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Murray-Rust P.,Unilever | Townsend J.A.,Unilever | Adams S.E.,Unilever | Phadungsukanan W.,Pembroke Street | Thomas J.,Daresbury Laboratory
Journal of Cheminformatics | Year: 2011

The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs. © 2011 Murray-Rust et al; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. Source


Divitini G.,Pembroke Street | Plank N.O.V.,University of Cambridge | Snaith H.J.,University of Oxford | Welland M.E.,University of Cambridge | Ducati C.E.,Pembroke Street
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2010

Recently ZnO nanowire films have been used in very promising and inexpensive dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). It was found that the performance of the devices can be enhanced by functionalising the nanowires with a thin metal oxide coating. This nm-scale shell is believed to tailor the electronic structure of the nanowire, and help the absorption of the dye. Core-shell ZnO nanowire structures are synthesised at low temperature (below 120°C) by consecutive hydrothermal growth steps. Different materials are investigated for the coating, including Mg, Al, Cs and Zr oxides. High resolution TEM is used to characterise the quality of both the nanowire core and the shell, and to monitor the thickness and the degree of crystallisation of the oxide coating. The interface between the nanowire core and the outer shell is investigated in order to understand the adhesion of the coating, and give valuable feedback for the synthesis process. Nanowire films are packaged into dye-sensitised solar cell prototypes; samples coated with ZrO2 and MgO show the largest enhancement in the photocurrent and open-circuit voltage and look very promising for further improvement. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Shin Y.J.,Northwestern University | Ringe E.,Pembroke Street | Personick M.L.,Northwestern University | Cardinal M.F.,Northwestern University | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

A centrifugal route for separating small {110}-faceted gold nanostructures, namely rhombic dodecahedra (RD) and triangular bipyramids (BPs), which form simultaneously during synthesis and cannot be separated by means of conventional filtration methods, is presented. The centrifuged solution shows two distinct bands: i) RD and ii) BPs, as verified in the corresponding scanning electron microscopy images. The sorted BPs show a refractive index dependence 2.5 times that of the as-synthesized, unsorted mixture. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Vilatela J.J.,Pembroke Street | Windle A.H.,Pembroke Street
Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

A fiber made of carbon nanotubes is shown to resemble a conventional yarn in terms of its structure, composed of discrete fibrillar sub-units, and its properties, such as high flexibility in bending, cutting resistance and 100% knot efficiency. Its combination of yarn-like character and tensile properties in the high-performance range make this CNT fiber an exceptional new material. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Oberg E.K.,Pembroke Street | Dunleavy C.S.,Pembroke Street | Bourke P.,TenCate Advanced Armour | Clyne T.W.,Pembroke Street
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2013

An electrical methodology has been developed to monitor crack advance during ballistic impact. Velocities of radial cracks can be measured and information about development of the crack pattern can be obtained. This is done via a grid of thin gold tracks, printed onto the front or back surfaces of the sample. These elements were incorporated into an electrical circuit and high speed data acquisition was carried out during impact. The fracture behaviour of two grades of alumina has been examined. Hard spherical projectiles were used, with a range of impact velocities. An increase in radial crack velocity was detected with increasing impact velocity, within this range. Differences in crack velocities were also noted between the two types of alumina. Crack speed values are in good agreement with data reported previously for similar systems, obtained using high speed photography. The methodology proposed here looks to be reliable, convenient and economically attractive. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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