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Bain P.A.,CSIRO | Basheer V.S.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | Gregg A.,CSIRO | Jena J.K.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources | Kumar A.,CSIRO
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Fluoxetine (FLX) is one of numerous pharmaceuticals found in treated municipal wastewater discharged to the environment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (96 h) waterborne FLX exposure (1 μg/L or 100 μg/L) on the expression of selected genes in brain, liver, and gonads of female Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis), a small-bodied teleost of ecotoxicological relevance in the Australasia region. Plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were also determined. In the brain, no significant changes in mRNA levels were observed for the selected genes. In ovaries, 100 μg/L FLX caused a 10-fold downregulation of aromatase A (cyp19a1a) mRNA and a 4-fold upregulation of estrogen receptor α (esr1) mRNA levels. In liver, mRNA levels for vitellogenin A (vtga) and choriogenin L (chgl) were downregulated by 50-fold and 18-fold compared with controls, respectively, in response to 100 μg/L FLX. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were significantly lower than controls in response to 100 μg/L FLX. This could be attributable to a decrease in estrogen biosynthesis as a result of the observed downregulation of cyp19a1a mRNA. To establish whether the observed changes in gene expression could be explained by the modulation of selected nuclear receptors by FLX, we employed panel of reporter gene assays in agonistic and antagonistic modes. Apart from minor activation of ERα after exposure to high concentrations (5 μM), FLX did not activate or inhibit the nuclear receptors tested. Further study is required to determine whether the observed downregulation of ovarian aromatase expression and liver estrogen-regulated genes also occurs at environmentally relevant FLX concentrations over longer exposure periods. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Ho H.-C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Ho H.-C.,National Dong Hwa University | Meleppura R.K.,Center for Marine Living Resources and Ecology | Bineesh K.K.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

A new species of Chaunax is described on the basis of eight type and five non-type specimens. This species belongs to the Chaunax abei species group and can be distinguished from congeners in the group by having a continuous tooth patch on the vomer, not divided into two patches, and four or five neuromasts in the lower preopercular series. It can be further separated by the following combination of characters: large green spots on dorsal surface; simple spinules on dorsal sur-face; 12 pectoral-fin rays; 13-16 neuromasts in pectoral series; 30-37 neuromasts in lateral-line proper; typically four neu-romasts on caudal-fin base; typically 7 neuromasts in mandible; typically 12 gill rakers on second gill arch; gill chamber and buccal cavity pale; and peritoneum black. © Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press. Source

Sood N.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources | Chaudhary D.K.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources | Pradhan P.K.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources | Verma D.K.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources | And 4 more authors.
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal | Year: 2015

The establishment and characterization of a continuous cell line from the thymus of air-breathing fish Channa striatus are described. The cell line, designated C. striatus thymus (CST), has been subcultured over 71 times and shows optimal growth at 28°C in Leibovitz’s-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The CST cells exhibited low plating efficiency which improved with increase in seeding density. The karyotype analysis revealed that CST cells have a normal diploid karyotype with 2n = 40. Partial amplification and sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, viz. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase I, confirmed that the cell line originated from C. striatus. CST cells were successfully transfected indicating their potential application for expression of recombinant proteins. In immunocytochemical staining, CST cells showed characteristics of epithelial cells. These cells were sensitive to extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 as well as to heavy metal mercuric chloride. The CST cell line would be a useful tool in functional genomic studies such as RNA interference and gene knockout as well as for cytotoxicity studies. © 2015, The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Vineesh N.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | Kathirvelpandian A.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | Divya P.R.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | Mohitha C.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | And 3 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

Scomberomorus commerson is an economically important migratory fish distributed worldwide. The genetic stock structure of S. commerson distributed along the Indian waters was identified using mitochondrial ATPase 6 and 8 genes. A total of 842 bp sequence of ATPase 6/8 genes obtained in this study revealed 23 haplotypes with mean low nucleotide diversity and high haplotype diversity. Co-efficient of genetic differentiation (FST) values obtained for pair wise populations were low and non-significant with an overall value of −0.02074. The high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity values together with mismatch distribution analysis suggested a history of genetic bottleneck events or founder effect, with subsequent population expansion in S. commerson. The findings of the present study indicated the panmixia nature of the species which can be managed as a unit stock in Indian waters. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted Source

Devassy A.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Kumar R.,Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Center | Shajitha P.P.,Mahatma Gandhi University | John R.,Mahatma Gandhi University | And 4 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

Mitochondrial cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequence variation among the clariid fishes of India (Clarias magur, C. dussumieri and C. gariepinus) and their relationship with other representative clariids was studied in this work. Three species were sampled and together with 23 COI sequences from GenBank were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in the family Clariidae. The study revealed two clades: one consisting of the African species with C. dussumieri, and the other of Asian species suggesting the prevalence of intra-continental diversification of catfishes. This study further revealed that the genus Clarias is monophyletic. For the COI gene, the interspecies genetic divergence ranged from 0.056 to 0.182. The mean genetic difference between C. dussumieri and other selected African species in this study is 12.1%. It was also observed that the morphological similarity of C. dussumieri and C. magur was not replicated in the genetic level. Clarias dussumieri was more close to African catfish C. gariepinus thus indicating the utility of COI phylogeny to identify the well-known African-Asian relationships within catfishes. The results also showed that C. magur and C. batrachus are genetically distinct from each other. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

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