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Pekel A.Y.,Istanbul University | Cakir E.O.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Polat M.,Istanbul University | Cakir K.,Istanbul University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to evaluate the correlations between chemical assay and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the nutrient content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) samples. The samples were analyzed by NIRS or wet chemical procedures. Color [CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*)] characteristics of the samples were measured in triplicates with a chroma meter. Highest CV were observed for fiber fragments in wheat DDGS and for fat in corn DDGS among the nutrients tested. Correlation coefficients showed good agreement between NIRS and wet methods for the determination of selected nutrients except DM. Strong negative correlations were found between ash and ADF (-0.811), ash and NDF (-0.649), and ash and CF (-0.757) when determined by wet analyses. Phosphorus and gross energy had negative correlations with fiber fragments. The values for a*were found to be inversely correlated to the CF, ADF, and NDF contents found in both methods. On the contrary, there was a positive correlation between a*values and ash content in both methods. Positive correlations also were found between fat content and L*and b*values of the ingredients. Negative correlations were found between b*value and CP, Arg, Ile, Gly, and Pro levels. Based on these results, NIRS is a reliable method depending on the calibration quality, and the correlations found among nutrients and between color and nutrients must be taken into consideration to predict nutrient content of DDGS. No antibiotic residue was found in the samples. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source

Duncombe L.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Commander N.J.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Erdenlig S.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | McGiven J.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Stack J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

Brucella abortus, a smooth strain of the genus Brucella, is the causative agent of bovine brucellosis. To support the ongoing development of diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis, the use of Protein Saver cards (Whatman) for bovine blood serum and plasma sample collection has been evaluated. These cards offer significant logistical and safety alternatives to transporting and storing liquid samples and may aid in diagnostic programs and validation studies. To evaluate the utility of these cards, 204 bovine blood serum samples from Brucella-infected and noninfected animals were stored on and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. Anti-Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antibody titers for the serum eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed original serum samples by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a highly significant correlation between titers from the serum eluates and the unprocessed sera. Therefore, under these circumstances, serum eluates and unprocessed serum samples may be used interchangeably. Blood plasma from 113 mitogen-stimulated whole-blood samples was added to and eluted from the Protein Saver cards. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) titers in the plasma eluates were compared to those of the unprocessed plasma samples obtained by IFN-γ ELISA. The results showed a significant correlation between the plasma eluates and the unprocessed plasma samples. To derive a signal in the plasma eluate, it was necessary to develop a novel and highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of IFN-γ. The serum samples stored on cards at room temperature over a 10-day period showed little variation in antibody titers. However, the plasma eluates showed a progressive loss of IFN-γ recovery over 10 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Cetinkaya F.,Uludag University | Yibar A.,Uludag University | Soyutemiz G.E.,Uludag University | Okutan B.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2012

Analysis of residual levels of tetracyclines (TCs) in chicken meat was performed using a validated liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Overall, the recoveries for TCs ranged from 56.9% to 101.2%, with standard deviations of 4.5-13.2%. Detection limits ranged from 7.9 to 14.6 μgkg-1. In four of 60 samples, doxycycline (DXC) was determined in a range from 19.9 to 35.6 μgkg-1; and in one sample tetracycline was detected at 17.2 μgkg-1. Chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were not detected in any of the tested samples. This study indicates that chicken meat sold in Bursa, Turkey, contained some residues of TCs. Therefore, stricter regulations for the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry and the monitoring of drug residues in chicken meat prior to marketing are needed. Finally, this method has been applied successfully for the confirmation of TCs in chicken meat. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

Agnone A.,University of Palermo | La Manna M.,University of Palermo | Sireci G.,University of Palermo | Puleio R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia A. Mirri | And 7 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

An effective vaccine that improves the control of contagious agalactia in Mediterranean regions would be beneficial for poorer farmers who use traditional husbandry methods for sheep and goat production. However while there is little published data on the efficacy of commercially available vaccines for contagious agalactia, evidence from the field suggests that some provide inadequate protection. This paper compares four different vaccine formulations, including a widely used commercial vaccine, using clinical signs and mycoplasma excretion as measures of protection in sheep. Results showed that protection afforded by the vaccines, following contact challenge with experimentally infected ewes, varied considerably. A live attenuated vaccine, presently forbidden in the European Union, conferred the best clinical protection, despite a lack of serological response, followed by a vaccine prepared by inactivating the mycoplasmas with saponin. A commercial vaccine inactivated with formalin provided no protection against this disease. © 2013. Source

Yibar A.,Uludag University | Okutan B.,Pendik Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Guzel S.,Uludag University
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of boiling on nitrofuran 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) residues in eggs. The use of furazolidone in food-producing animals is banned within the EU and Turkey. The nitrofuran AOZ residues in raw and boiled eggs were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a chromotographic run of 20 min. The method validation was done according to the criteria laid down in Commission Decision No. 2002/657 EC. Linearity was proved between 0 to 1.5 μg/kg, decision limit (CCα) was 0.70 μg/kg, detection capability (CCβ) was 0.77 μg/kg, recovery values ranged between 88-97.9% and repeatability (CV) was 3-4.3%. The detected avarage nitrofuran AOZ residue level in 13 uncooked eggs by LC-MS/MS was 0.86±0.017 μg/kg which was increased to 2.42±0.037 μg/kg after boiling. In this study, it was surprisingly found that protein-bound side-chain metabolite, nitrofuran AOZ levels in eggs were significantly increased after boiling. This finding runs counter to the claim that heat process in general should decrease various antibiotic levels in food. The observed increase (P<0.001) in nitrofuran AOZ levels in boiled eggs relative to uncooked eggs may be due to enhanced efficiency of extraction in boiled samples. Therefore boiled eggs should be used for analysis of nitrofuran AOZ levels in order to obtain more reliable and more predictive results. Source

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