieve a timely release. In some cases, the roadway has been damaged by the users and repairs are required prior to release of the roadway bond. This presentation will also discuss the coordination required when road damage has been determined to be caused by a single and/or multiple user(s). This overview will conclude with a case study of the SR 3009 (Tom's Run Road) repair and overlay in Greene County. This project provided for the repair and installation of base repair and a new overlay on five segments (4.0 km, 2.5 miles) of state-maintained roadway. The project included coordination with two roadway contractors, six different roadway users and PennDOT staff, both in the District Office and in the Greene County Maintenance District. Hundreds of tons of asphalt were installed to provide a safe and reliable roadway to the public. The final result was a cost-controlled product that satisfied both the permit holders and PennDOT and resulted in the release of associated bonds. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.