Lancaster, PA, United States
Lancaster, PA, United States

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Folta S.C.,Tufts University | Seguin R.A.,Cornell University | Chui K.K.H.,Tufts University | Clark V.,Tufts University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods. In a 2010 to 2014 collaboration between the StrongWomen program and the National Extension Association of Family and Consumer Sciences, we assessed reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance using survey methods, and we assessed effectiveness using a pretest-posttest within-participants design, with weight change as the primary outcome. Results. Overall reach into the population was 15 per 10 000. Of 85 trained leaders, 41 (48%) adopted the program. During the 12-week intervention, weight decreased by 0.5 kilograms, fruit and vegetable intake increased by 2.1 servings per day, and physical activity increased by 1238 metabolic equivalent (MET)- minutes per week (all P < .001). Average fidelity score was 4.7 (out of possible 5). Eleven of 41 adopting leaders (27%) maintained the program. Conclusions. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program can be implemented with high fidelity in a variety of settings while remaining effective. These data provide direction for program modification to improve impact as dissemination continues.

Peterson D.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Tabb A.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Baugher T.A.,Penn State Cooperative Extension | Lewis K.,Washington State University | Glenn D.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2010

A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising susceptibility ('Pink Lady,' 'Golden Delicious,' 'McIntosh,' 'Mutsu,' 'Delicious,' and 'Fuji') were used to test the bin filler in research trials and commercial assessments. Fruit that were downgraded from U.S. Extra Fancy grade after handling by the bin filler were 1.7%, 1.4%, and 2.9% at each test location. The filler was shown to produce less than 5% bruising on fruit and to have the ability to operate in commercial locations. © 2010 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Royo A.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Stout S.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | deCalesta D.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Pierson T.G.,Penn State Cooperative Extension
Biological Conservation | Year: 2010

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overbrowsing has altered plant species diversity throughout deciduous forest understories in eastern North America. Here we report on a landscape-level (306km2) project in Pennsylvania, USA that tracked the herbaceous community response to deer herd reductions. From 2001 to 2007, we estimated deer densities, browse impact on woody seedlings, and censused the herbaceous flora in permanent plots throughout the area. We assessed herb layer species richness, abundance, and dominance and measured three known phytoindicators of deer impact: Trillium spp., Maianthemum canadense, and Medeola virginiana. We predicted that browse-sensitive taxa would increase in abundance, size, and flowering as would overall species diversity following deer culls and browse impact that declined by an order of magnitude by 2007. Following intensified deer harvests, we observed a limited recovery of the herbaceous community. Trillium spp. abundance, height, and flowering; M. canadense cover; and M. virginiana height all increased following herd reductions. Similarly, forb and shrub cover increased by 130% and 300%, respectively. Nevertheless, species diversity (i.e., richness and dominance) did not vary. Our work demonstrates that reducing deer densities can provide rapid morphological and population-level benefits to palatable species without a concomitant recovery in diversity. We suggest that decreasing deer populations alone may not promote plant diversity in overbrowsed, depauperate forests without additional restoration strategies to mitigate a browse-legacy layer dominated by browse-resistant species. © 2010.

Tyson J.T.,Penn State Cooperative Extension | Graves R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | McFarland D.F.,Penn State Cooperative Extension
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2010, ASABE 2010 | Year: 2010

Providing a dry, comfortable resting area for dairy cattle is essential to their health, well being and performance. Properly designed, constructed and maintained freestalls (cubicles) are an essential component in a system that meets these requirements. A freestall should provide comfort, promote cleanliness, and prevent injuries to the cow. It must allow enough room for the largest cow in the herd to freely enter the stall, lie down, rest comfortably, and easily get to her feet and exit the stall. To do this, freestalls must account for the cow's normal desire to rest facing slightly uphill, change resting positions or stretch while recumbent, and lunge forward to lift her hind quarters first when rising. Cow caretakers must understand this relationship between the freestall and the cow's natural behavior and continually observe and confirm the relationship between the cow and the stalls. The drawings and design table within this paper provide guidance when planning for space requirements for freestalls and where to place the components. They are based on values found in the literature and field experiences. For optimum cow comfort and stall use final adjustments to the components will require careful observation of the cows and their stall.

McFarland D.F.,Penn State Cooperative Extension
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2010, ASABE 2010 | Year: 2010

Time-lapse photography can be helpful in the study of animal behavior, building improvements, and management practices. By condensing activity time from hours, or perhaps days, to minutes an observer may more easily notice trends, problems and/or solutions. However, time-lapse photography equipment can be expensive and not conducive to operation in remote agricultural locations. This paper describes a method developed to create time-lapse video using a relatively low-cost digital camera and readily available materials, equipment, and video editing software. This system was used to record dairy cow resting and feeding activity, a construction project, and packing of a horizontal silo in areas with and without AC power available. System limitations, possible improvements, and learned 'helpful hints' are also discussed.

Tyson J.T.,Penn. State Cooperative Extension
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2010, ASABE 2010 | Year: 2010

The average annual milk production per cow has increased by 424% since the 1940's. While this increase can be accredited to many factors such as breeding, nutrition, modern management and husbandry, one outcome of this increased production is the increase in metabolic heat production. Therefore, today's cows are more sensitive to heat stress than in the past, and today's highest producing herds are at highest risk for production losses caused by heat stress. Heat abatement of these high producing cows is a complex issue. Heat stress cannot be measured simply by the ambient temperature alone. Factors such as solar load, humidity, air exchange, air velocity, and duration of the heat event must also be considered when addressing heat stress. While much is known and published about the need for and design of heat abatement techniques and components, the shortfall is there is no method to select the best or most appropriate system for any given dairy housing system, either existing or proposed. The "Heat Abatement System Selection Tool" gives producers, consultants, and designers a logical structure to the decision process in order to develop a heat abatement system best suited for an individual dairy operation based on the geographic location, weather conditions, type of shelter, and management to be used on that operation. The Heat Abatement Selection Tool was developed based on the best research information and field observations available at this time. The tool uses a three step process to arrive at a heat abatement system best suited to the shelter, assuming shade has been provided by the shelter itself. First air exchange of the shelter is optimized, second convective cooling is optimized, and third, if needed, evaporative cooling is added to the system.

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