Penang General Hospital

Georgetown Penang, Malaysia

Penang General Hospital

Georgetown Penang, Malaysia
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Siow A.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital | Ng S.,Penang General Hospital
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology | Year: 2011

The objectives of this retrospective case series were to report our experience with laparoscopic management of recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary care center and to present a review of the literature. Four patients experienced recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy, and 1 patient had 2 consecutive recurrences. Laparoscopic surgery was performed to treat recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy in all 4 patients. These 4 cases together with 10 cases collated from the literature review confirm that this entity is rare. Cornual ectopic pregnancy can recur as early as 4 months and as late as 5 years after the first ectopic pregnancy. There seems to be no correlation between the treatment method of the first ectopic pregnancy and the risk of recurrence. The etiology of recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy is not fully understood, although it shares similar risk factors with tubal ectopic pregnancy. Both medical therapy and surgery are used to treat recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy, with surgery often performed via laparotomy. These 4 cases constitute the largest case series of recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy treated laparoscopically. Our experience with laparoscopic management of recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary care center reveals that it is effective and safe. © 2011 AAGL.


Atif M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Atif M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Sulaiman S.A.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Shafie A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: According to the World Health Organization's recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months).Methods: The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).Results: Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB included high-grade sputum and presence of lung cavities at the start of treatment, being alcoholic and elderly. Likewise, concurrent diabetes, presence of lung cavities at the start of the treatment and being a smoker were the significant predictors of longer treatment duration.Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the treatment success rate among the new smear positive PTB patients was less than the success target set by World Health Organization. The proportion of patients in the successful outcome category may be increased by closely monitoring the treatment progress of the patients with aforementioned high risk characteristics. Similarly, more aggressive follow-up of the treatment defaulters and transferred out patients could also improve the TB treatment success rate. © 2014 Atif et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chng H.H.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Tan B.E.,Penang General Hospital | Teh C.L.,Sarawak General Hospital | Lian T.Y.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Lupus | Year: 2010

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may be due to the disease itself, side-effects of medications, or non-SLE causes. However, GI manifestations of lupus attract far less attention than the other major organ involvements, are infrequently reviewed and rarely documented in published lupus databases or cohort studies including those from countries in Asia. According to three reports from two countries in Asia, the cumulative prevalence of SLE GI manifestations range from 3.8% to 18%. In this review, we focus on three major GI manifestations in patients from Asian countries: lupus enteritis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and protein-losing gastroenteropathy, for which early recognition improves outcome and reduces morbidity and mortality. © 2010 The Author(s).


Lee W.C.,Penang General Hospital | Yusof M.M.,University of Malaya | Lau F.N.,Hospital Kuala Lumpur | Ee Phua V.C.,University of Malaya
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: The use of preoperative chemoirradiation is the commonest treatment strategy employed in Malaysia for locally advanced rectal cancer. We need to determine the local control and survival rates for comparison with established rates in the literature. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study analyzed all newly diagnosed patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent long course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2010. The aim of the study was to determine the radiological response post radiotherapy, pathological response including circumferential resection margin (CRM) status, 3 years local control, 3 years overall survival (OS) and 3 years disease free survival (DFS). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis were used to determine survival outcomes. Results: A total of 507 patients with rectal cancer underwent RT at HKL. Sixty seven who underwent long course preoperative RT were eligible for this study. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years old with a range of 26-78 years. The median tumour location was 6 cm from the anal verge. Most patients had suspicion of mesorectum involvement (95.5%) while 28.4% of patients had enlarged pelvic nodes on staging CT scan. All patients underwent preoperative chemo-irradiation except for five who had preoperative RT alone. Only 38 patients underwent definitive surgery (56.7%). Five patients were deemed to be inoperable radiologically and 3 patients were found to have unresectable disease intraoperatively. The remaining 21 patients defaulted surgery (31.3%). The median time from completion of RT to surgery was 8 weeks (range 5.6 to 29.4 weeks). Fifteen patients (39.5%) had surgery more than 8 weeks after completion of RT. Complete pathological response was noted in 4 patients (10.5%). The pathological CRM positive rate after RT was 18.4%. With a median follow-up of 38.8 months, the 3 year local control rate was 67%. The 3 years rate for CRM positive (<2 mm), CRM clear (>2 mm) and pCR groups were 0%, 88.1% and 100% respectively (p-value of 0.007). The 3 year OS and DFS were 57.3% and 44.8% respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the approach of long course preoperative chemoirradiation for rectal cancer needs to be re-examined in our local setting. The high rate of local recurrence is worrying and is mainly due to patient defaulting post-preoperative chemoirradiation or delayed definitive surgery.


Liang S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Singh M.,Penang General Hospital | Gam L.-H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Disease Markers | Year: 2010

Female breast cancer is one of the leading causes of female mortality worldwide. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of the women in Malaysia, the Chinese have the highest number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was applied in this study to identify changes in the protein profile of cancerous tissues compared with normal tissues from 18 patients; 8 Chinese, 6 Malay and 4 Indian were analysed. Twenty-four differentially expressed hydrophilic proteins were identified. We evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarkers for infiltrating ductal carcinoma based on their ethnic-specific expressions. Three of the upregulated proteins, calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein zeta and 14-3-3 protein eta, were found to be expressed at a significantly higher level in the cancerous breast tissues when compared with the normal tissues in cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The upregulation in expression was particularly dominant in the Malay cohort. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Loh B.-I.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Loh B.-I.,Penang General Hospital | Sathyasurya D.R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamed H.J.J.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A crosssectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, -0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.


Lee H.-H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Lim C.-A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Cheong Y.-T.,Penang General Hospital | Singh M.,Penang General Hospital | Gam L.-H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Breast cancer metastasis primarily happens through lymphatic system, where the extent of lymph node metastasis is the major factor influencing staging, prognosis and therapeutic decision of the disease. We aimed to study the protein expression changes in different N (regional lymph nodes) stages of breast cancer. Protein expression profiles of breast cancerous and adjacent normal tissues were mapped by proteomics approach that comprises of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Calreticulin and tropomyosin alpha 3 chains were the common up-regulated proteins in N0, N1 and N2 stages of breast cancer. Potential biomarker for each N stage was HSP 70 for N0, 80 k protein H precursor and PDI for N1 stage while 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein was found useful for N2 stage. In addition, significant up-regulation of PDI A3 was detected only in the metastasized breast cancer. The up-regulation expression of these proteins in cancerous tissues can potentially use as indicators for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of different N stages of breast cancer. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Abdulameer S.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Syed Sulaiman S.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hassali M.A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Subramaniam K.,Penang General Hospital | Sahib M.N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2012

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients. © 2012 Abdulameer et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Hasan S.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Bahari M.B.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Babar Z.U.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ganesan V.,Penang General Hospital
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Introduction: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilisation pattern and seizure outcome of newer and older antiepileptic drugs in paediatric clinical practice in a Malaysian hospital setting. Methods: Over a two-month period, all paediatric epilepsy patients from Penang General Hospital, Malaysia who were diagnosed according to the classification of the International League Against Epilepsy were followed up prospectively, and the patients' information was gathered with the help of a validated data collection form. This included demographic characteristics, monotherapy and polytherapy of antiepileptic drugs, as well as the number of seizures experienced. Results: Partial seizures, including complex and simple partial seizures (47.2 percent), followed by generalised seizures (40 percent), were the most common seizure types found in this study. An average of 1.51 antiepileptic drugs per patient was prescribed, with 54.3 percent of the patients on monotherapy and 45.7 percent on polytherapy. Overall, sodium valproate was the most frequently prescribed antiepileptic drug (36.8 percent), followed by carbamazepine (30.2 percent) and lamotrigine (10.4 percent). Carbamazepine was the most frequently prescribed monotherapy (28.6 percent), followed by sodium valproate (17.1 percent). The newer antiepileptic drugs were also found to be used as monotherapy in 7.2 percent of the cases. Moreover, a significant difference was observed between the older and newer antiepileptic drugs in terms of the number of seizures experienced (p = 0.027). Most (75 percent) of the seizure-free patients were on carbamazepine monotherapy. Conclusion: Monotherapy was the most frequently used remedy in all forms of epilepsy. Overall, sodium valproate was the most commonly used drug, while carbamazepine was found to be more frequently used as monotherapy. There was a significant difference found between the older and newer antiepileptic drugs, with 87.5 percent of seizure-free patients on older antiepileptic drugs.


Khor S.M.,Penang General Hospital | Mohd Baidi B.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Introduction: Malnutrition is common in cancer patients. Generally, it is believed that the resting energy expenditure (REE) is elevated in cancer patients and this contributes to the development of malnutrition. Thus, to be able to assess the REE is important in planning adequate nutrition support. Methods: A crosssectional study was carried out to assess the REE in patients with solid tumour (n=25), leukemia (n=25) and healthy subjects (n=50) by using the indirect calorimetry method under standard conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the measured REE among patients with solid tumour, leukemia and the control group (p=0.534). By contrast, there was a significant difference between the REE/kg FFM in solid tumour patients compared to the leukemia group and the healthy subjects, (p=0.049 and p=0.002). The REE derived from the Harris Benedict Equation was found to be significantly higher than the measured REE. The stress factor for patients with solid tumour was 1.35 and that for leukemia patients was 1.36. Conclusion: The REE/kg FFM in the cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy appeared to be higher than expected compared to healthy subjects. The Harris Benedict Equation (HBE) was found to over-estimate the REE of cancer patients in the study. As the total energy expenditure (TEE) is estimated by multiplying the REE with the stress factor and physical activity factor, the overestimated REE from HBE will further increase the risk of overfeeding in this population.

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