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Mill Hall, PA, United States

Burley H.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Adrizal A.,University of Jambi | Patterson P.H.,Pennsylvania State University | Hulet R.M.,Pennsylvania State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2011

The potential of vegetative barriers to reduce dust and avian respiratory virus transmission from a 6-house commercial laying hen facility was evaluated in 3 trials using a combination spray vaccine for Newcastle disease virus (La Sota strain) and infectious bronchitis virus (Mass-Conn strains) as a model. Before each trial, 7-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were placed in coops downwind of the exhaust fans of each house. Vegetative buffers (VEB) were planted between houses 2, 4, and 6 and their coops. Coops downwind of houses 1, 3, and 5 acted as non-VEB controls (CON). Dust accumulation was measured at all coops during each trial. Tracheal and cloacal swabs and blood samples from specific-pathogen-free birds and vegetation clippings or swabs and dust collection filters were collected to monitor virus transmission from the hen houses to the coops. Dust measures did not differ between VEB and CON coops in any trial. In addition, neither Newcastle disease virus nor infectious bronchitis virus could be detected from the vegetation or filters. Predominantly, no differences in virus spread could be detected between birds in the VEB and CON groups; however, the proportion of infectious bronchitis virus-positive serum samples was significantly greater from birds in the CON than in the VEB group (P = 0.003) at 21 d postvaccination in trial 3. Therefore, birds in the CON group were more accessible than those in the VEB group during virus transmission, and VEB of a significant size and density may have the potential to slow or reduce virus spread, or both, from commercial poultry farms. © 2011 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source

Herlihy M.V.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Van Driesche R.G.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Abney M.R.,North Carolina State University | Brodeur J.,Univerist de Montral | And 17 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2012

A survey was conducted from May to Oct of 2011 of the parasitoid community of the imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), in cole crops in part of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. The findings of our survey indicate that Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) now occurs as far west as North Dakota and has become the dominant parasitoid of P. rapae in the northeastern and north central United States and adjacent parts of southeastern Canada, where it has displaced the previously common parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Cotesia glomerata remains the dominant parasitoid in the mid-Atlantic states, from Virginia to North Carolina and westward to southern Illinois, below latitude N 38° 48′. This pattern suggests that the released populations of C. rubecula presently have a lower latitudinal limit south of which they are not adapted. Source

Isaacs R.,Michigan State University | Mason K.S.,Michigan State University | Teixeira L.A.F.,Michigan State University | Loeb G.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Hafla A.N.,University Park | Soder K.J.,University Park | Hautau M.,Penn State Extension | Rubano M.D.,University Park | And 2 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2014

Proponents of ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing emphasize increased forage-use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg/ha of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 125 d. However, it is unclear whether this management technique is appropriate for dairy farms in the northeastern United States. A case study was conducted to characterize management practices and forage and soil quality on dairy farms using selfdescribed UHSD grazing. Data collected on 4 organic dairy farms in Pennsylvania and New York practicing UHSD grazing included pasture and soil nutrient analyses, stocking density, botanical composition, and pasture stratification. Herds were mixed breed with milk yields ranging from 11.9 to 17.7 kg/d per cow. Stocking density ranged from 49,421 to 377,912 kg/ha with 30 to 49 d of forage rest. Forage consumed was 46 and 45% of total available in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Within the available forage that was eaten, cows consumed 75% of forage from layers 33 cm and higher and 49% from below 33 cm. Across years, forage CP, NDF, and NEl averaged 24%, 44.7%, and 1.43 Mcal/kg, respectively. The increase in forage quality during 2012 was likely a result of forage being less mature at each successive grazing. Soil mineral content and pH were within recommended levels. Grazing dairies in Pennsylvania and New York have taken a modified approach to UHSD grazing by using forages more mature than recommended in management-intensive grazing systems by allowing longer periods of forage rest. © 2014 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source

Sanchez E.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Butzler T.M.,Penn State Extension | Stivers L.J.,Penn State Extension | Elkner T.E.,Penn State Extension | And 3 more authors.
HortTechnology | Year: 2012

Butternut, acorn, and buttercup/kabocha winter squash (Cucurbita sp.) cultivars were evaluated in a conventional systemin central, southeastern, and southwestern Pennsylvania in 2010-11. Results from individual locations were used to create statewide recommendations, which are also relevant for the mid-Atlantic U.S. region. Additionally, butternut and acorn cultivars were evaluated in an organic system in central Pennsylvania. In a conventional system, butternut cultivars JWS6823, Betternut 401, Quantum, and Metro are recommended based on equal or higher marketable yield than the standard Waltham Butternut. Acorn squash cultivars that performed equally to or better than the standard, Tay Belle, were Table Star, Harlequin, and Autumn Delight. In the kabocha/buttercup category, 'Sweet Mama' and 'Red Kuri' had marketable yields not different from the standard 'Sunshine' in central and southeastern Pennsylvania. In the organic system, butternut cultivars JWS6823, Betternut 401, and Metro all had marketable yields not different from the standard Waltham Butternut. For acorn cultivars, Celebration yield did not differ from the standard Table Queen. Source

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