Penn State Brandywine

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Penn State Brandywine

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Imler G.H.,Temple University | Lu Z.,University of Pennsylvania | Kistler K.A.,Penn State Brandywine | Carroll P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Palladium and platinum metal complexes of 2,5-bis(α-pyridyl)- pyrrolate (PDP) are reported and characterized by spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structures of these complexes exhibit structural features indicative of significant φ-backbonding. To illustrate the effect, bond lengths are statistically compared to unmetalated PDP and to a previously reported Zn(II) complex that exhibits no backbonding. Density functional theory calculations are used to aid understanding of the electronic structural basis of the observed phenomena. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Konak A.,Penn State Berks | Kulturel-Konak S.,Penn State Berks | Kremer G.E.O.,Pennsylvania State University | Esparragoza I.E.,Penn State Brandywine
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2015

The complex and multidisciplinary nature of today's engineering problems demands that new graduates excel in not only technical knowledge but also teamwork skills. In fact, the lack of effective teamwork has been identified among the most important factors contributing to the high failure rate of complex engineering projects. In this paper, we focus on engineering students' attitudes toward teamwork, their self-efficacy and interest in teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities. Self-efficacy in a domain is an important construct that can predict whether or not someone is willing to undertake a challenge in that domain. Research suggests that the sufficient level of self-efficacy can encourage personal growth and skill development. The relevant research also points out that interest is a construct that can predict students' professional development in a domain. For example, as someone becomes an expert in a domain, his/her interest in the domain becomes individual, which means there is a long-term personal connection resulting in further exploration of the domain. In this paper, we postulate that the development of students in teamwork knowledge, skills and abilities can be tracked by the progress in their teamwork interest. In addition, we argue that interest development should be measured as a part of the assessment efforts to evaluate the professional skills development of students. We have developed and validated an instrument to measure teamwork efficacy and interest. The instrument was used to collect data in a geographically distributed university. The collected data were analyzed to identify the factors affecting students' attitudes toward interest and self-efficacy in teamwork as well as their relationships. The preliminary results indicated that students had a high level of self-efficacy and a low level of interest, which makes it challenging to improve students' teamwork skills. © 2015 IEEE.


Kulturel-Konak S.,Penn State Berks | Konak A.,Penn State Berks | Kremer G.E.O.,Pennsylvania State University | Esparragoza I.,Penn State Brandywine | Yoder G.,Penn State Berks
IIE Annual Conference and Expo 2014 | Year: 2014

Professional skills expected from science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) students are well-aligned with the broad learning outcomes defined by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET). While acquisition of professional skills in our graduates is increasingly crucial due to global competition and intensifying pressures on companies, the absence of a robust assessment framework limits effectiveness of pedagogical efforts by faculty. Thus, there is a need for an assessment model, which can help assess students' professional skill development across multiple disciplines. In this paper, we introduce a web-based application, called Peer Evaluation and Assessment Resource (PEAR), to assist in assessing students' development in professional skills, and we illustrate how this tool can be used for teamwork assessment. PEAR intends to streamline the processes of peer evaluations. PEAR has been designed based on the theory of Model of Domain Learning (MDL), and thus can help explain the complex interactions among knowledge, interest level, and strategies with which knowledge is gained. We illustrate the workflow of PEAR and how MDL is integrated into the peer assessment process. We also discuss the advantages of the MDL-based assessment framework compared to a traditional assessment model.


Kulturel-Konak S.,Management Information Systems | Konak A.,Management Information Systems | Esparragoza I.E.,Penn State Brandywine | Kremer G.E.O.,Pennsylvania State University
ISEC 2013 - 3rd IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference | Year: 2013

This paper puts forward a novel assessment framework, based on the Model of Domain Learning (MDL), to assess student development in various professional skills across Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. New graduates are not only required to have good technical skills but also excel in professional skills to be successful in their career choices. As a response, academic programs have integrated professional skills such as teamwork/communication, ethics, global awareness, creative problem solving, and leadership, into their curricula. However, there are challenges in the assessment of learning outcomes related to professional skills. By designing a uniform assessment framework for all professional skills and developing a set of coherent assessment instruments that can be tailored according to the learning objectives and student level, the proposed assessment framework aims to facilitate the integration of professional skills assessment into an overall program assessment plan. The proposed framework will be tested in various course levels (i.e., first year to senior) from STEM majors at various institutions. © 2013 IEEE.


Guertin L.,Penn State Brandywine
Leading Edge | Year: 2016

From instructional tools to devices used in the laboratory or in the field to facilitate student interactivity and data collection, the use of technology in the higher-education geoscience classroom is not new. However, as the 2014 Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education stated in its summary report, the geoscience community has not fully embraced existing and emerging technologies to engage students that already are connected with digital information and tools. It is not that technology is viewed as an ineffective tool for teaching and learning, but that the pedagogic challenges lie in technology adoption and raising awareness of the educational impacts with individual faculty, as well as within departments. One opportunity to broaden student experience with technology is through a classroom assignment designed to utilize several technologies as tools to improve student geoscience content as well as overall science and information literacies. Challenging students to author a new "geology 101" article for the SEG Wiki addresses these components. In addition, an SEG Wiki article-authoring assignment serves as an opportunity for students to perform digital outreach by providing a reliable resource that can be used by geoscience professionals, K-16 teachers and students, and the general public. Through contributing to the SEG Wiki, students also satisfy a university's mission of service learning and engaged scholarship. © 2016 by The Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


De Rosa M.,Penn State Brandywine | Arnold D.,Penn State Brandywine | Wright A.C.,Penn State Brandywine | Son Y.,Penn State Brandywine
Arkivoc | Year: 2015

Reaction of 3-aminopyrrole with chloropyrimidines occured only at the 3-amino group. The activating group(s) (Cl, NO2 or CF3), their relative positions (C4/C6, C2, or C5), and the effect of added base (DIPEA) or acetic acid on the course of the reaction, was studied. When chloro groups were present on both C4/C6 and C2, the only or major product was from the displacement of the C4/C6 chloro group. Only in the reaction of 2,4,6-trichloropyrimidine was substitution at C2 competitive with reaction at C6. Both chloro groups of 2,4-dichloro-3-nitropyrimidine were displaced to give a novel compound with three-linked heterocyclic rings. Reactions of less reactive chloropyrimidines appeared to be favored by acid catalysis. © 2015 ARKAT-USA, Inc.


De Rosa M.,Penn State Brandywine | Arnold D.,Penn State Brandywine
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Protonation of 3-aminopyrrole at C-2 gave the σ-complex 1H-pyrrol-3(2H)-iminium cation, whereas protonation at the exoamino group gave its 1H-pyrrol-3-aminium tautomer. Both tautomers were isolated as their respective tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate salt, an example of desmotropy. In solution, the NH3-tautomer was favored in hydrogen-bonding solvents and the CH2-tautomer in CH2Cl2. A combination of effects on the aromaticity of the aminopyrrole ring increased the relative stability of the σ-complexes (conjugate acids) such that they can be readily observed or isolated. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


De Rosa M.,Penn State Brandywine | Arnold D.,Penn State Brandywine | Hartline D.,Penn State Brandywine
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Reaction of 3-aminopyrrole with seven 1,3,5-triazines was studied in a one-step reaction (in situ formation of 3-aminopyrrole) and a two-step reaction (using the tetraphenylborate salt and an amine base). An inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) was observed with R1 = CF3, CO2Et, and H with the formation of 5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives. SNAr was observed when 2,4,6-trifluoro- or 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine were used - 1,3,5-triazines that had leaving groups. If excess 1,3,5-triazine was present the initial SNAr product reacted further, in the presence of acid and water, with another equivalent of 1,3,5-triazine to give compounds containing three linked heterocyclic rings. No reaction was observed with R1 = C6H5 and OCH3. Four mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results: uncatalyzed and acid catalyzed inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cascades leading to cycloaddition, and uncatalyzed and acid-catalyzed S NAr reactions leading, respectively, to single and double substitution products. Acid catalysis was a factor when there was reduced reactivity in either reactant. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Reaction of 3-aminopyrrole (as its salt) with trifluoromethyl--diketones gave -1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridines via reaction at the less reactive carbonyl group. The trifluoromethyl group increased the electrophilicity of the adjacent carbonyl group and decreased the basicity of the hydroxyl group of the CF3 amino alcohol formed. This amino alcohol was formed faster, but its subsequent dehydration to the -enaminone was slow resulting in the preferential formation of the -regioisomer. Reaction of 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butadione with 3-aminopyrrole was carried out using a series of 6 amine buffers. Yields of the -1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine increased as the pKa of the amine buffer decreased. Surprisingly the yield went down at higher pKas. There was a change in mechanism as the reaction mixture became more basic. With strong amines trifluoromethyl--diketones were present mainly or completely as the enolate. Under reductive conditions (3-nitropyrrole/Sn/AcOH/trifluoromethyl--diketone) the -1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine was the major product as a result of Lewis acid catalysis by Sn(2+). Similar -regiochemistry was observed when the reaction of the 3-aminopyrrole salt with trifluoromethyl--diketones was carried out in the presence of base and tin(II) acetate.


PubMed | Penn State Brandywine
Type: | Journal: Annual review of phytopathology | Year: 2013

Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species, has been used throughout history and remains common among farmers of small landholdings in the tropics. One benefit of this practice may be disease control. In phenomenological research comparing disease in monocrops and intercrops, primarily due to foliar fungi, intercropping reduced disease in 73% of more than 200 studies. Nematodes are the primary pathogen for which disease increases are reported, but variability in disease impacts among studies can be high for all types of diseases. The mechanisms by which intercrops affect disease dynamics include alteration of wind, rain, and vector dispersal; modification of microclimate, especially temperature and moisture; changes in host morphology and physiology; and direct pathogen inhibition. The effect of intercropping on host density is a factor underlying many of these mechanisms. By synthesizing our growing understanding of mechanisms and their interactions with phenomenological studies, we may develop a theoretical grounding that allows us to improve the application of intercropping for tropical smallholders and industrial farmers alike.

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