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George Town, Malaysia

Rashid A.K.,Georgetown College | Azizah A.M.,Tingkat 37 | Rohana S.,Penang Hospital
Medical Journal of Malaysia | Year: 2012

Cognitive impairment is a common psychiatric problem among the elderly. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment among the elderly Malays living in a rural community in north Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted among the elderly population of 22 villages in north Malaysia. Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire was used to determine the cognition status. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13. The prevalence of cognitive impairment among the older adults in these villages was 11% (n=46). There was an increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment with increasing age (p<0.05). Being unmarried (OR 2.31), unemployed (OR 2.74) and living alone (OR 2.32) were significantly associated with the risk of being cognitively impairment. Being unemployed (OR 2.29) was a significant predictor variable for cognitive impairment. Similar to other studies conducted in Malaysia the prevalence of cognitive impairment was high. Source


Ong H.T.,HT Ong Heart Clinic | Ong L.M.,Penang Hospital | Tan T.E.,Penang Adventist Hospital | Chean K.Y.,Penang Medical College
Medical Journal of Malaysia | Year: 2013

The clycoxygenase (COX) enzyme forms locally active prostaglandins responsible for producing inflammation and pain. Classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit the COX-2 enzyme that produces inflammatory prostaglandins as well as the COX-1 enzyme that produces gastric mucosa protecting prostaglandins. By specifically inhibiting only the COX-2 enzyme, coxibs thus reduce pain but do not damage the gastric mucosa. However, COX-2 at the vascular endothelium produces antithrombotic prostaglandins, and so by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme, the coxibs promote thrombosis. Rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn because of the adverse cardiovascular events they induce. Amongst presently available coxibs cardiovascular risk is highest with enterocoxib and lowest with celecoxib. NSAIDS also increase cardiovascular events, the risk is highest with diclofenac and lowest with naproxen. Paracetamol and corticosteroids induce hypertension, while steroids also adversely affect the heart from metabolic change as well as fluid retention. Aspirin is an anti-thrombotic agent because of its ability to inhibit the COX-1 enzyme that produces the pro-aggregatory thromboxane. However, it increases gastrointestinal bleeding, can promote fluid retention and is nephrotoxic, all of which may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients at especially high risk of cardiovascular events from analgesic use include the elderly, and those with heart failure, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive airway disease and previous myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events can occur within a week of initiation of analgesic treatment. Source


Hassan Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Al-Ramahi R.J.,An Najah National University | Aziz N.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ghazali R.,Penang Hospital
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background and objective: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a common cause of hospitalization and in-hospital complications. The aim of this study was to determine the rates, types, severity and preventability of pre-admission and in-hospital ADEs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: This study was conducted at the nephrology unit at Penang General Hospital. A random sample of 300 adult patients with CKD was included. Medical records and charts were reviewed by a clinical pharmacist every work day to find any evidence of errors or complications related to drug use. If a suspected ADE was found, further investigations were carried out to assess the causality, severity and preventability of the event. Results: Atotal of 159 ADEs were reported in 122 (40.7%) of the patients. We found 86 suspected pre-admission ADEs in 68 (22.7%) of the patients. These were either the cause of admission for some patients or discovered by the initial physical examination and laboratory investigations. During hospitalization, 64 (21.3%) patients had 73 suspected ADEs. Out of the total 159 suspected ADEs, it was highly probable that 31 events were due to medication, while 61 were of lower probability, and 67 were merely possible. A total of 48 (30.2%) events was considered preventable. 46 events (28.9%) were serious, 93 (58.5%) were less serious and 20 (12.6%) were insignificant. The medication classes most frequently involved in ADEs were diuretics, antibacterials, drugs used for diabetes mellitus, antithrombotic agents, mineral supplements and antihypertensive drugs. Conclusion: ADEs are very common in hospitalized CKD patients, and some of these events are preventable. The service of a clinical pharmacist may help to reduce ADEs. ©2010 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle. Source


Capeding M.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Tran N.H.,Pasteur Institute Ho Chi Minh City | Hadinegoro S.R.S.,University of Indonesia | Ismail H.I.H.M.,Pediatric Institute | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the fi rst report of a phase 3 vaccine effi cacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the effi cacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confi rmed dengue in children.Methods We did an observer-masked, randomised controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial in fi ve countries in the Asia- Pacifi c region. Between June 3, and Dec 1, 2011, healthy children aged 214 years were randomly assigned (2:1), by computer-generated permuted blocks of six with an interactive voice or web response system, to receive three injections of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), or placebo, at months 0, 6, and 12. Randomisation was stratifi ed by age and site. Participants were followed up until month 25. Trial staff responsible for the preparation and administration of injections were unmasked to group allocation, but were not included in the follow-up of the participants; allocation was concealed from the study sponsor, investigators, and parents and guardians. Our primary objective was to assess protective effi cacy against symptomatic, virologically confi rmed dengue, irrespective of disease severity or serotype, that took place more than 28 days after the third injection. The primary endpoint was for the lower bound of the 95% CI of vaccine effi cacy to be greater than 25%. Analysis was by intention to treat and per procotol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01373281.Findings We randomly assigned 10 275 children to receive either vaccine (n=6851) or placebo (n=3424), of whom 6710 (98%) and 3350 (98%), respectively, were included in the primary analysis. 250 cases of virologically confi rmed dengue took place more than 28 days after the third injection (117 [47%] in the vaccine group and 133 [53%] in the control group). The primary endpoint was achieved with 565% (95% CI 438664) effi cacy. We recorded 647 serious adverse events (402 [62%] in the vaccine group and 245 [38%] in the control group). 54 (1%) children in the vaccine group and 33 (1%) of those in the control group had serious adverse events that happened within 28 days of vaccination. Serious adverse events were consistent with medical disorders in this age group and were mainly infections and injuries.Interpretation Our fi ndings show that dengue vaccine is effi cacious when given as three injections at months 0, 6, and 12 to children aged 214 years in endemic areas in Asia, and has a good safety profi le. Vaccination could reduce the incidence of symptomatic infection and hospital admission and has the potential to provide an important public health benefi t.Funding Sanofi Pasteur. © © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ng R.S.,Penang Hospital | Chong C.P.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Surgical site infections are the most common nosocomial infection among surgical patients. Patients who experience surgical site infections are associated with prolonged hospital stay, rehospitalisation, increased morbidity and mortality, and costs. Consequently, surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP), which is a very brief course of antibiotic given just before the surgery, has been introduced to prevent the occurrence of surgical site infections. The efficacy of SAP depends on several factors, including selection of appropriate antibiotic, timing of administration, dosage, duration of prophylaxis and route of administration. In many institutions around the globe, evidence-based guidelines have been developed to advance the proper use of SAP. This paper aims to review the studies on surgeons' adherence to SAP guidelines and factors influencing their adherence. A wide variation of overall compliance towards SAP guidelines was noted, ranging from 0% to 71.9%. The misuses of prophylactic antibiotics are commonly seen, particularly inappropriate choice and prolonged duration of administration. Lack of awareness of the available SAP guidelines, influence of initial training, personal preference and influence from colleagues were among the factors which hindered the surgeons' adherence to SAP guidelines. Immediate actions are needed to improve the adherence rate as inappropriate use of SAP can lead to the emergence of a strain of resistant bacteria resulting in a number of costs to the healthcare system. Corrective measures to improve SAP adherence include development of guidelines, education and effective dissemination of guidelines to targeted surgeons and routine audit of antibiotic utilisation by a dedicated infection control team. Source

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