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Widener C.A.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Carter M.J.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Hrabe R.H.,VRC Metal Systems | Hoiland B.,Moog | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference | Year: 2015

Cold spray is a reduced temperature, supersonic thermal spray process that is increasingly being used to perform repairs on high value components. In this case, a valve actuator internal bore sealing surface was repaired on an aluminum 6061 hydraulic valve body using high pressure cold spray. Corrosion damage to non-critical surfaces was also repaired, allowing the part to be returned to service. The VRC Gen III high-pressure cold spray system was used to deposit gas atomized 6061 aluminum powder. The internal bore surfaces were approximately 100 mm in diameter with a depth of nearly 200 mm, and were sprayed using a 45-degree nozzle 65 mm in length. The minimum required adhesion strength on critical surfaces was 69 MPa. The average adhesion strength was 71.4 MPa, with glue failures on ASTM C633 bond test specimens. © (2015) by ASM International All rights reserved.


Widener C.A.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Carter M.J.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Ozdemir O.C.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Hrabe R.H.,VRC Metal Systems | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2016

Cold spray is a reduced temperature, supersonic thermal spray process that is increasingly being used to perform repairs on high-value components. In this case, a valve actuator internal bore sealing surface was repaired on an aluminum 6061 hydraulic valve body using high-pressure cold spray. Corrosion damage to non-critical surfaces was also repaired, allowing the part to be returned to service. A high-pressure cold spray system was used to deposit gas-atomized 6061 aluminum powder using helium. The internal bore surfaces were approximately 100 mm in diameter with a depth of nearly 200 mm, and were sprayed using a 45° nozzle 65 mm in length. Modeling predictions validated the approach, and were used to identify a favorable nozzle geometry and process window combination. The minimum required adhesion strength on critical surfaces was 69 MPa. The average adhesion strength was 71.4 MPa, with glue failures on ASTM C633 bond test specimens. The actuator subsequently passed all bench top service related testing, was qualified as an approved repair, and is now in service. This was a first of its kind repair for cold spray, and demonstrates that it is a viable repair technology and is ready for broader implementation. © 2015, ASM International.


Hartwig J.W.,NASA | Colozza A.,NASA | Lorenz R.D.,Johns Hopkins University | Oleson S.,NASA | And 4 more authors.
Cryogenics | Year: 2016

To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93 K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere/sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the sea, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies with emphasis on the preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 846.11K | Year: 2014

Gas turbine engines utilized in electric power production and aircraft propulsion need to operate at higher temperatures for enhanced efficiency and lower emissions. Development of the proposed thermal barrier coating technology with unique architectural design will enable the operation of turbine engines at higher operating temperature.


Cashdollar L.,Penn State Electro Optics Center | Mazurowski J.,Penn State Electro Optics Center | Trageser A.,Penn State Electro Optics Center | Keolian R.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Poese M.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory
2012 IEEE Avionics, Fiber- Optics and Photonics Technology Conference, AVFOP 2012 | Year: 2012

Currently obstructions in blown optical fiber (BOF) tubing (microducts) are found using the ball bearing test (BB test) as described in test method 6H1 of MIL-STD-2042 [1]. A 4.5 millimeter (.17 inch) BB is launched down the entire length of the tubing (6 mm ID) with air pressure ranging from 50 to 100 psig. The BOF tubing is considered obstruction free if the BB can traverse the entire length of the tube. If the BB does not pass through the BOF tubing, there is an obstruction at an unknown location. Determining the position of this obstruction is time consuming, and if unsuccessful the entire BOF tube has to be scrapped. There would be a cost saving benefit if an accurate way of determining the location of the obstruction was found. © 2012 IEEE.


Jenkins D.M.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Murray W.B.,Pennsylvania State University | Kennett M.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Hughes E.L.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Werner J.R.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Nam Y.S.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | May M.B.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Fischer D.,Systems Center Atlantic | Greer R.,Systems Center Atlantic
Institute of Navigation - International Technical Meeting 2011, ITM 2011 | Year: 2011

Geophysical Navigation has the objective of providing an at-sea, low-cost, correlation navigation technique (primarily for submersibles, but possibly for surface ships as well), that is global, independent of satellite and/or radio navigation. The technique applies map-matching algorithms using bathymetric and/or gravimetric maps to generate position fixes for inertial navigators as well as applying gravity disturbance compensation. This paper primarily addresses the implementation of bathymetric navigation for tactical applications and at-sea demonstration results, as part of the Enhanced Inertial Navigation System Program (EINSP) of the U.S. Navy. This implementation requires no additional surveying assets. It discusses the availability and fixability of bathymetric and gravimetric data grids. It discusses how map coverage, map errors, and bathymetry characteristics were used to predict the quality and distribution of sites supportive of geophysical navigation. Development of an innovative, unique geophysical position fixing algorithm that utilizes bathymetric map matching is detailed. The choices of map matching algorithm parameters as they relate to the ship's concept of operations are explained. Results from a dedicated ship experiment are used to demonstrate the capability of Navy submarine sonar system BQN-17A to support bathymetric position fixing.


Gerg I.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory
2nd Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing, WHISPERS 2010 - Workshop Program | Year: 2010

In this paper, we evaluate three endmember extraction algorithms for use in hyperspectral imagery unmixing: automatic target generation procedure (ATGP), independent component analysis endmember extraction algorithm (ICA-EEA), and vertex component analysis (VCA). We evaluate each algorithm's ability to find known pure pixels in a scene of simulated data. Several variations of simulated data are used to thoroughly examine the unmixing limits of each algorithm. ©2010 IEEE.


Campbell R.L.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Paterson E.G.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Reese M.C.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Hambric S.A.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory
WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences | Year: 2010

Fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed for a flexible hydrofoil subjected to quasi-steady flow conditions. The hydrofoil is fabricated from a polymeric material that exhibits viscoelastic effects, causing the hydrofoil to change shape while subjected to the fluid loads. The time-dependent deformations and loads will be compared in the future to empirical results from upcoming water tunnel tests. The fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed using a tightly coupled partitioned approach, with OpenFOAM as the flow solver and a finite element solver for the structural response. The codes are coupled using a fixed-point iteration with relaxation. The flow is modeled as laminar and quasisteady. Simulations indicate the hydrofoil angle of attack (AOA) changes from zero to a negative value as the material relaxes. The approach used here is being developed for application to a blood pump that has a performance closely tied to blade deformation through the impeller tip clearance. © 2010 WIT Press.


Lindau J.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Skidmore G.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Brungart T.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Moeny M.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory | Kinzel M.,Penn State Applied Research Laboratory
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2015

Finite volume based modeling of ventilated supercavity pulsation and its mitigation via a priori modulation of ventilation flow was investigated. Simulated pulsation was numerically achieved, as was mitigation of pulsation via sinusoidal modulation of the ventilation flow. In addition to confirmation that the numerical approach is sufficient to capture mitigation, it was found that modulated ventilation, without altering the mean ventilation mass flow rate, results in altered cavity size, pressure, and closure condition.

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