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Gargili A.,Marmara University | Midilli K.,Istanbul University | Ergonul O.,Marmara University | Ergin S.,Istanbul University | And 7 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

A survey of ticks from domestic ruminants, together with a serosurvey in humans was conducted in Thrace (northwestern Turkey) to evaluate the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in ticks and humans. More prevalent ticks were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, with low numbers of Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, and Ixodes ricinus. No differences in the tick faunal composition were found among surveyed provinces. CCHFV was detected using specific primers for strains belonging to both Europe 1 and Europe 2 clades in a total of 15 pools of ticks collected in nine localities. The maximum likelihood estimate of infection rate was calculated as 0.72/100 ticks (95% CI=0.42-1.16). Viral RNA was observed only in H. marginatum, R.(B.) annulatus, and R. bursa with overall maximum likelihood estimate infection rates being 0.93 (95% CI=0.35-2.05), 0.74 (95% CI=0.24-1.78), and 1.67 (95% CI=0.69-3.46), respectively. The surveyed region is the only place where both viral strains are circulating together in nature in Turkey. Results from serosurvey on 193 samples from three localities in the region showed that immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G rates are compatible with an epidemiological situation in which the virus has been present for a long time and is not the result of a recent invasive event from the main epidemic center in Anatolia (north-central Turkey). Seropositivity rates cannot be compared against the tick faunal composition, because of the homogeneity in the results about tick surveys. The high rate of seropositivity, and the prevalence of CCHFV in both Europe 1 and 2 clades among the ticks, but few clinical cases suggest that the circulation of both viral strains may confer protection against the CCHFV infection. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Sayan M.,Kocaeli University | Erdenlig S.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Stack J.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Kilic S.,Bacterial Zoonoses Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9z), 68 (3.8z), and 66 (3.7z) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100z, 94.6z, 42z, and 100z, respectively, and of MAT were 100z, 99.9z, 97z, and 100z, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen.


Duncombe L.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Commander N.J.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Erdenlig S.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | McGiven J.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Stack J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

Brucella abortus, a smooth strain of the genus Brucella, is the causative agent of bovine brucellosis. To support the ongoing development of diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis, the use of Protein Saver cards (Whatman) for bovine blood serum and plasma sample collection has been evaluated. These cards offer significant logistical and safety alternatives to transporting and storing liquid samples and may aid in diagnostic programs and validation studies. To evaluate the utility of these cards, 204 bovine blood serum samples from Brucella-infected and noninfected animals were stored on and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. Anti-Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antibody titers for the serum eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed original serum samples by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a highly significant correlation between titers from the serum eluates and the unprocessed sera. Therefore, under these circumstances, serum eluates and unprocessed serum samples may be used interchangeably. Blood plasma from 113 mitogen-stimulated whole-blood samples was added to and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) titers in the plasma eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed plasma samples obtained by IFN-γ ELISA. The results showed a significant correlation between the plasma eluates and the unprocessed plasma samples. To derive a signal in the plasma eluate, it was necessary to develop a novel and highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of IFN-γ. The serum samples stored on cards at room temperature over a 10-day period showed little variation in antibody titers. However, the plasma eluates showed a progressive loss of IFN-γ recovery over 10 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Pekel A.Y.,Istanbul University | Cakir E.O.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Polat M.,Istanbul University | Cakir K.,Istanbul University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to evaluate the correlations between chemical assay and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the nutrient content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) samples. The samples were analyzed by NIRS or wet chemical procedures. Color [CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*)] characteristics of the samples were measured in triplicates with a chroma meter. Highest CV were observed for fiber fragments in wheat DDGS and for fat in corn DDGS among the nutrients tested. Correlation coefficients showed good agreement between NIRS and wet methods for the determination of selected nutrients except DM. Strong negative correlations were found between ash and ADF (-0.811), ash and NDF (-0.649), and ash and CF (-0.757) when determined by wet analyses. Phosphorus and gross energy had negative correlations with fiber fragments. The values for a*were found to be inversely correlated to the CF, ADF, and NDF contents found in both methods. On the contrary, there was a positive correlation between a*values and ash content in both methods. Positive correlations also were found between fat content and L*and b*values of the ingredients. Negative correlations were found between b*value and CP, Arg, Ile, Gly, and Pro levels. Based on these results, NIRS is a reliable method depending on the calibration quality, and the correlations found among nutrients and between color and nutrients must be taken into consideration to predict nutrient content of DDGS. No antibiotic residue was found in the samples. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc.


Cetinkaya F.,Uludag University | Yibar A.,Uludag University | Soyutemiz G.E.,Uludag University | Okutan B.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2012

Analysis of residual levels of tetracyclines (TCs) in chicken meat was performed using a validated liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Overall, the recoveries for TCs ranged from 56.9% to 101.2%, with standard deviations of 4.5-13.2%. Detection limits ranged from 7.9 to 14.6 μgkg-1. In four of 60 samples, doxycycline (DXC) was determined in a range from 19.9 to 35.6 μgkg-1; and in one sample tetracycline was detected at 17.2 μgkg-1. Chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were not detected in any of the tested samples. This study indicates that chicken meat sold in Bursa, Turkey, contained some residues of TCs. Therefore, stricter regulations for the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry and the monitoring of drug residues in chicken meat prior to marketing are needed. Finally, this method has been applied successfully for the confirmation of TCs in chicken meat. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Atil E.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Ertas H.B.,Firat University | Ozbey G.,Firat University
Veterinarni Medicina | Year: 2011

A total of 46 Listeria spp. were isolated from 719 samples (milk, bulk tank swabs, cheese, feed, water, faeces and the environment) collected from 415 cattle and 304 sheep over 12 months (from February 2007 to January 2008). These isolates were identified by conventional and PCR techniques as belonging to L. monocytogenes (17.4%), to Listeria innocua (39.1%), to Listeria seeligeri 17.4%), to Listeria grayi (15.2%) and to Listeria welshimeri (11%). No Listeria ivanovii were isolated from any of the samples. Listeria spp. were not isolated from cheese and bulk tank swabs. With regard to seasonal variations most Listeria spp. were isolated in the spring and winter seasons. The eight L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP with AluI and Tsp509I. RFLP typing of the isolates revealed two different profiles with both restriction enzymes. Four and six different profiles were produced in the examination of L. monocytogenes isolates with RAPD analysis with HLWL74 and HLWL85 primers, respectively. This is the first report on the genotyping of L. monocytogenes isolates from various sources in Turkey. This study has highlighted the need for improved control and epidemiologic strategies to prevent the transmission of Listeria spp. to animals and humans.


Yibar A.,Uludag University | Okutan B.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Guzel S.,Uludag University
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of boiling on nitrofuran 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) residues in eggs. The use of furazolidone in food-producing animals is banned within the EU and Turkey. The nitrofuran AOZ residues in raw and boiled eggs were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a chromotographic run of 20 min. The method validation was done according to the criteria laid down in Commission Decision No. 2002/657 EC. Linearity was proved between 0 to 1.5 μg/kg, decision limit (CCα) was 0.70 μg/kg, detection capability (CCβ) was 0.77 μg/kg, recovery values ranged between 88-97.9% and repeatability (CV) was 3-4.3%. The detected avarage nitrofuran AOZ residue level in 13 uncooked eggs by LC-MS/MS was 0.86±0.017 μg/kg which was increased to 2.42±0.037 μg/kg after boiling. In this study, it was surprisingly found that protein-bound side-chain metabolite, nitrofuran AOZ levels in eggs were significantly increased after boiling. This finding runs counter to the claim that heat process in general should decrease various antibiotic levels in food. The observed increase (P<0.001) in nitrofuran AOZ levels in boiled eggs relative to uncooked eggs may be due to enhanced efficiency of extraction in boiled samples. Therefore boiled eggs should be used for analysis of nitrofuran AOZ levels in order to obtain more reliable and more predictive results.


Agnone A.,University of Palermo | La Manna M.,University of Palermo | Sireci G.,University of Palermo | Puleio R.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Della Sicilia A Mirri | And 7 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

An effective vaccine that improves the control of contagious agalactia in Mediterranean regions would be beneficial for poorer farmers who use traditional husbandry methods for sheep and goat production. However while there is little published data on the efficacy of commercially available vaccines for contagious agalactia, evidence from the field suggests that some provide inadequate protection. This paper compares four different vaccine formulations, including a widely used commercial vaccine, using clinical signs and mycoplasma excretion as measures of protection in sheep. Results showed that protection afforded by the vaccines, following contact challenge with experimentally infected ewes, varied considerably. A live attenuated vaccine, presently forbidden in the European Union, conferred the best clinical protection, despite a lack of serological response, followed by a vaccine prepared by inactivating the mycoplasmas with saponin. A commercial vaccine inactivated with formalin provided no protection against this disease. © 2013.


Oteyaka M.O.,Dumlupinar University | Unal H.H.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Bilici N.,Directorate of Veterinary Affairs | Tasci E.,Dumlupinar University
Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. Methods: Two sizes of powder were prepared by different grinding methods; Powder A (coarse, d50=68.5 μm) and Powder B (fine, d50=19.1 μm). Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results: The powder was mainly composed of aragonite (CaCO3) and calcite (CaCO3). The XRD pattern of Powder A and B matched standard aragonite and calcite patterns. In addition, the calcium oxide (CaO) phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of 43.6% and 47.3% in Powders A and B, respectively. Conclusion: The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase. © 2013 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

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