Stone H.J.,Pembroke St |
Shirzadi A.A.,Open University Milton Keynes |
Francis J.A.,University of Manchester |
Kundu S.,Pembroke St |
And 2 more authors.
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining | Year: 2011
Residual stresses that arise as a result of welding can cause distortion, and also have significant implications for structural integrity. Martensitic filler metals with low transformation temperatures can efficiently reduce the residual stresses generated during welding, because the strains associated with the transformation compensate for thermal contraction strains during cooling. However, it is vital that a low weld transformation temperature is not obtained at the expense of other important material properties. This article outlines the alloy design process used to develop appropriate low transformation temperature filler materials for the mitigation of residual stresses in both low alloy ferritic and austenitic stainless steel welds. Residual stresses in single pass, 6 mm bead in groove welds, on 12 mm thick plates, have been measured and compared against those obtained with commercially available conventional austenitic and ferritic filler materials. The filler metals developed here exceeded requirements in terms of weld mechanical properties, while significantly reducing the maximum residual stress in the weld and heat affected zone. © 2011 Institute of Materials.
Cave G.,Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital |
Harvey M.,Pembroke St |
Willers J.,Western Sussex Hospital NHS Trust |
Uncles D.,Western Sussex Hospital NHS Trust |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2014
The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote has prompted significant academic and clinical interest. Between August 2009 and August 2012, data from cases of ILE use in intoxicated patients in different hospitals on different continents were voluntarily entered into a registry based on the world wide web (www.lipidregistry.org). Here, we report data from this project. Participating centers were given access to the registry following institutional subscription. Specifically sought were details of the individual patients' presenting condition, indications for ILE use, ILE administration regimen, potential complications, and of clinical outcome. Forty-eight uses of ILE were reported from 61 participating centers. Ten cases of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were reported; all (10/10) survived. Thirty-eight cases of intoxication by other agents were reported [30 decreased conscious state, 8 cardiovascular collapse (3 deaths)]. There was an elevation in GCS (p < 0.0001) and increased systolic blood pressure (p = 0.012) from immediately prior to ILE administration to 30 min after use. One serious and two minor adverse effects of ILE use were recorded in 48 reported cases (one case of bronchospastic reaction, one case of hyperamylasemia and one case of interference with laboratory testing). In this series of cases reported to the registry, improvements were seen for GCS in patients with central nervous system toxicity and in systolic blood pressure in shocked patients over a short time frame after the injection of ILE. Few adverse effects were recorded. Clinical trials and the reporting of drug concentrations after ILE use are necessary to further elucidate the role of ILE in clinical toxicology. © 2014 American College of Medical Toxicology.