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Monaca, PA, United States

Liang H.C.,Tetra Tech Inc. | Hay M.T.,Penn State Beaver
Water Environment Research | Year: 2011

A review of literature published in 2010 on analytical methods for pesticides and herbicides is presented here in eight sections, including extraction methods, chromatographic or mass spectrometric techniques, electrochemical techniques, spectrophotometric techniques, chemiluminescence and fluorescence methods, sensors, biochemical assays and immunoassays, and miscellaneous techniques. Because many of the research studies in the cited publications utilized more than one analytical method, the different sections should not be thought of as being mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2011 Water Environment Federation. Source


Liang H.C.,Tetra Tech Inc. | Bilon N.,CA Technologies | Hay M.T.,Penn State Beaver
Water Environment Research | Year: 2013

A review of literature published in 2012 on analytical methods for pesticides is presented here that includes papers on extraction methods and analytical methods such as chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, spectrophotometric techniques, fluorescence and chemiluminescence techniques, biochemical assays and immunoassays, electrochemical methods, and review articles on analytical methods. Because many of the research studies in the cited publications utilized more than one analytical method, the different sections should not be considered mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2013 Water Environment Federation. Source


Liang H.C.,Tetra Tech Inc. | Hay M.T.,Penn State Beaver | Drake Meneghetti A.M.,Tetra Tech Inc.
Water Environment Research | Year: 2012

A review of literature published in 2011 on analytical methods for pesticides are presented here in six sections: extraction methods, chromatographic or mass spectrometric techniques, spectrophotometric techniques, fluorescence methods, biochemical assays and immunoassays, and review articles. Because many of the research studies in the cited publications utilized more than one analytical method, the different sections should not be thought of as being mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2012 Water Environment Federation. Source


Vonhof M.J.,Western Michigan University | Russell A.L.,Grand Valley State University | Miller-Butterworth C.M.,Penn State Beaver
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) is one of the most widespread bat species in North America and is experiencing severe population declines because of an emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). To manage and conserve this species effectively it is important to understand patterns of gene flow and population connectivity to identify possible barriers to disease transmission. However, little is known about the population genetic structure of little brown bats, and to date, no studies have investigated population structure across their entire range. We examined mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites in 637 little brown bats (including all currently recognized subspecific lineages) from 29 locations across North America, to assess levels of genetic variation and population differentiation across the range of the species, including areas affected by WNS and those currently unaffected. We identified considerable spatial variation in patterns of female dispersal and significant genetic variation between populations in eastern versus western portions of the range. Overall levels of nuclear genetic differentiation were low, and there is no evidence for any major barriers to gene flow across their range. However, patterns of mtDNA differentiation are highly variable, with high ΦST values between most sample pairs (including between all western samples, between western and eastern samples, and between some eastern samples), while low mitochondrial differentiation was observed within two groups of samples found in central and eastern regions of North America. Furthermore, the Alaskan population was highly differentiated from all others, and western populations were characterized by isolation by distance while eastern populations were not. These data raise the possibility that the current patterns of spread of WNS observed in eastern North America may not apply to the entire range and that there may be broad-scale spatial variation in the risk of WNS transmission and occurrence if the disease continues to spread west. Copyright: © 2015 Vonhof et al. Source


Liang H.C.,Tetra Tech Inc. | Bilon N.,CA Technologies | Hay M.T.,Penn State Beaver
Water Environment Research | Year: 2014

A review of literature published in 2013 on analytical methods for pesticides, including mostly insecticides but also some herbicides, is presented here and includes papers on analytical methods such as biochemical assays and immunoassays, electrochemical methods, review articles on analytical methods, chromatographic or mass spectrometric techniques, spectrophotometric techniques, fluorescence, and chemiluminescence techniques. There is also a section on extraction techniques because of their importance in pesticide residue analyses. Copyright © 2014 Water Environment Federation. Source

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