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Pauliks L.B.,Penn State Hershey Childrens Hospital | Pauliks L.B.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn State Hershey Childrens Hospital | Undar A.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn Medicine
World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery | Year: 2011

Congenital heart disease affects 0.8% of all live-born infants. Some of the malformed hearts can at best be palliated by conventional surgical or catheter interventions from the start. Others fail slowly from chronic overloading. Patients with congenital heart disease have been among the first transplant recipients since 1967. Primary therapy with infant heart transplant is a convincing concept from an immunological perspective but large-scale implementation is limited by donor organ shortages. Another growing area is rescue therapy for older patients with end-stage heart failure after palliative procedures, particularly those with single-ventricle hearts, systemic right ventricles, and associated arrhythmias. © 2011, World Society for Pediatric and Congential Heart Surgery. All rights reserved.


Qiu F.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Lu C.K.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Palanzo D.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Baer L.D.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

In previous studies, we have evaluated the hemodynamic properties of selected oxygenators, pumps (centrifugal and roller), and single lumen cannulae. Because the dual lumen cannulae are widely used in veno-venous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and are receiving popularity due to their advantages over the single lumen cannulae, we evaluated the flow ranges and pressure drops of three different sizes of Avalon Elite dual lumen cannulae (13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr) in a simulated neonatal ECLS circuit primed with human blood. The experimental ECLS circuit was composed of a RotaFlow centrifugal pump, a Capiox BabyRX05 oxygenator, 3ft of 1/4-in venous and arterial line tubing, an Avalon Elite dual lumen cannula, and a soft reservoir as a pseudo-right atrium. All experiments were conducted at 37°C using an HCU 30 heater-cooling unit and with human blood at a hematocrit of 36%. The blood pressure in the pseudo-right atrium was continuously monitored and maintained at 4-5mmHg. For each cannula, pump flow rates and pressures at both the arterial and venous sides were recorded at revolutions per minute (RPMs) from 1750 to 3750 in 250 intervals. For each RPM, six data sets were recorded for a total of 162 data sets. The total volume of the system was 300mL. The flow range for the 13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr cannulae were from 228 to 762mL/min, 478 to 1254mL/min, and 635 to 1754mL/min, respectively. The pressure drops at the arterial side were higher than the venous side at all tested conditions except at 1750rpm for the 19Fr cannula. The results of this study showed the flow ranges and the pressure drops of three different sized dual lumen cannulae using human blood, which is more applicable in clinical settings compared with evaluations using water. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Reed-Thurston D.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Shenberger J.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Qiu F.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn Medicine
Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

The objectives of this review are to describe the Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) research at the Penn State Pediatric Cardiovascular Research evaluating new pediatric ECLS components and to discuss a proposed continuous quality improvement model after implementation of new technology. Review of current literature pertaining to studies at the Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital (PSHCH) is presented along with a retrospective chart review of ECLS pediatric patients from January 2000 to June 2010. We describe improvements in the newest hollow-fiber oxygenator demonstrating a lower pressure drop (compared with silicone), and in the newest RotaFlow centrifugal pump which allows higher hemodynamic energy delivered to the patient at higher flow rates with less retrograde flow. The miniaturized pediatric circuit implemented is portable and primes quickly for rapid deployment. Our model of continuous quality improvement includes in-depth evaluation of all circuit component performance through on-site in vivo and in vitro testing at the PSHCH. We utilize the same model to provide comprehensive education and hands-on training of the staff. This cycle can be repeated for evaluation and implementation of any new circuit component. Our comprehensive approach to ECLS may provide the ideal means from which to safely introduce new technology. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


McCoach R.,Heart and Vascular Institute | Pauliks L.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Guan Y.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Qiu F.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Artificial Organs | Year: 2010

The following is a description of the training offered to extracorporeal life support (ECLS)-trained staff at the Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital. Changes with the ECLS circuit prompted the need for an initiative to train staff in the care of patients requiring ECLS support. In addition to didactic material, we incorporated a "hands-on" approach in designing the education. During the didactic portion, the circuit was demonstrated as a wet lab. The final step offered a voluntary visit to the animal research facility utilizing clinical case scenarios which allowed participants to articulate and demonstrate proper circuit management. The effort throughout this process was to build a competent ECLS team which will ultimately provide our patients with the greatest chance for a full recovery. © 2010, the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Clark J.B.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Pauliks L.B.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Myers J.L.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Undar A.,Penn Medicine
Current Cardiology Reviews | Year: 2011

Approximately one in one hundred children is born with congenital heart disease. Most can be managed with corrective or palliative surgery but a small group will develop severe heart failure, leaving cardiac transplantation as the ultimate treatment option. Unfortunately, due to the inadequate number of available donor organs, only a small number of patients can benefit from this therapy, and mortality remains high for pediatric patients awaiting heart transplantation, especially compared to adults. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential role of mechanical circulatory support in this context and to review current experience. For patients with congenital heart disease, ventricular assist devices are most commonly used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, an application which has been shown to have several important advantages over medical therapy alone or support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, including improved survival to transplant, less exposure to blood products with less immune sensitization, and improved organ function. While these devices may improve wait list mortality, the chronic shortage of donor organs for children is likely to remain a problem into the foreseeable future. Therefore, there is great interest in the development of mechanical ventricular assist devices as potential destination therapy for congenital heart disease patients with end-stage heart failure. This review first discusses the experience with the currently available ventricular assist devices in children with congenital heart disease, and then follows to discuss what devices are under development and may reach the bedside soon. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.


PubMed | Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center, Penn Medicine and Public Health and science
Type: | Journal: Artificial organs | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate an alternative neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit with a RotaFlow centrifugal pump and Better-Bladder (BB) for hemodynamic performance and gaseous microemboli (GME) capture in a simulated neonatal ECLS system. The circuit consisted of a Maquet RotaFlow centrifugal pump, a Quadrox-iD Pediatric diffusion membrane oxygenator, 8 Fr arterial cannula, and 10 Fr venous cannula. A Y connector was inserted into the venous line to allow for comparison between BB and no BB. The circuit and pseudopatient were primed with lactated Ringers solution and packed human red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). All hemodynamic trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 100 to 600 mL/min at 36C. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a data acquisition system. For GME testing, 0.5 cc of air was injected via syringe into the venous line. GME were detected and characterized with or without the BB using the Emboli Detection and Classification Quantifier (EDAC) System. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 200 to 500 mL/min. The hemodynamic energy data showed that up to 75.2% of the total hemodynamic energy was lost from the circuit. The greatest pressure drops occurred across the arterial cannula and increased with increasing flow rate from 10.1 mm Hg at 100 mL/min to 114.3 mm Hg at 600 mL/min. The EDAC results showed that the BB trapped a significant amount of the GME in the circuit. When the bladder was removed, GME passed through the pump head and the oxygenator to the arterial line. This study showed that a RotaFlow centrifugal pump combined with a BB can help to significantly decrease the number of GME in a neonatal ECLS circuit. Even with this optimized alternative circuit, a large percentage of the total hemodynamic energy was lost. The arterial cannula was the main source of resistance in the circuit.


PubMed | Health Science University, Okayama University of Science, Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center, Emergency and Critical Care Medicine and Okayama University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Artificial organs | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of pulsatile and nonpulsatile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on hemodynamic energy and systemic microcirculation in an acute cardiac failure model in piglets. Fourteen piglets with a mean body weight of 6.080.86kg were divided into pulsatile (N=7) and nonpulsatile (N=7) ECMO groups. The experimental ECMO circuit consisted of a centrifugal pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a pneumatic pulsatile flow generator system developed in-house. Nonpulsatile ECMO was initiated at a flow rate of 140mL/kg/min for the first 30min with normal heart beating, with rectal temperature maintained at 36C. Ventricular fibrillation was then induced with a 3.5-V alternating current to generate a cardiac dysfunction model. Using this model, we collected the data on pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. The piglets were weaned off ECMO at the end of the experiment (180min after ECMO was initiated). The animals did not receive blood transfusions, inotropic drugs, or vasoactive drugs. Blood samples were collected to measure hemoglobin, methemoglobin, blood gases, electrolytes, and lactic acid levels. Hemodynamic energy was calculated using the Shepards energy equivalent pressure. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor brain and kidney perfusion. The pulsatile ECMO group had a higher atrial pressure (systolic and mean), and significantly higher regional saturation at the brain level, than the nonpulsatile group (for both, P<0.05). Additionally, the pulsatile ECMO group had higher methemoglobin levels within the normal range than the nonpulsatile group. Our study demonstrated that pulsatile ECMO produces significantly higher hemodynamic energy and improves systemic microcirculation, compared with nonpulsatile ECMO in acute cardiac failure.


Clark J.B.,Pennsylvania State University | Clark J.B.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | Guan Y.,Pennsylvania State University | McCoach R.,Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Perfusion | Year: 2011

During extracorporeal life support with centrifugal blood pumps, retrograde pump flow may occur when the pump revolutions decrease below a critical value determined by the circuit resistance and the characteristics of the pump. We created a laboratory model to evaluate the occurrence of retrograde flow in each of three centrifugal blood pumps: the Rotaflow, the CentriMag, and the Bio-Medicus BP-50.At simulated patient pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, each pump was evaluated at speeds from 1000 to 2200 rpm and flow rates were measured. Retrograde flow occurred at low revolution speeds in all three centrifugal pumps.The Bio-Medicus pump was the least likely to demonstrate retrograde flow at low speeds, followed by the Rotaflow pump.The CentriMag pump showed the earliest transition to retrograde flow, as well as the highest degree of retrograde flow. At every pump speed evaluated, the Bio-Medicus pump delivered the highest antegrade flow and the CentriMag pump delivered the least. © The Author(s) 2011.


PubMed | Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Artificial organs | Year: 2011

The objectives of this review are to describe the Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) research at the Penn State Pediatric Cardiovascular Research evaluating new pediatric ECLS components and to discuss a proposed continuous quality improvement model after implementation of new technology. Review of current literature pertaining to studies at the Penn State Hershey Childrens Hospital (PSHCH) is presented along with a retrospective chart review of ECLS pediatric patients from January 2000 to June 2010. We describe improvements in the newest hollow-fiber oxygenator demonstrating a lower pressure drop (compared with silicone), and in the newest RotaFlow centrifugal pump which allows higher hemodynamic energy delivered to the patient at higher flow rates with less retrograde flow. The miniaturized pediatric circuit implemented is portable and primes quickly for rapid deployment. Our model of continuous quality improvement includes in-depth evaluation of all circuit component performance through on-site in vivo and in vitro testing at the PSHCH. We utilize the same model to provide comprehensive education and hands-on training of the staff. This cycle can be repeated for evaluation and implementation of any new circuit component. Our comprehensive approach to ECLS may provide the ideal means from which to safely introduce new technology.


PubMed | Penn State Hershey Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Artificial organs | Year: 2011

In previous studies, we have evaluated the hemodynamic properties of selected oxygenators, pumps (centrifugal and roller), and single lumen cannulae. Because the dual lumen cannulae are widely used in veno-venous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and are receiving popularity due to their advantages over the single lumen cannulae, we evaluated the flow ranges and pressure drops of three different sizes of Avalon Elite dual lumen cannulae (13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr) in a simulated neonatal ECLS circuit primed with human blood. The experimental ECLS circuit was composed of a RotaFlow centrifugal pump, a Capiox BabyRX05 oxygenator, 3 ft of 1/4-in venous and arterial line tubing, an Avalon Elite dual lumen cannula, and a soft reservoir as a pseudo-right atrium. All experiments were conducted at 37C using an HCU 30 heater-cooling unit and with human blood at a hematocrit of 36%. The blood pressure in the pseudo-right atrium was continuously monitored and maintained at 4-5 mm Hg. For each cannula, pump flow rates and pressures at both the arterial and venous sides were recorded at revolutions per minute (RPMs) from 1750 to 3750 in 250 intervals. For each RPM, six data sets were recorded for a total of 162 data sets. The total volume of the system was 300 mL. The flow range for the 13Fr, 16Fr, and 19Fr cannulae were from 228 to 762 mL/min, 478 to 1254 mL/min, and 635 to 1754 mL/min, respectively. The pressure drops at the arterial side were higher than the venous side at all tested conditions except at 1750 rpm for the 19Fr cannula. The results of this study showed the flow ranges and the pressure drops of three different sized dual lumen cannulae using human blood, which is more applicable in clinical settings compared with evaluations using water.

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