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George Town, Malaysia

Subramaniam P.,Mount Isa Base Hospital | Ho J.J.,Penang Medical College | Davis P.G.,University of Melbourne
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Cohort studies have suggested that nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) starting in the immediate postnatal period before the onset of respiratory disease (prophylactic CPAP) may be beneficial in reducing the need for intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm or low birth weight infants. Objectives: To determine if prophylactic nasal CPAP started soon after birth regardless of respiratory status in the very preterm or very low birth weight infant reduces the use of IPPV and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) without adverse effects. Search methods: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 31 January 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 31 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 31 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Selection criteria: All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation of very preterm infants (under 32 weeks' gestation) or less than 1500 grams at birth were eligible. We included trials if they compared prophylactic nasal CPAP started soon after birth regardless of the respiratory status of the infant with 'standard' methods of treatment such as IPPV, oxygen therapy or supportive treatment. We excluded studies where prophylactic CPAP was compared with CPAP along with other interventions. Data collection and analysis: We used the standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent study selection, assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by two authors. Data were analysed using risk ratio (RR) and the meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effect model. Main results: Seven trials recruiting 3123 babies were included in the meta-analysis. Four trials recruiting 765 babies compared CPAP with supportive care and three trials (2364 infants) compared CPAP with mechanical ventilation. Apart from a lack of blinding of the intervention all studies were of low risk of bias. In the comparison of CPAP with supportive care there was a reduction in failed treatment (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.98; typical risk difference (RD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.02; 4 studies, 765 infants, very low quality evidence). There was no reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or mortality. In trials comparing CPAP with assisted ventilation with or without surfactant, CPAP resulted in a small but clinically significant reduction in the incidence of BPD at 36 weeks, (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.99; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.00; 3 studies, 772 infants, moderate-quality evidence); and death or BPD (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.97; typical RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.01; 3 studies, 1042 infants, moderate-quality evidence). There was also a clinically important reduction in the need for mechanical ventilation (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.59; typical RD -0.49, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.39; 2 studies, 760 infants, moderate-quality evidence); and the use of surfactant in the CPAP group (typical RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.73; typical RD -0.41, 95% CI -0.54 to -0.28; 3 studies, 1744 infants, moderate-quality evidence). Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to evaluate prophylactic CPAP compared to oxygen therapy and other supportive care. However when compared to mechanical ventilation prophylactic nasal CPAP in very preterm infants reduces the need for mechanical ventilation and surfactant and also reduces the incidence of BPD and death or BPD. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Khoo S.B.,Penang Medical College
Malaysian Family Physician | Year: 2010

Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing. © Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia.

Tan M.L.,Penang Medical College
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

About 5% of schoolchildren have a specific learning disorder, defined as an unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematic skills not as a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in the brain and retina are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities. To assess the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation for children with specific learning disorders, on learning outcomes. We searched the following databases in April 2012: CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to April Week 2 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 16), PsycINFO (1806 to April 2012), ERIC (1966 to April 2012), Science Citation Index (1970 to 20 April 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 20 April 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1970 to 20 April 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Social Sciences and Humanites (1970 to 20 April 2012), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2012, Issue 4), DARE (2012, Issue 2) , ZETOC (24 April 2012) and WorldCat (24 April 2012). We searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov on 24 April 2012. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles identified by the searches. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with placebo or no treatment in children aged below 18 years with specific learning disabilities diagnosed using DSM-IV, ICD-10 or equivalent criteria. We intended to include participants with co-existing developmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. Two authors (ML and KH) independently screened the titles and abstracts of the search results and eliminated all studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted for missing information and clarifications when needed. We did not find any studies suitable for inclusion in the review. One study is awaiting classification as we were unable to get any information from the study author. There is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusion about the use of PUFAs for children with specific learning disorders. There is a need for well designed randomised studies to support or refute the use of PUFAs in this group of children.

Kalra S.,Bharti Research Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology | Plata-Que T.,East Avenue Medical Center | Kumar D.,Andhra Medical College | Mumtaz M.,Penang Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

We compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (BIAsp 30) and insulin glargine in Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs).In a 26-week, open-labelled, randomised, parallel-group, multinational, multicentre, treat-to-target trial, 155 insulin-naïve Asian subjects were treated with either BIAsp 30 or insulin glargine, both in combination with metformin and glimepiride.Change in HbA 1c at end of treatment with BIAsp 30 was superior to insulin glargine (BIAsp 30-glargine=-0.36%, 95% CI [-0.64; -0.07], p=0.015). Mean self-measured plasma glucose (SMPG) at bedtime was significantly lower with BIAsp 30 than insulin glargine (7.98±0.34mmol/L vs. 9.16±0.33mmol/L, p=0.0078). Incidences of minor and daytime hypoglycaemia were higher with BIAsp 30 than those with glargine, but the difference did not reach the statistical significance. No difference was seen in nocturnal hypoglycaemia. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatments, with low incidence of serious adverse events and major hypoglycaemia. Mean body weight increased slightly in both groups.In insulin-naïve Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled with OADs, once-daily BIAsp 30 is superior to insulin glargine. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Swe L.A.,Beneficial Partner Group | Rashid A.,Penang Medical College
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Myanmar has one of the largest HIV positive populations in Asia and injecting drug use represents one of the major causes of HIV transmission. Aim: the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and the risk behaviours among injecting drug users in Myanmar. Methods: A cross sectional study was designed to collect the data among injecting drug users enlisted in the state harm reduction programme in selected regions. Results: Of the 590 participants, 152 (25.8%) were HIV positive. Female (OR 5.96. 95% CI 1.31;30.45), using 'used syringes' (OR 1.81. 95% CI 1.23;2.68) and sharing syringe when first used drugs (OR 2.98. 95% CI 2.00;4.44) and injecting drugs past six months (OR 3.36. 95% CI 1.50;6.15) were significant risk factors. Age (p=<0.001) and frequency of drug use per day (p=0.022) were also statistically significant. HIV positive IDUs were more likely to use disposable syringes (OR 3.0. 95% CI 1.50;6.15) and were less likely to share syringes (OR 3.41. 95% CI 1.71;6.96) during their last drug use. HIV positive IDUs were also more likely to check for VDRL (OR 1.89. 95% CI 1.26;2.84) and more likely to be VDRL positive (OR 1.90. 95% CI 1.11;3.26). Conclusion: HIV positive respondents used disposable syringes and few shared syringes the last time they injected drugs. This could probably be due to the education they received in the needle exchange programme centres.

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