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Kwon I.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Kato M.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Xiang S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Wu L.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

The low-complexity (LC) domains of the products of the fused in sarcoma (FUS), Ewings sarcoma (EWS), and TAF15 genes are translocated onto a variety of different DNA-binding domains and thereby assist in driving the formation of cancerous cells. In the context of the translocated fusion proteins, these LC sequences function as transcriptional activation domains. Here, we show that polymeric fibers formed from these LC domains directly bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in a manner reversible by phosphorylation of the iterated, heptad repeats of the CTD. Mutational analysis indicates that the degree of binding between the CTD and the LC domain polymers correlates with the strength of transcriptional activation. These studies offer a simple means of conceptualizing how RNA polymerase II is recruited to active genes in its unphosphorylated state and released for elongation following phosphorylation of the CTD. PaperFlick © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Pratt L.M.,City University of New York | Dixon D.D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Dixon D.D.,Peloton Therapeutics | Tius M.A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
ChemistryOpen | Year: 2014

A combined computational and 13C NMR study was used to investigate the formation of mixed aggregates of 1-methoxyallenyllithium and lithium chloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The observed and calculated chemical shifts, as well as the calculated free energies of mixed aggregate formation (MP2/6-31+G(d)), are consistent with the formation of a mixed dimer as the major species in solution. Free energies of mixed dimer, trimer, and tetramer formation were calculated by using the B3LYP and MP2 methods and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. The two methods generated different predictions of which mixed aggregates will be formed, with B3LYP/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed trimers and tetramers in THF solution, and MP2/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed dimers. Formation of the sterically unhindered mixed dimers is also consistent with the enhanced reactivity of these compounds in the presence of lithium chloride. The spectra are also consistent with some residual 1-methoxyallenyllithium tetramer, as well as small amounts of higher mixed aggregates. Although neither computational method is perfect, for this particular system, the calculated free energies derived using the MP2 method are in better agreement with experimental data than those derived using the B3LYP method. Dance of the dimers: A computational and 13C NMR study was performed on 1-methoxyallenyllithium and lithium chloride. Free energies of mixed dimer, trimer, and tetramer formation were calculated by using the B3LYP and MP2 methods. The results are consistent with formation of a mixed dimer and possibly smaller amounts of higher mixed aggregates. Furthermore, for this system, calculated free energy values determined using the MP2 method were found to be in better agreement with experimental data than those calculated using the B3LYP method. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source


Lenhart R.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Kirov S.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Desilva H.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Cao J.,Bristol Myers Squibb | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2015

The BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) proteins bind acetylated histones and recruit protein complexes to promote transcription elongation. In hematologic cancers, BET proteins have been shown to regulate expression of MYC and other genes that are important to disease pathology. Pharmacologic inhibition of BET protein binding has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in MYC-dependent cancers, such as multiple myeloma. In this study, we demonstrate that small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth inhibition by the BET inhibitor JQ1. JQ1 treatment has no impact onMYCprotein expression, but results in downregulation of the lineage-specific transcription factor ASCL1. SCLC cells that are sensitive to JQ1 are also sensitive to ASCL1 depletion by RNAi. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the binding of the BET protein BRD4 to the ASCL1 enhancer, and the ability of JQ1 to disrupt the interaction. The importance of ASCL1 as a potential driver oncogene in SCLC is further underscored by the observation that ASCL1 is overexpressed in >50% of SCLC specimens, an extent greater than that observed for other putative oncogenes (MYC, MYCN, and SOX2) previously implicated in SCLC. Our studies have provided a mechanistic basis for the sensitivity of SCLC to BET inhibition and a rationale for the clinical development of BET inhibitors in this disease with high unmet medical need. © 2015 AACR. Source


Kilgore J.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Du X.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Du X.,Peloton Therapeutics | Melito L.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

A novel scintillation proximity high throughput assay (SPA) to identify inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases was developed and used to screen over 180,000 compounds. The majority of the validated hits shared a quinone core and several were found to generate the reactive oxygen species, H2O 2. Inhibition of the production ofH2O2 by the addition of catalase blocked the ability of this group of compounds to inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. However, a related compound, SW155246, was identified that existed in an already reduced form of the quinone. This compound did not generate H2O2, and catalase did not block its ability to inhibit DNA methyltransferase. SW155246 showed a 30-fold preference for inhibition of human DNMT1 versus human or murine DNMT3A or -3B, inhibited global methylation in HeLa cells, and reactivated expression of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in A549 cells. To our knowledge, this work represents the first description of selective chemical inhibitors of the DNMT1 enzyme. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Qiu M.,Pfizer | Peng Q.,Pfizer | Jiang I.,Pfizer | Jiang I.,Ambrx Inc | And 21 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2013

Recent evidence suggests that Notch signaling may play a role in regulation of cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal and differentiation hence presenting a promising target for development of novel therapies for aggressive cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We generated Notch1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically bind to the negative regulatory region of human Notch1. Notch1 inhibition in TNBC Sum149 and patient derived xenograft (PDX) 144580 models led to significant TGI particularly in combination with docetaxel. More interestingly, Notch1 mAbs caused a reduction in mammosphere formation and CD44+/CD24-/lo cell population. It also resulted in decreased tumor incidence upon re-implantation and delay in tumor recurrence. Our data demonstrated a potent antitumor efficacy of Notch1 mAbs, with a remarkable activity against CSCs. These findings suggest that anti-Notch1 mAbs may provide novel therapies to improve the efficacy of conventional therapies by directly targeting the CSC niche. They may also delay tumor recurrence and hence have a major impact on cancer patient survival. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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