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Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2017-05-10

A multi-electrode device that includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a gate electrode situated between the anode and cathode, and having an electrolyte. The multi-electrode device can be a secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cell. The gate electrode is permeable to at least one mobile species which is redox-active at least one of the anode and cathode. The gate electrode has a resistance that is lower than that of a conductive non-uniform morphological feature that could be grown on the anode. The gate electrode provides the ability to avoid, recognize, and remove the presence of such non-uniform morphological features, and provides an electrical electrode that can be used to remove such non-uniform morphological features.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2015-12-11

A secondary cell comprising a positive cathode electrode of capacity P (mAh) in communication with a liquid or gel electrolyte; an negative anode electrode of capacity N (mAh) in communication with the electrolyte; and a separator permeable to at least one mobile species which is redox-active at least one of the anode and the cathode; designed and constructed such that the anode capacity N is smaller than that of the cathode capacity P, hence N/P<0.9.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2015-12-11

A secondary cell comprising a positive cathode electrode of capacity P (mAh) in communication with a liquid or gel electrolyte; an negative anode electrode of capacity N (mAh) in communication with the electrolyte; and a separator permeable to at least one mobile species which is redox-active at least one of the anode and the cathode; designed and constructed such that the anode capacity N is smaller than that of the cathode capacity P, hence N/P<0.9.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2014-06-19

A non-aqueous Magnesium electrolyte comprising: (a) at least one organic solvent; (b) at least one electrolytically active, soluble, inorganic Magnesium (Mg) salt complex represented by the formula: Mg_(a)Z_(b)X_(c )wherein a, b, and c are selected to maintain neutral charge of the molecule, and Z and X are selected such that Z and X form a Lewis Acid, and 1a10, 1b5, and 2c30. Further Z is selected from a group consisting of aluminum, boron, phosphorus, titanium, iron, and antimony; X is selected from the group consisting of I, Br, Cl, F and mixtures thereof. Rechargeable, high energy density Magnesium cells containing an cathode, an Mg metal anode, and an electrolyte of the above-described type are also disclosed.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2013-03-14

An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg^(+2). The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2013-12-30

An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. One type of non-aqueous Magnesium electrolyte comprises: at least one organic solvent; at least one electrolytically active, soluble, inorganic Magnesium salt complex represented by the formula: Mg_(n)ZX_(3+(2*n)), in which Z is selected from a group consisting of aluminum, boron, phosphorus, titanium, iron, and antimony; X is a halogen and n=1-5. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg^(+2 )and total water content of <200 ppm. The use of this electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg from the negative electrode without the use of any additive. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described. Rechargeable, high energy density Magnesium cells containing a cathode, an Mg metal anode, and an electrolyte are also disclosed.


Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2015-07-02

A multi-electrode device that includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a gate electrode situated between the anode and cathode, and having an electrolyte. The multi-electrode device can be a secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cell. The gate electrode is permeable to at least one mobile species which is redox-active at at least one of the anode and cathode. The gate electrode has a resistance that is lower than that of a conductive non-uniform morphological feature that could be grown on the anode. The gate electrode provides the ability to avoid, recognize, and remove the presence of such non-uniform morphological features, and provides an electrical electrode that can be used to remove such non-uniform morphological features.


Patent
Pellion Technologies | Date: 2015-07-02

A multi-electrode device that includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a gate electrode situated between the anode and cathode, and having an electrolyte. The multi-electrode device can be a secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cell. The gate electrode is permeable to at least one mobile species which is redox-active at at least one of the anode and cathode. The gate electrode has a resistance that is lower than that of a conductive non-uniform morphological feature that could be grown on the anode. The gate electrode provides the ability to avoid, recognize, and remove the presence of such non-uniform morphological features, and provides an electrical electrode that can be used to remove such non-uniform morphological features.


Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

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