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Helsinki, Finland

Islam K.M.Z.,University of Helsinki | Sumelius J.,University of Helsinki | Backman S.,Pellervo Economic Research
Agricultural Economics Review | Year: 2012

This paper estimates the technical efficiency of traditional variety (TV) and highyielding- variety (HYV) rice producers in Bangladesh as well as explores the determinants of HYV rice adoption in a survey data from 360 farmers for the 2008/09 growing seasons. Estimates by stochastic frontier analysis indicated that in spite of its much yield potential, HYV rice production was associated with lower technical efficiency and had a greater variability in yield. Results indicated that technical efficiency of HYV and TV rice were related to age, experience, off-farm income, extension visits, and access to microfinance. A Tobit analysis revealed that the adoption of HYV rice was significantly and positively influenced by farmers' age and experience, level of technical efficiency, irrigation coverage, off-farm incomes, access to microfinance, perception of yield and membership of village-local groups. Source


Simila J.,University of Lapland | Polonen I.,University of Eastern Finland | Fredrikson J.,Federation of Finnish Fisheries Associations | Primmer E.,Finnish Environment Institute | Horne P.,Pellervo Economic Research
Journal of Environmental Law | Year: 2014

Compliance is a precondition for a regulatory system to be effective. This article analyses the drivers behind non-compliance and ways of enhancing compliance by empirically investigating the assumptions of compliance theories in the regulation of biodiversity conservation in private forests in Finland. The article shows that institutional factors, such as the characteristics of the decision-making procedure and the roles professional forest organisations, as well as market pressure on large corporate actors, explain to a large extent the identified low level of non-compliance. Knowledge, information and coordination are identified as the most important bottlenecks in the enhancing the implementation of regulation on habitat conservation. We propose the following combination for the promotion of compliance: building on a cooperative strategy by improving the knowledge base and sharing; following a responsive regulation strategy by maintaining existing deterrence tools; and applying true smart regulation through more ambitious institutional arrangements for engagement with new third parties. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Toppinen A.,University of Helsinki | Toivonen R.,Forestry Development Center Tapio | Valkeapaa A.,University of Helsinki | Ramo A.-K.,Pellervo Economic Research
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2013

Consumers in today's world can perceive an additional benefit associated with responsible business practices and the sustainability of purchased products. However, in Scandinavian context, there is a lack of knowledge of consumer perceptions toward environmental and social sustainability of wood products. Our data on adult Finnish consumers (private end-users) (N=227) were collected during 2004-2007 as interview exit data from home retail centers selling building materials. The perceived environmental and social sustainability of wood products was investigated using exploratory factor analysis, and the phenomenon was observed to be a two-dimensional construct consisting of "General environmental and social sustainability" and "Specific social sustainability" reflecting strong consumer need for product safety. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the "General" dimension also explains the consumer's self-declared willingness to pay for sustainable wood products. The results also indicate that the respondents may be segmented based on their perceptions on product level environmental and social sustainability: the most environmentally and socially conscious group can be profiled by gender (female), older age, and summer cottage ownership. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Bleyer M.,University of Helsinki | Kniivila M.,Pellervo Economic Research | Horne P.,Pellervo Economic Research | Sitoe A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Falcao M.P.,Eduardo Mondlane University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2016

East Africa has experienced an increase of private land use investments in the past years. Rural households have consequently faced crucial changes in their livelihoods. This paper explores the socio-economic impacts of industrial forest plantations on rural communities in Niassa, Mozambique. According to our results private forest plantations have the potential to positively impact local people's wealth and well-being, if enough emphasis is given to minimizing the negative impacts. The household survey data of 218 observations from five villages were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. The study shows that forest plantations have threatened the basis of traditional rural livelihoods by reducing the availability of natural resources and through the relocation of agricultural plots. However, investments have also supported the diversification of livelihood strategies in the communities by providing formal employment and by increasing business and trading activities. As growing population and traditional agricultural practices have led to the overexploitation of natural resources, non-natural resource-based livelihood strategies increase the resilience of a household. The majority of respondents reported plantations to have either no overall impact or a positive impact on the well-being of their household. According to our results, socio-economic household characteristics only marginally explain respondents' perceptions of the impacts of forest plantations but perceptions differ significantly between individual villages. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Karikallio H.,Pellervo Economic Research | Maki-Franti P.,Pellervo Economic Research | Suhonen N.,University of Eastern Finland
Journal of Forest Economics | Year: 2011

This paper uses three different approaches for measuring the tightness of competition in the global pulp and paper markets. First, we evaluate the market shares of the world's largest pulp and paper companies. Second, we estimate the price elasticities of the export demand for pulp and paper. Third, we test the Law of One Price. All three approaches suggest that the pulp and paper markets are competitive in the sense that a single firm, no matter how large, cannot increase the price of its products without losing market shares and experiencing a fall in total revenues. © 2010 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Umeå, Sweden. Source

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