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Beijing, China

Peking Union Medical College is among the most selective medical colleges in the People's Republic of China, located in Beijing. It is a relatively independent institution affiliated with Tsinghua University which is one of the top two universities in China. Peking Union Medical College graduates receive Peking Union Medical College diploma signed by both the Peking Union Medical College and Tsinghua presidents. The Hospital and College is located at No.9 Dongdan 3rd Alley, Dongcheng, Beijing, next to the Wangfujing shopping area. Wikipedia.

Wang Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND:: Forehead flaps have been used in the reconstruction of one particular faciocervical region such as the nose and periorbital unit. The aim of the present study was to determine whether all the unit/multi-units of the face and neck could be aesthetically reconstructed by using expanded forehead flaps and to propose a strategy for flap selection for the reconstruction of different faciocervical units.METHODS:: We systematically reviewed the application of expanded forehead flaps for cervicofacial rehabilitation in our center from 2000 to 2013.RESULTS:: Four types of expanded forehead flaps were used for the faciocervical reconstruction of 143 patients. Type I was a pre-expanded local flap used for repairing d fects of the partial forehead unit, subunits of the periorbital unit, or partial involvement of the 2 adjacent units. Type II was an expanded paramedian forehead flap used for resurfacing the nose, orbital, upper cheek unit, and partial involvement of these adjacent units. Type III was a bilateral-pedicled expanded forehead flap for the reconstruction of the lower face and anterior neck. and Type IV was a unilateralpedicled expanded forehead flap, based on the superficial temporal vessels, used to reconstruct the ipsilateral part of the middle face.CONCLUSION:: The 4 types of expanded forehead flap can be used for the reconstruction of different faciocervical units. Based on the location and size of the defect or lesion the selection of these flaps can be planned preoperatively. ©2015American Society of Plastic Surgeons

Objective:To evaluate the value of modified early warning score ( MEWS ) in predicting mortality of critically ill patients admitted to emergency department. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Clinical data of emergency patients admitted to resuscitation room of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Feburary 13rd, 2014 to April 20th, 2014 were collected, and their MEWS were calculated based on medical records and their clinical outcomes was followed. Incidence of primary outcome ( 3-day mortality ) and secondary outcome [ all deaths and composite outcome of intensive care unit ( ICU ) transfer, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, and death ] were compared between MEWS positive ( MEWS≥5 ) or negative ( MEWS 0-4 ) patients, and multi-regression logistic analysis was done to look for the impact factors of primary outcome in these patients. Results: 176 patients, among them 98 ( 55.68% ) were male, were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was ( 56.86±21.46 ) years old. Mean MEWS was 4.30±2.74. There was 74 cases in MEWS positive group, and 102 in negative group. Primary endpoint occurred in 41 patients, and the 3-days mortality in MEWS positive group was significantly higher than that in MEWS negative group [ 37.84 ( 28/74) vs. 12.74% ( 13/102 ), odds ratio ( OR ) = 4.167, 95% confidence interval ( 95%CI ) = 1.973-8.804, P < 0.001 ]. At the meantime, incidence of all death [ 54.05% ( 40/74 ) vs. 17.65% ( 18/102 ), OR = 5.490, 95%CI = 2.770-10.883, P < 0.001 ] and the incidence of ICU transfer, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and death[ 64.86% ( 48/74 ) vs. 25.49% ( 26/102 ), OR = 5.396, 95%CI = 2.809-10.366, P < 0.001 ] were also significantly higher in MEWS positive group as compared with negative group. Multi-regression logistic showed abnormal mental status( OR = 3.606, 95%CI = 1.541-8.436, P = 0.003 ) but not MEWS ≥5 ( OR = 1.672, 95%CI = 0.622-4.494, P = 0.308 ) was the predictor of 3-day mortality in emergency admitted critically ill patients. Conclusions: Although the incidence of severe adverse events is significantly increased in patients with MEWS ≥5 compared with those with MEWS 0-4, MEWS≥5 cannot be an efficient predictor for 3-day mortality. Abnormal mental status shows some predictive value for early mortality in critically ill patients seen in emergency department.

Kang H.M.,University of Pennsylvania | Ahn S.H.,University of Pennsylvania | Ahn S.H.,Wonkwang University | Choi P.,University of Pennsylvania | And 11 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2015

Renal fibrosis is the histological manifestation of a progressive, usually irreversible process causing chronic and end-stage kidney disease. We performed genome-wide transcriptome studies of a large cohort (n = 95) of normal and fibrotic human kidney tubule samples followed by systems and network analyses and identified inflammation and metabolism as the top dysregulated pathways in the diseased kidneys. In particular, we found that humans and mouse models with tubulointerstitial fibrosis had lower expression of key enzymes and regulators of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and higher intracellular lipid deposition compared to controls. In vitro experiments indicated that inhibition of FAO in tubule epithelial cells caused ATP depletion, cell death, dedifferentiation and intracellular lipid deposition, phenotypes observed in fibrosis. In contrast, restoring fatty acid metabolism by genetic or pharmacological methods protected mice from tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Our results raise the possibility that correcting the metabolic defect in FAO may be useful for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

Zha X.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Wang F.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | Wang Y.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | He S.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (AKT) signaling pathway. Although this signaling network is frequently altered in cancer, the underlying mechanisms that cause tumorigenesis as a result of activated mTOR remain largely unknown. We report here that expression of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), a critical enzymatic activator of glycolysis, was upregulated in an mTOR-dependent manner in TSC1-/-, TSC2-/-, PTEN-/-, or activated AKT1-expressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). LDHB gene expression was transactivated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a key tumorigenic driver in many cancers, acting as a downstream mTOR effector in both mouse MEFs and human cancer cells. LDHB attenuation blunted the tumorigenic potential of oncogenic TSC2-null cells in nude mice. We concluded that LDHB is a downstream target of mTOR that is critical for oncogenic mTOR-mediated tumorigenesis. Our findings offer proof of concept for targeting LDHB as a therapeutic strategy in cancers driven by aberrant activation of the RTK-PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling cascade. ©2011 AACR.

Rao Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Cell biology international | Year: 2011

E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) belongs to the calcium-dependent adhesion molecule superfamily and is implicated in the interactions of haematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow stromal cells. Adhesion capacity to bone marrow stroma was impaired for leukaemia cells, suggesting that a breakdown of adhesive mechanisms governed by an adhesion molecule may exist in leukaemic microenvironment. We previously found that E-cadherin was low expressed in primary acute leukaemia cells compared with normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of low E-cadherin expression in leukaemia cell behaviours and investigate its effects in the abnormal interaction of leukaemic cells with stromal cells. After expression of E-cadherin was restored by a demethylating agent in leukaemia cells, E-cadherin-specific adhesion was enhanced. Additionally, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated silencing of E-cadherin in Raji cells resulted in a reduction of cell homophilic adhesion and enhancement of cell proliferation and colony formation. These results suggest that low expression of E-cadherin contributes to the vigorous growth and transforming ability of leukaemic cells.

ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old woman with biochemically proven endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and negative conventional imaging underwent Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT for localization of insulinoma. Focal intense radioactivity in the tail of the pancreas was observed that was subsequently confirmed as insulinoma pathologically after surgical resection. In addition, esophageal carcinoma with lymph node and hepatic metastases was found by FDG PET/CT in the same patient. Neither the primary carcinoma nor the metastases showed increased radioactivity on Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Zhang W.,Peking Union Medical College
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Limbus vertebra involving the anterosuperior corner of a vertebral body is usually seen in adult patients, and it generally does not cause symptoms. An 8-year-old girl experienced lower back pain. Bone SPECT images revealed significantly increased tracer activity in the region of the anterior L4 vertebral body, which was shown on MRI to be a limbus vertebra. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Li Y.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2011

In order to learn about the correlation between the sequences of VP4 of EV71 and clinical symptoms of patients and analyze the antigenicity of VP4 of EV71, as well as the cross-reactivity with VP4 of CA16, the sequences of VP4 gene from 10 EV71 strains isolated from infants and children with hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) during 2007 to 2009 were determined through standard molecular cloning protocols, and the results were analyzed by EditSeq and MegAlign of DNAStar. Full-length genes of VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were amplified from virus isolates and expressed in E. coli. Then the expressed VP4s were used as antigens to detect IgG antibody in 189 sera samples from people taking health check up and patients of non-HFMD by Western-Blot. They were also used to detect IgM antibody in 14 of sera samples from infants and children with EV71 infection and 12 of sera samples from those with CA16 infection. The nucleotides identities among these 10 sequences of VP4s isolated in our lab were 94.20% - 100.00% and the deduced amino acids were identical. There was no consistent divergence between the sequences of serious cases and those from general HFMD cases. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP4s indicated that these 10 VP4s of EV71 belonged to C4. The nucleotide identities between EV71 VP4 (s67) and CA16 VP4 (s401) was 69.60% and the deduced amino acids identities was 78.60%. In the detection of IgG, the sera-positive rate for EV71 VP4 was 38.10% and the sera-positive rate of CA16 VP4 was 58.20%. The difference in the sera-positive rate between them was significant (chi2 = 15.30, P < 0.01), suggesting that the expressed VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were of good antigenicity and not cross-reactive. There was no positive reaction detected for IgM against VP4s for EV71 or CA16. The data from this study reveal important information for the further study of EV71.

Sun Z.M.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

To explore the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. The effects of EV71 on Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell viability were detected by CCK8 assay. EV71-induced apoptosis on RD cells were detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and Western blot targeting Caspase 3, 8 and PARP. Bax conformational change was detected by immunoprecipitation with Bax 6A7 antibody. EV71 decreased the viability of RD cells and induces the activation of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP. Bax expression increases in RD cells after EV71 infection, and Bax conformational change also can be detected after EV71 infection. Our study reveals that EV71 induces Caspase-dependent apoptosis by Bax conformational change.

Xu S.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu S.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Zhang Z.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Jing B.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Transportin-SR (TRN-SR) is a member of the importin-β super-family that functions as the nuclear import receptor for serine-arginine rich (SR) proteins, which play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. Here we report the identification and cloning of mos14 (modifier of snc1-1, 14), a mutation that suppresses the immune responses conditioned by the auto-activated Resistance (R) protein snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1). MOS14 encodes a nuclear protein with high similarity to previously characterized TRN-SR proteins in animals. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MOS14 interacts with AtRAN1 via its N-terminus and SR proteins via its C-terminus. In mos14-1, localization of several SR proteins to the nucleus was impaired, confirming that MOS14 functions as a TRN-SR. The mos14-1 mutation results in altered splicing patterns of SNC1 and another R gene RPS4 and compromised resistance mediated by snc1 and RPS4, suggesting that nuclear import of SR proteins by MOS14 is required for proper splicing of these two R genes and is important for their functions in plant immunity. © 2011 Xu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Ma S.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2011

To analyze genetic characterization of the small hydrophobic and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes of mumps virus (MuV) isolated in Yunnan province, China from 2007 to 2009. Fourteen MuV strains were isolated in Yunnan, China from 2007 to 2009. Using RT-PCR, the SH gene fragments contained 316 nucleotides in all strains and HN gene of six strains were sequenced. The sequences were aligned with other mumps virus sequences downloaded from GenBank using Mega 4.1 software. Fourteen isolated strains were closely related to other reference strains of F genotypes. In SH gene, the homology of nucleotide and amino acid among the fourteen isolated strains were 98.3% - 100.0% and 96.5% - 100.0%, respectively, and 92.6% - 99.4% and 87.7% - 100.0% of homology when compared with that of strains isolated from other provinces in China, respectively. Wsh1 and Wsh2 strains had less homology when compared to other strains of F genotypes. The fourteen strains had homology of 84.5% - 85.1% and 77.2% compared to vaccine strains on nucleotide and amino acid, respectively, and had homology of 83.4% - 90.9% and 70.1% - 86.0% compared to that of other genotypes. In HN gene, the homology of nucleotide and amino acid among the six isolated strains were 99.3% - 99.5% and 99.1% - 99.7%, respectively, and also 99.8% and 99.8% of homology respectively when compared to the SP strain in China. All the six strains had homology of 92.4% - 93.2% and 95.5% - 96.4% when compared to the vaccine strains on nucleotide and amino acid, respectively, and had homology of 94.7% - 96.8% and 95.5% - 99.1% compared to other genotypes. Fourteen strains isolated in Yunnan from 2007 to 2009 belonged to F genotype of MuV while the HN gene seemed more conservative than SH gene.

Yang Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2011

Glucocorticoid is the main cause of non-traumatic avascular necrosis of femoral head. To explore the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bone microvascular endothelial cells treated with glucocorticoid so as to investigate the pathogenesis of steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head. The cancellous bone of femoral head was harvested from voluntary donators undergoing total hip arthroplasty, and then the bone microvascular endothelial cells were isolated by enzyme digestion. The cells at passage 3 were cocultured with different concentrations of hydrocortisone (0, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL) for 24 hours. MTT assay was used for the inhibitory rate of cell proliferation, flow cytometry for apoptosis rate, and fluorescence probe for the production of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XOD). At 2-3 days primary culture, the cells were spindle and arranged like cobbles and they reached confluence after 1 week. The inhibitory rates of cell proliferation in 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL groups were 20.22% +/- 2.97%, 22.94% +/- 4.52%, 43.98% +/- 3.35%, and 78.29% +/- 3.85%, respectively; and 2 high-concentration groups (0.30 and 1.00 mg/mL groups) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than 2 low-concentration groups (0.03 and 0.10 mg/mL groups). The apoptosis rates in 0, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL groups were 0.10% +/- 0.01%, 0.23% +/- 0.02%, 1.83% +/- 0.04%, 6.34% +/- 0.11%, and 15.33% +/- 0.53%, respectively; 2 high-concentration groups (0.30 and 1.00 mg/mL groups) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than 0 mg/mL group. In 0, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL groups, the ROS levels were 57.35 +/- 7.11, 120.47 +/- 15.68, and 166.15 +/- 11.57, respectively, and the XOD levels were 0.017 9 +/- 0.000 9, 0.028 3 +/- 0.0017, and 0.067 7 +/- 0.0041, respectively; there were significant differences in the levels of ROS and XOD among 3 groups (P < 0.05). Increasing of ROS production in bone microvascular endothelial cells can be induced by high concentration glucocorticoid, and it can result in cell injury.

Liu X.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a family of more than 70 human members, however only a few of them have been well studied. It has been shown that TRIM proteins are involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. The functions of TRIM38 are largely unknown. In this study we explore the effect of TRIM38 on NF-kappaB signaling pathway. 293T cells were transfected with NF-kappaB-Luc and plasmids expressing TRIM38 and its mutants fused to Flag. 24 h after transfection, cells were harvested and luciferase activities were measured. Data are representative of three independent experiments with triplicate samples. The expression of proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. TRIM38 could activate NF-kappaB signaling pathway. The mutants of TRIM38 affected the function of TRIM38. Only the mutant of SPRY domain deletion had no obviously influence of the function of TRIM38. Our study reveals that NF-kappaB is activated in response to TRIM38.

Zeng Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

To investigate the role of antigen-processing machinery (APM) component defects in HLA class I antigen down-regulation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to assess the clinical significance of these defects. Fifty-one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded SCC specimens were examined for the expressions of APM component transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1) and low molecular weight polypeptide (LMP-7) and HLA class I antigen by immunohistochemistry. HLA class I antigens, TAP-1 and LMP-7 expressions were down-regulated in 56.9% (29/51), 39.2% (20/51) and 45.1% (23/51) of the tested specimens respectively, whereas HLA class I antigens, TAP-1 and LMP-7 expressions lost in 21.6% (11/51), 33.3% (17/51) and 27.5% (14/51) of the tested specimens respectively. TAP-1 and LMP-7 expressions were significantly correlated with HLA class I antigen expression (r=0.460, P<0.05 and r=0.685, P<0.05, respectively). HLA class I antigens down-regulation was significantly correlated with T stage (χ2=8.61, P<0.05). Both TAP-1 and LMP-7 down-regulations were significantly correlated with T stage (χ2 values were 9.72 and 8.97 respectively, P<0.05) and TNM stage (χ2 values were 9.18 and 7.70 respectively, P<0.05). TAP-1, LMP-7 and HLA class I antigen down-regulations were significantly associated with reduced patients' overall survival (P<0.05) and disease-free survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lymph node metastasis, recurrence and HLA class I antigen down-regulation were unfavorable prognostic factors (P<0.05). Down-regulated expressions of HLA class I antigen and APM component TAP-1 and LMP-7 occur frequently in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, by which cancer cells could avoid immune surveillance, while HLA class I antigen down-regulation is a major contributing factor to tumour progression and mortality.

Li C.H.,Peking Union Medical College
The Journal of international medical research | Year: 2012

To measure the prevalence of diaper dermatitis and identify risk factors relating to diaper dermatitis in Chinese children aged 1-24 months. This was a cross-sectional study that used structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews with parents to determine the risk factors associated with diaper dermatitis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between diaper dermatitis and 15 potential risk factors. A total of 43.8% (454/1036) of infants in the study had experienced diaper dermatitis in the 6 weeks prior to enrolment. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of diaper dermatitis was significantly decreased by solid foods (eggs), home location (urban) and frequency of diaper changing (≥ 6 changes/day), whereas the risk was increased by diarrhoea. Diarrhoea was a major risk factor for diaper dermatitis. Confirmation of the risk factors could lead to better understanding of the aetiology of diaper dermatitis and to new prevention strategies in Chinese infants.

To study the controllable expression of soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in mesenchymal stem cells and evaluate its potential tumoricidal effects in cancer therapy. The controllable TRAIL expression vector of Ad-Tet-TRE-TRAIL was established in an adenovirus vector for transfection into murine mesenchymal stem cells. The controllable expression and secretion of TRAIL were detected by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The viability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was determined by MTT assay. The tumoricidal activity of TRAIL was determined by Annexin-V/PI staining and flow cytometry. The murine expression model of TRAIL was successfully established in the presence of doxycycline. The secreted TRAIL in cell culture medium could efficaciously suppress the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7402 by induced apoptosis. The cell viability of SMMC-7402 was 66.5% ± 4.8% and 42.9% ± 6.5% at post-treatment versus 97.3% ± 2.2% and 99.4% ± 4.7% in the control group at 24 h and 48 h. The controllable TRAIL expression mediated by mesenchymal stem cells kills human hepatocellular carcinoma cells effectively. And it may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Ai Z.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2011

To investigate the effect of baicalin on liver fatty acid binding protein in oxidative stress model in vitro. (1) Cellular oxidative stress in vitro was induced by incubating cells with 400μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) for 20 minutes at 37 degrees C in the dark. After Chang liver cell line was treated with different dose of baicalin for 24, 48 and 72 hours. MTT assay was employed to detect cell viability, and then the hydrogen peroxide (TC50) of the different dose of baicalin was calculated. (2) Based on MTT assay, cells were treated with three different doses of baicalin (25, 50, 100 μmol/L) for 24 and 48 hours before being exposed to 400 μmol/L H 2O 2 for 20 minutes at 37 degrees C. Then, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and activity assays of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) were evaluated. (3) Realtime PCR and Western blotting were applied to explore the influence of baicalin on the expression level of L-FABP. (4) One-way ANOVA was used for results statistical analysis. (1) MTT assay showed baicalin treatment at 25, 50, 100 μmol/L for 24 and 48 hours was feasible (83.60% ± 3.47%, 72.36% ± 2.18%, 70.16% ± 2.04% for 24 hours; 84.93% ± 3.11%, 76.16% ± 2.45%, 72.72% ± 2.31% for 48 hours, P > 0.05, F = 386.24, 475.92 respectively). Meanwhile, we found by the linear regression model that the median toxic concentration of baicalin for 48 hours was 170.6 μmol/L, and the median toxic concentration of baicalin for 24 hours was 153.2 μmol/L. (2) ROS assay showed dichlorofluorescin in all baicalin-treated cells after stress was significantly reduced (37.0 ± 3.30, 22.90 ± 3.84, 29.60 ± 2.52 for 24 hours respectively, P < 0.05, F = 70.06; 35.77 ± 2.35, 21.80 ± 3.10, 23.87 ± 1.98 for 48 hours respectively, P < 0.05, F = 110.92) as compared with the H 2O 2-treated cells. Moreover, 50 μmol/L baicalin treatment for 48 hours was the optimal condition against ROS generation (21.80 ± 3.10, P < 0.01, F = 110.92). Furthermore, the activities of intracellular SOD and GSH was increased significantly (51.53 ± 1.91 μg/mg for SOD, P < 0.05, F = 93.81; 49.85 ± 1.45 U/mg for GSH, P < 0.05, F = 92.51). (3) Although realtime PCR analysis indicated 50 μmol/L baicalin treatment for 48 hours could have no changes of the level of L-FABP expression under the oxidative stress condition, western blotting analysis indicated 50 μmol/L baicalin treatment for 48 hours could increase up to about 80% for the level of L-FABP expression. Baicalin was suggested to be able to enhance both L-FABP expression and activity of intracellular SOD and GSH, and therefore protected hepatocytes from oxidative stress.

Wang F.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2013

To study the effect of aluminume adjuvant and immunization schedule on immunogenicity of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Four batches of Sabin IPV were produced by different concentrations of type 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus and administrated on three-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 months and 0, 2, 4 months on rats. Serum samples were collected one month after each dose and neutralizing antibody titers against three types poliovirus were determined by micro-neutralization assay. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against three types poliovirus increased significantly and the seropositivity rates were 100% in all groups after 3 doses. There was no significant difference between two immunization schedules, and the 0, 2, 4 month schedule could induce higher level neutralizing antibody compared to the 0, 1, 2 month schedule. The groups with aluminum adjuvant could induce higher level neutralizing antibody compared to the groups without adjuvant. Aluminum djuvant and immunization schedule could improve the immunogenicity of Sabin IPV.

Cai M.,Peking Union Medical College
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging | Year: 2012

Gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to be invaluable not only in assessing myocardial perfusion, but also in providing functional and volumetric information. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of clinical variables and rest gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Seventy-three consecutive hospitalized patients with CHF (aged 50.7 ± 16.5 years, 60 men and 13 women; 25 ischemic CHF and 48 non-ischemic CHF) and left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography <40%, who underwent rest gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, were followed up for this study. Univariate and multivariate analysis of clinical characteristics and gated SPECT parameters for prediction of cardiac death were performed. During the follow-up period (18.6 ± 8.5 months), 14 (19.2%) cardiac deaths occurred. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that body mass index (BMI, 23.3 ± 4.1 kg/m(2), hazard ratio = 0.85, P = 0.025) and summed rest score (SRS, 11.8 ± 11.5, hazard ratio = 1.05, P = 0.021) were predictive for cardiac death. The optimal threshold of BMI was 25 kg/m(2) and patients with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) had lower survival rate (P = 0.013). The optimal threshold of SRS was set as 11 and patients with SRS > 11 had lower survival rate (P = 0.009). Rest gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging provides prognostic information in patients with CHF. BMI and SRS are both predictors of cardiac death in patients with CHF.

CHEN B.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi | Year: 2012

To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma of the uterus (APA). A retrospective study was made of 17 patients with APA, who were hospitalized at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2003 to 2010. Those patients' clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatments are analyzed respectively. The patients ranged from 19 to 53 (median 39) years old, Most of them (15/17) are during child-bearing period. There was one patient with infertility, two of the patients were postmenopausal. Fourteen cases had irregular vaginal bleeding clinically. Most of the pathology were polypous, which is more than 1 cm. Fifteen cases were characteristically polypoid, among which there were one case with multi polypoid and one case was extensive. Eight cases were located in the uterine cavity. Six cases were located in the lower uterine segment. Three cases were located in cervix. None of the cases were diagnosed, while all of them were diagnosed by pathology after primary surgical. Fifteen patients had polypectomy (among them, five patients took drug therapy after the surgical), while the remaining two patients had hysterectomy. Two of the five patients, who took drug therapy, were pregnant. One patient was deteriorated with carcinoma of endometrium. Although most cases of APA were benign, a few cases were associated with low malignant potential of recurrence. The treatment should depend on the age and reproductive desire of patient. And long-term follow-up is suggested.

Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2012

To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) with lung metastasis. Fifteen patients of MOGCT with lung metastasis treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Jan. 1982 to Dec. 2010 was retrospectively analyzed. (1) Clinical characteristics: the average onset age of these 15 patients is (23 ± 11) years old (6 - 48 years). The majority of these patients presented with abdominal pain (8/15) or irregular vaginal bleeding (4/15) as their initial symptoms. The primary tumor located in the left ovary in 8 cases, right ovary in 6 cases, and both sides in only 1 case. Metastatic lesions were confined to the lung in 12 patients, while the other 3 patients were found to have multi-site distant metastasis. (2) Diagnosis:all 15 cases included 9 pure non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGOC), 3 MOGCT containing choriocarcinoma component (one mature teratoma with choriocarcinoma component, one endodermal sinus tumor with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma components, one choriocarcinoma with dysgerminoma component), 2 embryonal carcinoma, one immature teratoma. Only one patient in these 15 cases was correctly diagnosed before surgery. (3) Time of lung metastasis:of 12 MOGCT with choriocarcinoma component, 11 patients were found to have lung metastasis in the course of their primary treatment, only 1 had lung metastasis 2 months after the synthetic treatment finished. Three MOGCT patients without choriocarcinoma component were all found to have lung metastasis when tumor relapsed in the advanced stages of the disease. (4) Treatment:all 15 patients received multi-agent chemotherapy combined with surgery. The mean courses of chemotherapy for these patients were 16 courses (5 - 43 courses). (5) Prognosis: of these 15 cases, complete remission was obtained in 10 patients of NGOC or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors with choriocarcinoma component, 3 patients (one NGOC, one endodermal carcinoma and one immature teratoma, respectively) died in the course of treatment as result of tumor progression, 2 progressed cases (one NGOC and one endodermal carcinoma respectively) abandoning therapy were lost to follow up. MOGCT with lung metastasis are more often to found in NGOC patients. These patients could obtain high complete remission rate after standard multi-agent chemotherapy combined with surgery. The prognosis of MOGCT with lung metastasis containing choriocarcinoma component are better than that of those without containing choriocarcinoma component.

Zhang J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Chan S.S.-C.,University of Hong Kong | Fong D.Y.-T.,University of Hong Kong | Malone R.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Lam T.-H.,University of Hong Kong
Tobacco Control | Year: 2012

Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world. Little previous research has explored the cultural challenges in encouraging smoking cessation in China. This study aimed to explore and generate research questions about culturally distinctive beliefs and barriers to smoking cessation. Methods A convenience sample of 21 smokers and ex-smokers selected from a Guangzhou hospital smoking cessation clinic and medical ward was interviewed about experiences with quitting smoking. Data were analysed to elucidate culturally distinctive obstacles to cessation that may warrant further study. Results Three major obstacles to smoking cessation were identified: family and social influences, the myth that quitting smoking is dangerous to health and misinformation from health professionals. Conclusions This study suggests that smoking cessation in China is made more challenging by a social context in which family, friends and even health professionals may discourage it. However, these identified barriers and beliefs about smoking cessation need to be confirmed in larger, more representative studies in the future.

This study aims to critically evaluate the effects of a walking intervention on bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to identify the optimal duration of this walking exercise intervention. Two independent reviewers assessed for eligibility randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of walking on BMD in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Heterogeneity, potential publication bias, and the quality of the included trials were assessed. Ten trials were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis of trials assessing lumbar spine BMD showed no significant effects (weighted mean difference [WMD] [fixed effects], 0.01 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.00 to 0.02; P = 0.05) regardless of the length of the intervention duration. BMD at the femoral neck increased after long intervention durations (6 mo to 1-2 y), although no significant effect could be seen when all trials assessing femoral neck BMD were taken into account (WMD [fixed effects], 0.01 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.00 to 0.01; P = 0.07). The effects of walking on the radius and whole body were not significant (WMD [random effects], -0.01 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.04; P = 0.71; and WMD [fixed effects], 0.04 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.06, respectively). Walking as a singular exercise therapy has no significant effects on BMD at the lumbar spine, at the radius, or for the whole body in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, although significant and positive effects on femoral neck BMD in this population are evident with interventions more than 6 months in duration.

Jinguang Z.,Peking Union Medical College
The Journal of craniofacial surgery | Year: 2010

To introduce our experience of correction of prominent ears by ear cartilage-folding method, which amalgamates some well-known techniques. Preoperative design was in a routine way. The anterior area of antihelix was dissected subcutaneously, and the surface of the cartilage was scored thoroughly. Satisfactory antihelix was established by folding with mattress suturing. One strip of skin was removed from the back of the concha with suture of the remaining cartilage to the mastoid periost to decrease the auricle-mastoid angle. Fifty-nine cases of prominent ears were followed up postoperatively from 1 to 24 months, and almost all of the ears achieved satisfactory effects. Both the antihelix and auricle-mastoid angle were improved markedly. Not only is this technique reliable, but it also has low recurrence.

Feng D.R.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics | Year: 2011

Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the association of permanent neonatal or early-infancy insulin-dependent diabetes, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and growth retardation, and other variable multisystem clinical manifestations. Here we describe a Chinese boy affected by WRS. Genetic testing of his EIF2AK3 gene was performed in order to elucidate molecular variations and subsequently to provide credible genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis in his family. Based on analysis of a nine-year-old boy's clinical symptoms associated with biochemical examination and imaging, the diagnosis of WRS was therefore made. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes from the boy and his parents with their informed consent for genetic studies. All EIF2AK3 exons and intron-exon boundaries were amplified by Touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Touch-down PCR) and sequenced. Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed the presence of a heterozygous T insertion (c.1408_1409insT) in exon 8 of the EIF2AK3 gene leading to frameshifting and termination, and another heterozygous T to A exchange (c.1596T > A) in exon 9 of the EIF2AK3 gene resulting in nonsense C532X mutation. Combining mutation screening of EIF2AK3 gene with clinical manifestations and effective examination may provide a reliable diagnostic method for patients. In this research, two novel mutations identified in the Chinese boy locate in the catalytic domain of the EIF2AK3 gene, disrupting the ability of autophosphorylation, leading to the truncated proteins that are unable to phosphorylate the natural substrate, which are responsible for the phenotype of Wolcott-Rallison syndrome.

Zhang X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wei J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhou L.,Huaian No. 2 Hospital | Zhou C.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

As a tumor suppressor, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic stability. A functional rs799917 T>C polymorphism located in the BRCA1 coding sequence could influence miR-638-mediated regulation of BRCA1 expression. Therefore, we examined the association between this polymorphism and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk as well as its biological function. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control studies consisted of 1128 ESCC patients and 1150 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. The allele-specific regulation on BRCA1 expression by the polymorphism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that the BRCA1 rs799917 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased ESCC risk compared with the TT genotype in both studies (Jinan population: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.04-1.58, P = 0.020; Huaian population: OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.17-1.83, P = 0.001). Stratified analyses with pooled data indicated that a multiplicative interaction between rs799917 and smoking or drinking in intensifying ESCC risk was evident (gene-smoking: Pinteraction = 5.8 × 10-5; gene-drinking: Pinteraction = 7.1 × 10-7). In vitro experiments indicate that miR-638 could negatively regulate BRCA1 expression and enhance proliferation of ESCC cells. In vivo BRCA1 messenger RNA expression analyses showed that the rs799917 C allele carriers had significantly decreased BRCA1 expression in both normal and cancerous esophagus tissues compared with T allele carriers, suggesting that lower BRCA1 expression may lead to higher risk for malignant transformation of esophagus cells. These results suggest that BRCA1 functional rs799917 polymorphism is involved in susceptibility to developing ESCC, alone and in a gene-environment interaction manner. © The Author 2013.

Zhu B.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Wang L.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Sun L.,Peking Union Medical College | Cao R.,Chinese PLA General Hospital
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: Clinical studies on combination therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) revealed mixed results. AIMS:: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of combination therapy on exercise capacity [measured with 6-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and clinical worsening in PAH patients. METHODS:: We identified trials of importance from the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PUBMED databases, reviews, and reference lists of relevant articles. We calculated risk ratios for dichotomous data and weighted mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for net changes in 6MWD. RESULTS:: Seven trials with a total of 768 patients (386 patients in the combination treatment group and 382 patients in the monotherapy group) were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the monotherapy group, combination therapy increased 6MWD by 21.59 meters (weighted mean difference 21.59 m, 95% CI of 13.25-29.93; P < 0.001) and reduced the risk of clinical worsening (risk ratio: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.72, P = 0.001). For both outcomes, no significant heterogeneity and publication bias were found. CONCLUSION:: Compared with monotherapy, combination therapy improves exercise capacity and reduces the risk of clinical worsening in PAH patients. In future studies, more large randomized controlled trials should be designed to adequately assess the efficacy and safety of combination therapy. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

OBJECTIVE: Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become one of key components in new American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria for pre-diabetes and diabetes, which is not included in the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 criteria. Thus, we aimed to compare the two criteria in diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes in patients with non-acute coronary syndrome (non-ACS) in Chinese.METHODS: Non-ACS patients who had undergone elective coronary angiography (CAG) in Peking Union Medical College Hospital without previously known diabetes were enrolled consecutively from October 2013 to April 2014. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose after a 75 g oral glucose load (2hPG) and HbA1c levels before CAG were measured. Both WHO and new ADA criteria were applied for pre-diabetes and diabetes screening.RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-nine patients were included, aged (61.9 ± 10.1) years and 88(63.3%) were men among them. According to WHO 1999 criteria, 34 patients (24.4%) were normal glucose regulation, 57 (41.0%) pre-diabetes (including one impaired fasting glucose and 56 impaired glucose tolerance), and 48 (34.5%) newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. ADA criteria identified 12 more patients with pre-diabetes and eight more with diabetes than WHO criteria. Compared with those diagnosed by both criteria, the proportion of women was higher in diabetic patients diagnosed with HbA1c alone. They also had lower hemoglobin [(124.88 ± 17.74) g/L vs (140.15 ± 15.17) g/L, P=0.013] and higher fibrinogen levels [(3.47 ± 0.41) g/L vs (3.02 ± 0.68) g/L, P=0.024] than those diagnosed by both criteria.CONCLUSION: Compared with WHO 1999, new ADA criteria with HbA1c assessment are able to identify more previously unknown pre-diabetes and diabetes patients. Measurement of HbA1c might be needed to carry out routinely for screening patients with glucose metabolism abnormalities before elective CAG.

Wang Y.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Banyai K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Tu X.,Peking Union Medical College | Jiang B.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We previously reported the first detection of simian picobirnaviruses (PBVs) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in fecal specimens of two monkeys with diarrhea in China. We now report the detection of genogroup I PBVs in 48% (44/92) of the fecal specimens by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and amplicon sequencing using primers specific for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene. Molecular characterization of these 44 strains demonstrated both sequence conservation and diversity among simian PBVs and among simian, porcine, and human PBVs. We further determined full-length sequences of segment 2 of the two simian PBV strains, monkey/CHN-14/2002 and monkey/CHN-49/2002, and demonstrated 52.5% to 54.2% nucleotide sequence similarity to the corresponding gene of the bovine strain RUBV and the prototype human strain 1-CHN-97 of geno-group I PBVs and an even lower similarity (38.4%) to segment 2 of the prototype human genogroup II strain 4-GA-91. Further studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology and pathogenesis of PBVs in animals and humans. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Briggs D.I.,Monash University | Lockie S.H.,Monash University | Wu Q.,Monash University | Wu Q.,Peking Union Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

A possible mechanism of susceptibility to superinfection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-1157ipd3N4 was explored in twelve SHIVSF162P3-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Based on the kinetics of viral replication for the second infecting virus following SHIV-1157ipd3N4 inoculation, the monkeys were divided into two groups: those relatively resistant to superinfection (SIR) and those relatively sensitive to superinfection (SIS). We found that superinfection-resistant macaques had high primary viremia, whereas superinfection-sensitive macaques had low primary viremia, suggesting that primary SHIVSF162P3 infection with a high viral-replication level would repress superinfection with a heterologous SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Although no correlation of protection against superinfection with virus-specific CD4(+) T cell or CD8(+) T cell immune responses from gut was observed prior to superinfection, superinfection susceptibility was strongly correlated with CD4(+) Tcm cells from gut both prior to the second infecting virus inoculation and on day 7 after superinfection, but not with CD4(+) Tem cells from gut or with CD4(+) Tcm cells from peripheral blood and lymph node. These results point to the important roles of gut-derived CD4(+) Tcm cells for the study of the mechanisms of protection against superinfection and the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vaccines and therapies against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Ozelo M.C.,University of Campinas | Matta M.A.P.,University of Campinas | Yang R.,Peking Union Medical College
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

Projects are underway in many developing countries to try to improve the provision of treatment and access to care for people with haemophilia (PWH), as long-term prophylactic treatment, which improves quality of life for PWH, is still restricted to developed countries. In most developing countries, therapy is limited to on-demand treatment or even no replacement treatment at all. Combined with limited healthcare resources, this lack of treatment can lead to a vicious circle of lack of care, disability, unemployment and lack of access to health insurance for haemophilia patients. In China, the establishment of the Haemophilia Treatment Centre Collaborative Network of China (HTCCNC), in conjunction with the World Federation of Hemophilia, has improved haemophilia care and the identification of PWH. In Brazil, on-demand treatment has improved the health of PWH but does not prevent musculoskeletal (MSK) complications, the major cause of deterioration in quality of life for PWH. The Novo Nordisk Haemophilia Foundation BR2 project was therefore designed to improve quality of life of PWH through improvements in their physical, mental and social wellbeing. This paper will briefly review these projects and describe the current status of haemophilia care in these countries. While there is still a long way to go before optimal care becomes a reality for all PWH in developing countries, significant progress has been made, and knowledge of the impact and outcomes of these projects can inform best practice worldwide. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jin W.N.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2011

This study was purposed to investigate the effect of hypoxia microenvironment on K562 leukemic cell differentiation, and characteristics of NHE1 involvement in this process. The K562 cells were treated with hypoxia-mimical agent CoCl or under actual hypoxia culture, and the specific NHE1 inhibitor Cariporide was used to inhibit NHE1 activity. The fluorescent probe BCECF was used for pH(i) measurements. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. The morphological characteristics was determined by Wright's staining. Signaling pathways were detected by Western blot using phosphospecific antibodies. The results indicated that the hypoxia or mimetic hypoxia favored K562 cells differentiation with up-regulation of C/EBPα. Moreover, treatment with Cariporide under hypoxia synergistically enhanced leukemia cell differentiation. Treatment with Cariporide increased levels of phosphorylated ERK5 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). It is concluded that the hypoxia or mimetic hypoxia can induce the differentiation of K562 cells, the inhibition of NHE1 activity can promote the hypoxia-induced K562 cell differentiation. The enhancement of hypoxia-induced K562 differentiation by Cariporide via MAPK signal pathway suggests a possible therapeutic target of NHE1 under hypoxia microenvironment in the treatment of leukemias.

Han X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2011

To investigate the in vitro effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on hepcidin of monocytes and its molecular mechanisms. Hepcidin and signaling molecules including C/EBPalpha, Smad1/5/8, p-Smad1/5/8 and p-STAT3 were detected by real time PCR and Western blot. THP-1 monocytes were stimulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EPO receptor (EPOR) antibody was added to observe its antagonistic effect on EPO and impact on the signaling proteins. EPO suppressed mRNA expression of THP-1 hepcidin of monocytes induced by 20 ng/ml IL-6 or 1 microg/ml LPS in both dose and time dependent manner. The most decrease of hepcidin expression was observed at 2 IU/ml EPO for 6 hours. EPO also down-regulated hepcidin protein induced by 20 ng/ml IL-6. At 2 IU/ml EPO for 6 hours hepcidin protein was down-regulated, as was C/EBPalpha, p-Smad1/5/8 and p-STAT3. Antibody to EPOR antagonized the down-regulation of EPO on hepcidin and signaling proteins. Monocytes hepcidin can be reduced by EPO when stimulated by IL-6 or LPS. The mechanism of which may be at least in part, via suppression of C/EBPalpha, p-Smad1/5/8 and p-STAT3 signaling.

Wang R.J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intracellular acidification on accumulation of rhodamine 123 (rh123) in non-mature cells with none or low expression of multidrug resistance MDR1. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Confocal laser microscopy was used to determine the calibration curve of intracellular acidification (pHi). MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of intracellular acidification on HL-60, MSC and CD34(+) cells from umbilical cord blood. Flow cytometry was applied to measure the influence of intracellular acidification. The results indicated that the intracellular acidification had no obvious cytotoxicity on HL-60, MSC and CD34(+) cells. The acidification resulted in the increased rhodamine 123 accumulation in HL-60, MSC and CD34(+) cells without P-gp activity. Moreover, the more primitive cells, the less accumulation of intracellular Rh123 were observed. It is concluded that the intracellular acidification can reverse the MDR of HL-60, MSC and CD34(+) cells.

Zhang X.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

To determine whether or not enterovirus 71 (enteroviurs 71, EV71) may induce autophagy and affect the production and release of EV71 after the treatment of autophagy inhibitor. Western blots were performed to examine the conversion of LC3-I to LC3- II and the degradation of P62 after the RD-A cells were infected with EV71. CCID50 was determined by checking the virus titer in the supernatant of cells that treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. EV71 infection enhances the type conversion of LC3 and degradation of P62. The infectious virus particles were decreased after the treatment of 3-MA. EV71 infection could induce cell autophagy and the autophagy might contribute to the production and release of infectious EV71 particles.

Yang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Annals of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting (AFG) has been widely used to treat progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA). However, objective and quantitative analyses in patients with PHA are complicated because of multidimensional atrophy and fat absorption. This study aimed to introduce a new method to predict volumetric deficiency of soft tissues and objectively evaluate the survival of grafted fat with 3-dimensional (3D) and mirror-image analysis (MIA). METHODS: Thirty-one patients with PHA were classified into 2 groups based on the location of the facial midsagittal plane (FMP), which was established through our proposed method using nasion (point a), anterior nasal spine (point b), and pogonion (point c). The included cases with centered FMP were treated using serial AFG and followed up for 12 to 15 months. Images were obtained preoperatively (pre-OP) and postoperatively at 2 time points (3 months and 12 months). Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) was performed before the first surgery to locate the FMP and predict the volumetric deficiency of soft tissues with MIA. Three months after the first surgery, 3D laser scanning was conducted to evaluate the volume of surviving fat. Patient characteristics, satisfaction, and soft tissue augmentation results were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases (9 men and 18 women) with PHA were included and treated using serial AFG (mean number of operation, 3.1 times). The mean age was 22.1 years. With 3D CT or 3D laser-scanning camera and MIA, we obtained the mean deficient volume of the affected area (30.48 mm) and the mean volume of the total fat injection (133.61 mm). The mean fat absorption ratio was 47.92%. The mean satisfaction score immediately obtained at first postoperative (score = 4.3) was higher than that at 3 months postoperatively (score = 4.1) and 12 months postoperatively (score = 4.0). No complications and donor-site morbidity were noted. CONCLUSION: The facial symmetry of patients with centered FMP can be successfully restored using serial AFG alone. The combined 3D and MIA can be used to predict the volumetric deficiency of soft tissues and objectively evaluate the survival of grafted fat. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Zhao Z.-M.,Peking Union Medical College
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To propose landmarks and a new coordinate system to aid three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of adolescent cleft lip and palate (CLP) using computed tomography (CT) imaging.METHODS: Sixty-four-row CT images obtained from 52 adolescent patients were retrospectively analyzed with the MIMICS program (MIMICS 10.02; Materialise Technologies, Leuven, Belgium) to determine intrarater reliability of new landmarks for three-dimensional cephalometric analysis before surgery.RESULTS: Five points were located on each image including the midpoint between both uppermost external points of the external auditory meatus (EAM), the center of the sella turcica (sella, S), the most anterior point on the nasofrontal suture in the midline (nasion, N), and the right and left lowest points of the lower edge of the orbitale (r/l orbitale, r/l Or). The horizontal reference plane was then determined using EAM and bilateral Or. The sagittal reference plane was defined perpendicular to the horizontal plane, passing through N and S. The coronal reference plane included the EAM landmark and was perpendicular to the sagittal and horizontal planes. All 5 points had high intrarater reliability and proved easy to use in constructing the new coordinate system. The horizontal, sagittal, and coronal reference planes formed by these respective points improved the ease of performing three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of CLP adolescents with CT imaging.CONCLUSIONS: Our 5 landmarks provided reliable CT-guided three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of CLP, allowing for accurate quantitative assessment in adolescents before orthognathic surgery. © 2014 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Cichorium endivia. L, consumed either cooked or eaten raw in salads, is a popular kind of vegetable cultivated all around the World. Its components have been widely used in folk medicine in anti-inflammatory therapy. However, the anti-cancer activity of the components has never been reported. In this study, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (1), an amino acid isolated from C. endivia. L, was found for the first time to show cytotoxic activity in colorectal cancer cell line HCT-8. Compound 1 at concentrations of 0.5-4 μM induced apoptosis of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The compound 1-induced apoptosis in HCT-8 cells was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. In addition, compound 1 suppressed the activation of NF-κB, which acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that compound 1 could significantly induce apoptosis of HCT-8 cells through the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway, and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for developing chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer.

Guo Z.-R.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of New Drugs | Year: 2012

Pharmacophore-based drug design is one of the important approaches for follow-on drug discovery. A pharmacophore model was first constructed from known COX-2 inhibitors, and then, two series of unsaturated pyrrolinone compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro for the inhibitory effects on COX-2 and COX-1 enzymes. In order to avoid cardiovascular risks induced by high selective COX-2 inhibitors, the project advocated the conception of "moderate selectivity" for COX-2 enzyme. Virtually, instead of highly selective COX-2 inhibitors, carefully balanced inhibition to both COX-1 and COX-2 was pursued to maintain the homeostasis of the two enzymes in the body, which is presumably critical to normal functions of the cardiovascular system. Accordingly, potent molecules with moderate selectivity were further evaluated in vivo for their anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Sub-acute toxicity trials and pharmacokinetic studies on rats were successively conducted. From the comprehensive consideration of PD, PK, safety, and preparation cost, a drug candidate, Imrecoxib, was selected for pre-clinical trails and the phases I, II, and III clinical investigations. Imrecoxib has been proved to be an effective and safe medicine for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and approved by the SFDA for Chinese market.

Guo S.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To investigate the main proteinases responsible for CD16b shedding under different stimulators. HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was constructed by lentivirus system. The cell line was then overexpressed with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) or ADAM17, suppressed with short hairpin RNA of ADAM10 or ADAM17, and reconstituted with ADAM10 or ADAM17, respectively. After each treatment, the cell line was stimulated with ionomycin or phorbol 12-myristate- 13-acetate (PMA) for 12 hours. The soluble CD16b released from cell membrane was detected by immunoprecipition and immunoblot. Quantitation was then implemented to compare the amount of soluble CD16b in cell supernatant after stimulation. HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was successfully established. When CD16b expressing cell line was overexpressed with ADAM10, shedding of CD16b was increased after stimulation with ionomycin but not PMA; when the cell line overexpressed with ADAM17, shedding of CD16b was increased after stimulation with PMA but not ionomycin. Similarly, when ADAM10 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA, CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with ionomycin; when ADAM17 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA, CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with PMA. The shedding of CD16b was increased again when CD16b expressing cell line was reconstituted with ADAM10 and stimulated by ionomycin or reconstituted with ADAM17 and stimulated by PMA. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 could shed CD16b, but they possess differed preferences. ADAM10 is the main sheddase under stimulation of ionomycin, while ADAM17 is the main sheddase under stimulation of PMA.

Long F.Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical journal | Year: 2012

Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) subsp. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis. Analysis of recombinant antigens of T. pallidum led to the identification of potential candidate antigens for vaccine development and syphilis serodiagnosis. Tp0965 was predicted to be a membrane fusion protein and was found to be reactive with infected human sera in previous studies, but the results were controversial. In this research, the antigenicity and immunoreactivity of recombinant protein Tp0965 were assessed. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain) was propagated and isolated and the genomic DNA was extracted. The Tp0965 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the recombinant protein Tp0965 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) purification system. The reactivities of protein Tp0965 were examined by immunoblot analysis and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antisera against protein Tp0965 were obtained by immune rabbits and the immunogenicity of antisera were detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant protein Tp0965 was expressed successfully in vitro. Immunoblot assay showed that the recombinant protein Tp0965 could be recognized by human syphilitic sera of all stages. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed there were only 4 of 74 human syphilitic sera that failed to show reactivity to recombinant antigen Tp0965, and lack of reactivity of Tp0965 to all 28 uninfected sera. A low titer of antiserum against Tp0965 in immune rabbits could be detected after the third time of immunization. The recombinant antigen Tp0965 shows excellent sensitivity for the reactivity with sera from syphilitic individuals at all stages. The results also demonstrate a potential application for the serodiagnosis of syphilis.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC catalyzes the deamination of phenylalanine to cinnamate and ammonia, the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway. PALs are ubiquitous in plants and also commonly found in fungi, but have not yet been detected in animals. Typically, PAL is encoded by a small multigene family and the presence of PAL isoforms is a common observation. PAL belongs to the 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one-containing ammonia-lyase family and has been shown to exist as a tetramer. Both the forward and reverse reactions catalyzed by PALs were of great interest and have potential industrial and medical applications. This review, therefore, covers the recent developments related to the PAL gene distribution, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family, structure and function study of PALs, as well as several potential applications of PALs. As a key gateway enzyme linking the phenylpropanoid secondary pathway to primary metabolism, PALs were extensively applied in heterologous hosts to produce phenylpropanoids. The review thereby highlights the synthetic potentials of PALs as a key component used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Moreover, the other potential PAL applications, like enzyme replacement therapy of phenylketonuria, as a therapeutic enzyme in cancer treatment and microbial production of l-phenylalanine are also discussed in detail. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of potential applications of PALs than previously available. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

BACKGROUND:: Recent literatures reveal that water-jet assisted liposuction offers a new method to conventional liposuction techniques by using the gentle spray of fluid. However, there has not yet been a systematic, randomized, controlled study to demonstrate its effect on fresh lipoaspirates’ vitality and postoperative fat survival. In this study, we compared the liposuction procedure with or without water-jet assistance respectively in a blinded way.METHODS:: Human lipoaspirates were obtained from healthy Chinese female volunteers for body shaping. Lipoaspirates were harvested by a single surgeon using same material and machine, water-jet assistance was the only variance in this study. At the beginning of surgery, we randomly did conventional manual liposuction without water-jet assistance for one side to get 50ml lipoaspirates (group B). At the corresponding area of the other side, we adopted the water-jet assisted liposuction to obtain another 50ml lipoaspirates (group A). All the harvested lipoaspirates were used in the in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of water-jet force on fresh lipoaspirates’ vitality and postoperative fat survival.RESULTS:: Fresh lipoaspirates from group A have greater viability and higher percentage of CD34+/CD45- cells than group B. Grafted lipoaspirates in group A have better weight retention, less apoptosis and greater angiogenesis.CONCLUSIONS:: The fate of grafted lipoaspirates was affected by water-jet force. With the assistance of water-jet force during harvesting procedure, we could obtain more viable lipoaspirates, and gain better fat survival result. ©2014American Society of Plastic Surgeons

Wu Z.H.,Peking Union Medical College
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences | Year: 2013

Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

Han X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2011

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the major means of treating anemia of chronic disease (ACD) through stimulating hematopoiesis, inhibiting hepcidin and decreasing proinflammatory factors. Recently, it has been found that monocytes are another source of hepcidin. EPO can reduce the hepcidin stimulated by IL-6 in monocytes, it is assumed that EPO can reduce hepcidin indirectly by reducing IL-6. However, the specific mechanism of EPO inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes is unclear now. This study was purposed to investigate the effect of EPO on monocyte proinflammatory factors and its molecular mechanism. IL-6 mRNA and TNF-α mRNA were detected by real time PCR, level of signaling molecule PARP-1 protein was detected by Western blot. THP-1 monocytes were stimulated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to observe the impact of EPO at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 U/ml) for different time (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours) on the expression of IL-6 mRNA, TNF-α mRNA and PARP-1 protein. 1 μg/ml or 5 μg/ml EPO receptor (EPOR) antibody and/or 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB, PARP-1 inhibitor) were added to observe the antagonistic effect on EPO and the impact on PARP-1. The results showed that LPS could stimulate the THP-1 cells. EPO could decrease the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α stimulated by LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manners. The most significant decrease in IL-6 mRNA expression was observed in 2 U/ml EPO for 6 hours. And down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA expression was pronounced at 10 U/ml EPO for 3 hours. IL-6 mRNA expression could be stimulated by LPS, PARP-1 protein was induced at the same time. EPO inhibited the expression of IL-6 mRNA, while PARP-1 protein also decreased. Down-regulation of IL-6 mRNA and PARP-1 protein level was pronounced at 2 U/ml EPO for 6 hours. 3AB is a direct inhibitor of PARP-1. Similar to 3AB, EPO receptor antibody could antagonize the decline of IL-6 induced by EPO. It is concluded that EPO can inhibit the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in monocytes, and the inhibition of IL-6 expression may be associated with decrease of PARP level.

Li-Shan L.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To construct the zinc finger protein-activating transcription factor (ZFP-ATF) plasmid and evaluate its efficacy in inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in EY.HY926 endothelial cells. Firstly, we constructed the ZFP-ATF plasmid, then testified the quantity of VEGF protein in EY.HY926 endothelial cells after transfected with ZFP-ATP plasmid by Western blot, finally, we used the RT-PCR to testify whether the ZFP-ATF can stimulate expression of VEGF splice variants. The ZFP-ATF DNA sequences were located the multiclone sites of PVAX1 vector between the site of BamH1and Xhol.Western blot result showed VEGF expression in EY.HY926 endothelial cells transfected with ZFP-ATF plasmid was significantly higher than that in cells transfected with VEGF165 (19.95±3.95 vs.12.15±1.55 μg÷μL, P<0.01).RT-PCR result showed VEGF-A mRNA expression level induced by ZFP-ATF was high than that induced by VEGF165. ZFP-ATF can up-regulate the VEGF-A expression in comparison with VEGF165, which might have beneficial effects in angiogenesis process.

Lu S.,Peking Union Medical College | Lu S.,North Carolina State University | Yang C.,North Carolina State University | Chiang V.L.,North Carolina State University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Plants develop important regulatory networks to adapt to the frequently-changing availability of copper (Cu). However, little is known about miRNA-associated Cu-regulatory networks in plant species other than Arabidopsis. Here, we report that Cu-responsive miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray) include not only conserved miR397, miR398 and miR408, but also Populus-specific miR1444, suggesting the conservation and diversity of Cu-responsive miRNAs in plants. Copper-associated suppression of mature miRNAs is in company with the up-regulation of their target genes encoding Cu-containing proteins in Populus. The targets include miR397-targeted PtLAC5, PtLAC6 and PtLAC110a, miR398-targeted PtCSD1, PtCSD2a and PtCSD2b, miR408-targeted PtPCL1, PtPCL2, PtPCL3 and PtLAC4, and miR1444-targeted PtPPO3 and PtPPO6. Consistently, P. trichocarpa miR408 promoter-directed GUS gene expression is down-regulated by Cu in transgenic tobacco plants. Cu-response elements (CuREs) are found in the promoters of Cu-responsive miRNA genes. We identified 34 SQUAMOSA-promoter binding protein-like (SPL) genes, of which 17 are full-length PtSPL proteins or partial sequences with at least 300 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that PtSPL3 and PtSPL4 are CuRE-binding proteins controlling Cu-responsive gene expression. Cu appears to be not involved in the regulation of these transcription factors because neither PtSPL3 nor PtSPL4 is Cu-regulated and no CuRE exists in their promoters. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Yang K.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang T.-P.,Capital Medical University | Tian C.,Capital Medical University | Jia L.-X.,Capital Medical University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Background The carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP), an E3 ligase/chaperone, was found to protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis induced by ischemic injury; however, the functional role of CHIP in remodeling induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) remains unclear.MethodsWe generated CHIP-overexpressed transgenic (TG) mice infused with Ang II (1,500 ng/kg/min) or saline for days or small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Heart sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and immunohistochemistry, and the levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were measured by western blot analysis.ResultsSeven days after Ang II infusion, cardiac-specific overexpression of CHIP significantly enhanced cardiac contractile performance in mice and attenuated cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, and inflammation: the number of TUNEL-positive cells, fibrotic areas, macrophage infiltration, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in heart tissues were decreased as compared with wild-type (WT) mice (all P < 0.05). In contrast, CHIP siRNA knockdown markedly increased Ang II-induced apoptosis and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as compared with siRNA control. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial actions were associated with CHIP-mediated inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK (p38 and JNK) pathways.ConclusionsCHIP plays an important role in regulating Ang II-triggered hypertensive cardiac apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

Zhijian X.,Peking Union Medical College
Journal of Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2015

The novel second or next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique enables comprehensive mutational profiling analysis in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). JAK2, MPL and CALR gene mutations are successfully introduced into diagnostic practice, mutations in genes may impact outcomes such as survival and risk of leukemic transformation, therefore, molecular mutation analysis is ready for use in all patients with suspected MPN. © 2015 by the Chinese Medical Association.

Tian Z.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2011

To explore the potential role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the assessment of patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Thirty patients with CTD associated PAH were evaluated by WHO function, echocardiography, right heart catheterization and blood biomarkers. All the clinical data was analyzed statistically. All patients [age (39.5 ± 11.6) yr] were female. Both NT-proBNP and BNP were significantly increased and significantly correlated (all P < 0.05) respectively with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r = 0.53 and r = 0.40), right arterial pressure (r = 0.55 and r = 0.42), pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.69 and r = 0.61), cardiac index (r = -0.58 and r = -0.46), mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (r = -0.62 and r = -0.54), pericardial effusion (r = 0.46 and r = 0.43), right atrial sizes (r = 0.40 and 0.53, and r = 0.39 and 0.45) and right ventricular size (r = 0.55 and r = 0.37). Furthermore, NT-proBNP, but not BNP, significantly correlated with WHO function class (r = 0.55). Blood NT-proBNP and BNP were elevated in patients with CTD associated PAH and paralleled the extent of function class, pulmonary hemodynamic changes and right ventricular remodeling.

Zhao J.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

The formulation on the eye health by WHO had an obvious change in recent years. Before 2006, WHO and WHA solutions clearly put forward the prevention of blindness. After 2006, WHO and WHA solutions on the eye health emphasized the elimination of the avoidable blindness and visual impairment. This change extends the scope of eye health, reflects the important progress on the global eye health, and also reflects the social progress and the increase to the need on eye health by the public. This change conforms to the actual situation in China. It is necessary to adopt elimination of the avoidable blindness and visual impairment as the priorities in eye health in making the 13th national plan of blindness prevention. This change is not merely a matter of wording, but also a great change in the working content in eye health. The change demonstrates the deep development on the eye health, and may benefit more people and promote the further development of eye health and ophthalmology in China. Copyright © 2015 by the Chinese Medical Association.

Niu N.,Peking Union Medical College
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

A 74-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with recurrent ameloblastoma of the right mandible. Multiple lung nodules were noted during the presurgical evaluation. FDG PET/CT was subsequently performed to assess the nature of the nodules and search the possible primary tumors. The images showed abnormal FDG activity not only in the lung nodules but also in the lumbar vertebral body and the liver. Pathologic examination after hepatic biopsy demonstrated metastases from ameloblastoma.

Liu J.M.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2010

To assess the effectiveness and safety of using tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss in spine surgery through a meta-analysis. Literatures before November 2009 were identified from the PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane library, CNKI and VIP databases. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were also searched manually. This study only enrolled high quality (Jadad scores ≥ 3) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two independent reviewers searched and assessed the literatures.Weighted mean difference (WMD) of blood loss and blood transfusions, odds ratio (OR) of transfusion rate and of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rate in TXA-treated group versus placebo group were calculated across the studies. The statistical analysis were conducted by the software of RevMan 4.2. Four double-blinded RCTs met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The total sample size of these studies was 295. The use of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss [WMD = -523.74, 95%CI (-778.92, -268.56), P < 0.01], blood volumes of transfusion [WMD = -242.28, 95%CI (-394.02, -90.54), P = 0.002] and proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion [OR = 0.57, 95%CI (0.34, 0.93), P = 0.020], while did not raise the risk of DVT, as compared with placebo group. This meta-analysis indicates that the use of TXA infusion for patients undergoing spine surgery is effective in reducing total blood loss, transfusion volumes and the rate of transfusion, yet doesn't raise the risk of postoperative DVT.

Gao W.,Yunnan Normal University | Shi L.,Peking Union Medical College
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2013

Ontology similarity calculation iswidely used in various fields such as biology science. In this paper, we propose new algorithmsfor ontology similarity measurement such that the new computational models consider operational cost in the real implement. Then, we apply it into biology science and it is highlighted that new calculating version is designed for multidividing setting. The experiment dataon "Go" ontology demonstrate the new algorithm have higher efficiency in biology science application. © 2013 Trade Science Inc. - INDIA.

Mu X.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Mu X.,Peking Union Medical College | Zheng W.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Sun J.,CAS National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Small | Year: 2013

Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications. Microfluidics possesses scale effects and other attractive properties, demonstrating great advantages in manipulating and analyzing cells. It demonstrates huge capability and potential to expedite both fundamental biology studies and clinical applications. This review presents current achievements and challenges as well as future directions, with focus on cell and microenvironment patterning, cell screening, and single-cell analysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Dimopoulos M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Siegel D.S.,Hackensack University Medical Center | Lonial S.,Emory University | Qi J.,Peking Union Medical College | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: We aimed to assess efficacy and tolerability of vorinostat in combination with bortezomib for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Methods: In our randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years) at 174 university hospitals in 31 countries worldwide. Eligible patients had to have non-refractory multiple myeloma that previously responded to treatment (one to three regimens) but were currently progressing, ECOG performance statuses of 2 or less, and no continuing toxic effects from previous treatment. We excluded patients with known resistance to bortezomib. We randomly allocated patients (1:1) using an interactive voice response system to receive 21 day cycles of bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) in combination with oral vorinostat (400 mg) or matching placebo once-daily on days 1-14. We stratified patients by baseline tumour stage (International Staging System stage 1 or stage ≥2), previous bone-marrow transplantation (yes or no), and number of previous regimens (1 or ≥2). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed adverse events in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number 00773747. Findings: Between Dec 24, 2008, and Sept 8, 2011, we randomly allocated 317 eligible patients to the vorinostat group (315 of whom received at least one dose) and 320 to the placebo group (all of whom received at least one dose). Median PFS was 7·63 months (95% CI 6·87-8·40) in the vorinostat group and 6·83 months (5·67-7·73) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·64-0·94; p=0·0100). 312 (99%) of 315 patients in the vorinostat group and 315 (98%) of 320 patients in the placebo group had adverse events (300 [95%] adverse events in the vorinostat group and 282 [88%] in the control group were regarded as related to treatment). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (143 [45%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 77 [24%] patients in the placebo group), neutropenia (89 [28%] vs 80 [25%]), and anaemia (53 [17%] vs 40 [13%]). Interpretation: Although the combination of vorinostat and bortezomib prolonged PFS relative to bortezomib and placebo, the clinical relevance of the difference in PFS between the two groups is not clear. Different treatment schedules of bortezomib and vorinostat might improve tolerability and enhance activity. Funding: Merck. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

To compare the plasma concentrations of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-proBNP) in patients with heart failure due to various heart diseases and analyze the influencing factors. We enrolled a total of 804 heart failure patients due to various heart diseases, including valvular heart disease (VHD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), ischemic heart diseases (IHD), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), pulmonary heart disease (PHD) and adult congenital heart disease (CHD). The plasma concentration of NT-proBNP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to detect the influencing factors for the plasma concentration of NT-proBNP. The plasma concentration of NT-proBNP had no significant difference between patients with VHD, DCM, IHD, RCM, HCM, PHD, HHD and CHD. The median (25 percent, 75 percent) values were 1866 (803 - 3973), 2247 (1087 - 3865), 2400 (1182 - 4242), 2456 (1385 - 5839), 2204 (1053 - 3186), 2285 (1155 - 3424), 2313 (655 - 3850) and 2768 (795 - 4371) pmol/L respectively (P > 0.05). It increased with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class from II through III to IV. The median (25 percent, 75 percent) values were 646 (447 - 1015), 2160 (1118 - 3750) and 3342 (1549 - 5455) pmol/L respectively (P < 0.01). The patients with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 kg/cm(2) had a lower NT-proBNP concentration than those with a BMI of < 25 kg/cm(2). The median (25 percent, 75 percent) values were 1468 (784 - 3177) and 2424 (1090 - 4213) pmol/L respectively (P < 0.01). Patients with a serum creatinine concentration of ≥ 107 μmol/L had a higher NT-proBNP concentration than those < 107 μmol/L. The median (25 percent, 75 percent) values were 3337 (1470 - 5380) and 1644 (781 - 3375) pmol/L respectively (P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that NYHA class, creatinine, BMI, hepatic damage and diastolic pressure were independently associated with the plasma concentration of NT-proBNP (all P < 0.01). The plasma concentration of NT-proBNP has no significant difference between heart failure patients due to various heart diseases. Its level may be affected by NYHA class, serum creatinine, BMI, hepatic damage and diastolic pressure.

Sun F.,Peking Union Medical College
Clinical and experimental rheumatology | Year: 2013

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease with a complex genetic background. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BANK1 and FAM167A-BLK genes have been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the BANK1 (rs4522865, rs17266594, and rs10516487) and in the FAM167A-BLK region (rs2736340, rs13277113) could be associated with pSS in Chinese Han. Blood DNA was extracted from 540 patients with pSS and 577 healthy controls, and genotyped using the Sequenom MassArray system. There was no significant association between the polymorphisms of BANK1 and pSS. However, the frequency of Pss patients with the T allele (rs2736340) and A allele (rs13277113) of the FAM167A-BLK region was higher than that in the controls (p=0.034; p=0.026 respectively). Genotype and haplotype frequencies of these two SNPs (rs2736340 and rs13277113) between the patients and healthy controls were also significantly different. In addition, associations were observed between the two SNPs and the patients negative for anti-LA/SSB antibodies (p=0.036 and p=0.031 respectively). There was no epistatic interaction between the SNPs in the BANK1 and FAM167A-BLK region. Our results indicated that the SNPs (rs2736340, rs13277113) of the FAM167A-BLK region, but not the BANK1 SNPs (rs4522865, rs17266594, and rs10516487), were associated with the development of pSS in Han Chinese.

Wang L.,Peking Union Medical College
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2016

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis) is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat PBC. However, one-third of patients show incomplete responses to ursodeoxycholic acid and a poor prognosis. A number of old and new medications have been used in these patients, such as fibrates, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, obeticholic acid, mesenchymal stem cells, biological agents (anti-interleukin-12, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin, anti-CD20), and antifibrotic drugs. This article reviews the therapeutic advances of these old and new medications in patients with PBC. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Zheng Z.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2010

To construct a scoring system for the prediction of in-hospital mortality in Chinese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). From 2007 to 2008, complete clinical information of 9564 consecutive CABG patients was collected from Chinese coronary artery bypass grafting registry which recruited patients from 43 Chinese centers. This database was randomly divided into developmental and validation subsets (9:1). A risk model was developed using logistic regression. Calibration and discrimination characteristics were assessed in the validation dataset. Thresholds were defined for each model to distinguish different risk groups. The risk model was compared with EuroSCORE system in the validation dataset. In the developmental dataset, calibration by Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test was P = 0.44 and discrimination by area under ROC (AUC) was 0.80. In the validation dataset, HL test was P = 0.34, AUC was 0.78. The performance turned out good for all three risk groups. Superiority were found over EuroSCORE (HL P = 0.60; AUC 0.73). The scoring system identified 11 risk factors (with weights in brackets): age over 65 (65 - 69, 3; 70 - 74, 5; over 75, 6), preoperative NYHA stage (NHYA III, 3; NHYA IV, 7), chronic renal failure (6), extracardiac arteriopathy (5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4), Preoperative atrial fibrillation or flutter (within two weeks) (2), left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% (4), other than elective surgery (5), combined valve procedure (4), preoperative critical state (4), BMI (> 24 kg/m(2), -2; < 18 kg/m(2), 5). This study constructs a simple, objective and accurate risk stratification system for Chinese patients undergoing CABG using the most up-to-date data.

Wang Y.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2010

To investigate the relationship between the distribution of nerve fibers in multiple endometriosis lesions and pelvic pain. From Sept. 2007 to Sept. 2008, 120 endometriosis patients treated in Peking Union Hospital were enrolled in this study, which including 19 cases with stage I, 29 cases with stage II, 44 cases with stage III and 28 cases with stage IV. The pain symptom was evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) score and nerve fibers in multiple endometriosis lesions were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The number of nerve fibers in multiple endometriosis lesions were (29.74+/-17.33)/mm2 in uterosacral ligament, (24.53+/-13.34)/mm2 in vaginal septum, (17.09+/-10.09)/mm2 in uterus rectum crux, (6.77+/-4.21)/mm2 in peritoneal endometriosis lesions, (0.07+/-0.25)/mm2 in endometriosis ovarian cyst wall. The number of nerve fibers in uterosacral ligament was mostly correlated with the degree of pain (r=0.56). The nerve fibers of uterus rectum crux and vaginal septum were correlated with defecation pain (r=0.58 and 0.41) and dyspareunia (r=0.82 and 0.67), which were significantly higher than those in endometriosis leision in peritoneum and ovary. There was no significant different number of nerve fibers among different stage disease (P>0.05). There was significantly different distribution of nerve fibers in multiple endometriosis lesions, which was correlated with dysmenorrhea, anus pain, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain, not with clinical staging.

Liu C.Z.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To investigate the expression profile of microRNA-21 in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and to validate its bona fide targets in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. The expression profile of microRNA-21 in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cholangiocarcinoma cell line, QBC939, was evaluated by using real-time PCR analysis. The bona fide targets of microRNA-21 were analyzed and confirmed by dual luciferase reporter gene assay and western blot, respectively. The expressional correlation of microRNA-21 and its targets was probed in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues by using real-time PCR, locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH), and immunohistochemistry analysis. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that microRNA-21 expression depicted a significant up-regulation in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues about 5.6-fold as compared to the matched normal bile duct tissues (P<0.05). The dual luciferase reporter gene assay revealed endogenous microRNA-21 in cholangiocarcinoma cell line, QBC939, inhibited the luciferase reporter activities of wild-type PTEN (P<0.01) and PDCD4 (P<0.05) and had no this effect on mutated PTEN and PDCD4. Moreover, loss of microRNA-21 function led to a significant increase of PTEN and PDCD4 protein levels in QBC939 cells. Elevated microRNA-21 levels were accompanied by marked reductions of PTEN and PDCD4 expression in the same cholangiocarcinoma tissue. microRNA-21 expression is up-regulated in human cholangiocarcinoma and PTEN, PDCD4 are direct effectors of microRNA-21.

Objective: Myocardial edema plays an important role in the development of myocardial no-reflow and reperfusion injury after the revascularization of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study investigated whether the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) against myocardial no-reflow and reperfusion injury was related to the reduction of myocardial edema through the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Methods: Twenty-four minipigs were randomized into sham, AMI, IPC, and IPC + H-89 (PKA inhibitor, 1.0 μg · kg-1 · min-1) groups. The area of no-reflow (ANR), area of necrosis (AN), and water content in left ventricle and ischemic-myocardium and non-ischemic area were determined by pathological studies. Microvascular permeability was determined by FITC-labeled dextran staining. Cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) and mitochondria cross-sectional area (MSA) were evaluated by histological analysis. Myocardial expression of aquaporins (AQPs) was detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the MI group, the sizes of no-reflow and infarct were reduced by 31.9% and 46.6% in the IPC group (all P < 0.01), water content was decreased by 5.7% and 4.6% in the reflow and no-reflow myocardium of the IPC group (all P < 0.05), microvascular permeability and cardiomyocytes swelling in the reflow area were inhibited by 29.8% and 21.3% in the IPC group (all P < 0.01), mitochondrial water accumulation in the reflow and no-reflow areas of the IPC group were suppressed by 45.5% and 34.8% respectively (all P < 0.01), and the expression of aquaporin-4, -8, and -9 in the reflow and no-reflow myocardium were blocked in the IPC group. However, these beneficial effects of IPC were partially abolished in the IPC + H-89 group. Conclusions: The cardioprotective effects of IPC against no-reflow and reperfusion injury is partly related to the reduction of myocardial edema by inhibition of microvascular permeability and aquaporins up-regulation via PKA pathway. Copyright © 2012 by the Chinese Medical Association.

Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method.

Chen L.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

Adenovirus remains a significant threat to public health. Recent studies showed that bats can harbor diverse adenoviruses. To further investigate the distribution and genetic diversity of bat adenoviruses in China, we collected throat and anal swab samples of 11 bat species from 6 provinces of China, including Beijing, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hainan. Nested PCR was used to identify potential bat adenoviruses from the samples, and positive results were cloned and sequenced for genetic diversity study. In addition, nucleotide sequence alignments based on corresponding amino acid sequence similarities were used for phylogenetic analyses. Our results showed that about 20% of bat species in China are positive to adenoviruses, and Myotis ricketti is likely to be the most important host of bat adenoviruses in all locations. Moreover, we identified two diverse sequences of bat adenoviruses from the same sample of Ia io in Guizhou province of China. In general, the average nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities of the conserved region of DNA polymerases of bat adenoviruses are 66.6% and 74.7%, respectively. The differences between bat species and their residences environments may have driven the adaptive evolution of the viruses, leading to the genetic diversity of the bat adenoviruses.

Qin W.,Peking Union Medical College
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

To further understand the neural toxicity and teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs in clinic, we established a zebrafish model for antiepileptic toxicity using trimethadione as a probe drug. The results indicated that embryonic malformation occurred under trimethadione treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. The defects included growth retardation, small head, eyes and acoustic capsule, deficient semicircular canals and otolith, and abnormal cardiovascular system. The number of hair cells in neuromast ML2 was obviously reduced in the treated larvae. Whole mount in situ hybridization indicated that the gene expression patterns of brain marker genes, such as zic1 and xb51, and autophagic gene atg5 was changed significantly. The result of RT-PCR showed that the expressions of hearing genes val and hmx2 were also changed in the trimethadione-treated embryos. All these findings suggest that brain tissue and the neural sensors for body balance and hearing are the main targets of trimethadione toxicity, and that zebrafish is able to mimic mammal responses to the teratogenicity and the neural toxicity of trimethadione in the embryonic and larva development.

Yang L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to investigate the positivity of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the possible related risk factors for HPV infection in certain district government in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province. A total of 2015 female staffs who participated cervical cancer screening were selected as subjects, in certain district government in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province, from June to October, 2010. First of all, a standardized questionnaire was used for collection of subject's demographic information and possible risk factors. Afterwards, cervical cytological and HPV DNA testing were applied to all participants. Subjects with suspected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer were recalled for taking biopsy under colposcopy for further histopathological diagnosis. Standardized HPV positivity by Segi's world population and compared the difference of HPV positivity of different types. The positivity of HPV between women with and without cervical abnormalities were compared by unconditional logistic regression. And the possible risk factors for HPV infection were also investigated. A total of 1759 out of 2015 subjects had gynecological examination, among which 152 subjects were HPV positive. The positivity of HPV was 8.64% (95%CI: 7.37% - 10.05%), and it was 8.47% (95%CI: 7.93% - 9.03%) after age standardization. Finally, 57 (3.24%) and 1702 (96.76%) subjects had abnormal (≥ CIN1 or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)) and normal cervix, respectively. The HPV positivity between women with and without cervical abnormalities were 73.68% (42/57) and 6.46% (110/1702), respectively. There was a significant difference (χ(2) = 307.23, P < 0.05) in HPV positivity between women with and without cervical abnormalities. The risk of cervical abnormalities for women with HPV positivity was 40.52 times (95%CI: 21.79 - 75.36) higher than that for women with HPV negativity. Among women with cervical abnormalities, the most three common HPV types, in descending order, were HPV16 (28.07% (16/57)), HPV52 (14.04% (8/57)) and HPV58 (12.28% (7/57)). While among women with normal cervix, the most three common HPV types were HPV52 (1.23% (21/1702)), HPV16 (1.00% (17/1702)) and HPV58 (0.71% (12/1702)). The positivity of HPV clade A9 among women with and without cervical abnormalities were 59.65% (34/57) and 3.23% (55/1702), which were higher than that of other clades. Analysis for risk factors of HPV infection showed that smoking (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.00 - 7.33), late age (≥ 15 years old) of menarche (OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.00 - 2.05), early age (≤ 20 years old) of marriage (OR = 3.09, 95%CI: 1.30 - 7.35), multiple (≥ 2) sexual partners (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.46 - 4.95), husband's extramarital sexual behaviors (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.25 - 6.12) and multiple (≥ 2 times) parity (OR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.03 - 3.03) would increase the risk of HPV positivity. HPV positivity among women with cervical abnormalities was significantly higher than that among women with normal cervix. HPV16, 52, 58 were the major genotypes among the study population. Smoking, late age of menarche, early age of marriage, multiple sexual partners, husband extramarital sexual behaviors and multiple parity increase the risk of HPV infection.

Wang H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2010

To investigate whether adiponectin plays a role in the protection of myocardium in the rat myocardial ischemia preconditioning (IPC) model. Infarct size was measured by Masson's Trichrome staining, the expression of protein and mRNA of adiponectin at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h after IPC was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time RT-PCR, plasma levels of adiponectin at above mentioned four time points after IPC were detected by ELISA in IPC and MI rats. Infarct size was smaller in IPC than in MI rats (20% ± 2% vs. 31% ± 3%, P < 0.05). The expression of adiponectin mRNA at 6 h and 12 h after IPC was 2.2 and 2.1 times higher than in Sham rats at respective time points (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry staining evidenced increased adiponectin expression in the ischemic area and weak expression of adiponectin in non-ischemic area (P < 0.05). Compared to the sham group, the plasma level of adiponectin increased significantly at 0, 6 and 12 h after IPC (0 h: 7.40 ± 0.47 vs. 10.90 ± 1.74; 6 h: 8.18 ± 1.41 vs. 10.98 ± 1.74; 12 h: 6.97 ± 1.02 vs. 9.31 ± 0.96, P < 0.05). IPC reduced infarction size, upregulated the myocardial expression of adiponectin at mRNA and protein levels, and increased plasma adiponectin concentration, suggesting that the adiponectin may play a critical role in the protective effect of IPC.

Lou S.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Lou S.,Peking Union Medical College | MacLaren G.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | MacLaren G.,National University of Singapore | And 6 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: To explore the prevalence and risk factors for hemolysis in children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and examine the relationship between hemolysis and adverse outcomes. Design: Retrospective, single-center study. Setting: Tertiary PICU. Patients: Two hundred seven children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Plasma-free hemoglobin was tested daily and hemolysis was diagnosed based on peak plasma-free hemoglobin as mild (< 0.5 g/L), moderate (0.5-1.0 g/L), or severe (> 1.0 g/L). Gender, age, weight, diagnosis, oxygenator type, cannulation site, mean venous inlet pressure, mean pump speed, mean flow, and visible clots in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit were entered into the ordered logistic regression model to identify risk factors of hemolysis. Complications and clinical outcomes were compared across four hemolysis groups. Of the 207 patients, 69 patients (33.3%; 95% CI, 27.0-40.2%) did not have hemolysis, 98 patients (47.3%; 95% CI, 40.4-54.4%) had mild hemolysis, 26 patients (12.5%; 95% CI, 8.4-17.9%) had moderate hemolysis, and 14 patients (6.8%; 95% CI, 3.7-11.1%) had severe hemolysis with a median peak plasma-free hemoglobin of 1.51 g/L (1.18-2.05 g/L). The independent risk factors for hemolysis during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were use of Quadrox D (odds ratio, 7.25; 95% CI, 3.10-16.95; p < 0.001) or Lilliput (odds ratio, 37.32; 95% CI, 8.95-155.56; p < 0.001) oxygenators, mean venous inlet pressure (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; p = 0.002), and mean pump speed (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.36-6.14; p = 0.006). Patients with hemolysis were more likely to experience a longer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run and require more blood products. After controlling for age, weight, pediatric index of mortality 2, and diagnosis, patients with severe hemolysis were more likely to die in the ICU (odds ratio, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.64-21.43; p = 0.007) and in hospital (odds ratio, 6.34; 95% CI, 1.71-23.54; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Hemolysis during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with centrifugal pumps was common and associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Risk factors for hemolysis included oxygenator types, mean venous inlet pressure, and mean pump speed. Further studies are warranted comparing pump types while controlling both physical and nonphysical confounders. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The current study comprehensively examined the association between common variants in the Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) genes and blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention. A 7-day low-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium dietary intervention was conducted among 1906 Han participants from rural areas of northern China. Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. A mixed-effect model was used to assess the additive associations of 76 common variants in five NCBT genes, including SLC4A4, SLC4A5, SLC4A7, SLC4A8 and SLC4A10, with salt sensitivity phenotypes. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing. SLC4A4 marker rs4254735 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-sodium intervention (P=5.05 × 10-4), with mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) response of −2.91 (−3.21, −2.61) and −0.40 (−1.84, 1.05) mmHg for genotype AA and AG, respectively. In addition, BP responses to high-sodium intervention significantly increased with the number of minor C alleles of SLC4A4 marker rs10022637. Mean systolic BP responses among those with genotypes TT, CT and CC were 4.62 (4.29, 4.99), 5.94 (5.31, 6.58) and 6.00 (3.57, 8.43) mmHg (P=1.14 × 10-4); mean DBP responses were 1.72 (1.41, 2.03), 3.22 (2.52, 3.92) and 3.94 (1.88, 5.99) mmHg (P=2.26 × 10-5) and mean arterial pressure responses were 2.69 (2.40, 2.97), 4.13 (3.57, 4.70) and 4.61 (2.51, 6.71) mmHg (P=2.07 × 10-6), respectively. In brief, the present study indicated that common variants in the SLC4A4 gene might contribute to the variation of BP responses to dietary sodium intake in Han Chinese population.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 November 2015; doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.113. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Ma G.-L.,Peking Union Medical College
National Medical Journal of China | Year: 2013

Objective: To analyze the 64-slice computed tomographic (CT) perfusion parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodule so as to assess the diagnostic value of hemodynamic changes of HCC nodule by this perfusion technique. Methods: Forty volunteers without liver disease (control subjects) and 37 HCC patients (experimental group) were selected. After informed consents, all of them underwent plain, perfusion and contrast CT examinations. Perfusion CT scan was performed at 120 kV, 60 mA and a thickness of up to 40 mm. The injection rate of contrast medium was 4-5 ml/sec at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg body weight. And 50 seconds of continuous scanning time was set at 5 seconds post-injection. The indices were 1 second per 360° revolution, 5 mm slice thickness image reconstruction and a matrix size of 512 × 512 pixels. Perfusion parameters associated with changes in hepatic blood flow included blood flow (HBF), hepatic blood volume (HBV), hepatic arterial perfusion index (HAI), hepatic artery perfusion (HAP) and portal venous perfusion (HPP). Perfusion parameters were measured thrice at each timepoint for each different region of interest (ROI): hepatic parenchyma surrounding HCC nodule, HCC nodule and normal liver parenchyma (control group). Results: For HCC nodule, the increased levels of HBF, HAP and HAI were significantly differentiated from normal liver parenchyma of control group (P < 0.01). Increased HBV and decreased HPP had no difference from control group (P > 0.05). Higher levels of HAP, HPP and HAI in HCC nodules were differentiated from hepatic parenchyma surrounding HCC nodules (P < 0.05). HBV decreased and HBF increased in HCC nodule. But it had no differences from hepatic parenchyma surrounding HCC nodule (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Perfusion CT may visualize the status of liver blood flow caused by HCC nodule so as to serve as a new tool of studying the hemodynamic changes of HCC nodules. Copyright © 2013 by the Chinese Medical Association.

Miller V.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Miller V.A.,City College of New York | Hirsh V.,McGill University | Chen Y.-M.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Afatinib, an irreversible ErbB-family blocker, has shown preclinical activity when tested in EGFR mutant models with mutations that confer resistance to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess its efficacy in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with previous treatment failure on EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. Methods: In this phase 2b/3 trial, we enrolled patients with stage IIIB or IV adenocarcinoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance (ECOG) performance score of 0-2 who had received one or two previous chemotherapy regimens and had disease progression after at least 12 weeks of treatment with erlotinib or gefitinib. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly allocate patients (2:1) to either afatinib (50 mg per day) or placebo; all patients received best supportive care. Randomisation was done in blocks of three and was stratified by sex and baseline ECOG performance status (0-1 vs 2). Investigators, patients, and the trial sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (from date of randomisation to death), analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00656136. Findings: Between May 26, 2008, and Sept 21, 2009, we identified 697 patients, 585 of whom were randomly allocated to treatment (390 to afatinib, 195 to placebo). Median overall survival was 10·8 months (95% CI 10·0-12·0) in the afatinib group and 12·0 months (10·2-14·3) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 1·08, 95% CI 0·86-1·35; p=0·74). Median progression-free survival was longer in the afatinib group (3·3 months, 95% CI 2·79-4·40) than it was in the placebo group (1·1 months, 0·95-1·68; hazard ratio 0·38, 95% CI 0·31-0·48; p<0·0001). No complete responses to treatment were noted; 29 (7%) patients had a partial response in the afatinib group, as did one patient in the placebo group. Subsequent cancer treatment was given to 257 (68%) patients in the afatinib group and 153 (79%) patients in the placebo group. The most common adverse events in the afatinib group were diarrhoea (339 [87%] of 390 patients; 66 [17%] were grade 3) and rash or acne (305 [78%] patients; 56 [14%] were grade 3). These events occurred less often in the placebo group (18 [9%] of 195 patients had diarrhoea; 31 [16%] had rash or acne), all being grade 1 or 2. Drug-related serious adverse events occurred in 39 (10%) patients in the afatinib group and one (<1%) patient in the placebo group. We recorded two possibly treatment-related deaths in the afatinib group. Interpretation: Although we recorded no benefit in terms of overall survival with afatinib (which might have been affected by cancer treatments given after progression in both groups), our findings for progression-free survival and response to treatment suggest that afatinib could be of some benefit to patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who have failed at least 12 weeks of previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim Inc. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wu Y.,Tsinghua University | Zhao R.C.H.,Peking Union Medical College | Tredget E.E.,University of Alberta
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

Our understanding of the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in cutaneous homeostasis and wound healing had long been limited to the contribution of inflammatory cells. Recent studies, however, suggest that the BM contributes a significant proportion of noninflammatory cells to the skin, which are present primarily in the dermis in fibroblast-like morphology and in the epidermis in a keratinocyte phenotype; and the number of these BM-derived cells increases markedly after wounding. More recently, several studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells derived from the BM could significantly impact wound healing in diabetic and nondiabetic animals, through cell differentiation and the release of paracrine factors, implying a profound therapeutic potential. This review discusses the most recent understanding of the contribution of BM-derived noninflammatory cells to cutaneous homeostasis and wound healing. © AlphaMed Press.

BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is one of the most deadly forms of cancer worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often found to have important regulatory roles.OBJECTIVE: To assess the lncRNA expression profile of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and identify prognosis-related lncRNAs.METHOD: LncRNA expression profiles were studied by microarray in paired tumour and normal tissues from 119 patients with OSCC and validated by qRT-PCR. The 119 patients were divided randomly into training (n=60) and test (n=59) groups. A prognostic signature was developed from the training group using a random Forest supervised classification algorithm and a nearest shrunken centroid algorithm, then validated in a test group and further, in an independent cohort (n=60). The independence of the signature in survival prediction was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression analysis.RESULTS: LncRNAs showed significantly altered expression in OSCC tissues. From the training group, we identified a three-lncRNA signature (including the lncRNAs ENST00000435885.1, XLOC_013014 and ENST00000547963.1) which classified the patients into two groups with significantly different overall survival (median survival 19.2 months vs >60 months, p<0.0001). The signature was applied to the test group (median survival 21.5 months vs >60 months, p=0.0030) and independent cohort (median survival 25.8 months vs >48 months, p=0.0187) and showed similar prognostic values in both. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that the signature was an independent prognostic factor for patients with OSCC. Stratified analysis suggested that the signature was prognostic within clinical stages.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the three-lncRNA signature is a new biomarker for the prognosis of patients with OSCC, enabling more accurate prediction of survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

Zhou Q.,Fuzhou University | Lei X.-P.,Fuzhou University | Li J.-H.,Fuzhou University | Yan B.-F.,Fuzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2014

Zwitterionic monomer carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) is well known as an excellent hydrophilic and ion adsorption material. Herein, we created a PCBMA layer on PVDF membrane surface via physisorbed free radical polymerization grafting technique (P-FFPG) to improve its hydrophilicity, antifouling and inorganic salts separation property. The key factors of monomer concentration and reaction time which influence grafted density (GD) were investigated in the present work. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed that the CBMA monomer was grafted onto the membrane successfully. The surface chemistry composition was conducted via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly showed that the PCBMA layer formed on the membrane surface, and its grafted degree increased with the monomer concentration. The water static contact measurement confirmed that modified PVDF membranes obtained stable enhanced hydrophilicity and superior water adsorption ability. The static protein adsorption at different pH showed a partly pH sensitivity and an improving antifouling ability almost in the whole pH range. The ultrafiltration experiments suggested that the anti-protein fouling of the grafted membranes was significantly improved. The modified membrane possessed a stable initial sodium chloride (NaCl) rejection ratio and reversible flux behavior. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Chen R.,Peking Union Medical College | Yu Q.,Email
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2013

To investigate the characteristics of menopause of Chinese women with the age of 40-60 years concerning gynecologic clinics in China. From Mar.2008 to Sept.2008, a face-to-face questionnaire was conducted in gynecological clinic in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in 14 hospitals in China, which included general demographic data, menstrual change process, climacteric symptoms and knowledge about menopause. Modified Kupperman index were used to evaluate climacteric symptoms during the recent week and awareness of hormonal replacement therapy were studied. A total of 1641 women were investigated. The ages of onset of menopause transition, climacteric symptoms and natural menopause were (47 ± 4), (46 ± 4), (49 ± 3) years old respectively. Climacteric symptoms could be found in 78.43% (1287/1641) women during menopausal transition, which were mainly mild to moderate symptoms. The top 5 symptoms were fatigue and weakness (71.48%, 1173/1641), irritability (68.68%, 1127/1641), insomnia (67.65%, 1110/1641), muscle and joint pain (64.11%, 1052/1641) and hot flush (57.90%, 950/1641). The climacteric symptoms were not constant during menopausal transition, usually more severe in late transition and postmenopausal periods, during which the moderate and severe symptoms were 59.1% (189/320) and 51.1% (291/570) respectively. Although most symptoms primarily appeared along with menstruation change, there are about 17.5% (172/981) patients experienced climacteric symptoms before menstruation change occurrence. There were 56.39% (733/1300) women had ever heard (mostly from gynecologist) about hormone replacement therapy from Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Most of the women during menopausal transition had climacteric symptoms, usually mild and moderate ones. Although most symptoms primarily appeared along with menstruation change, there are other patients' experienced climacteric symptoms before menstruation change occurrence.

Wu Y.,Tsinghua University | Zhao R.C.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2012

A growing body of preclinical evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are effective for the structural and functional recovery of the infracted heart. Accordingly, clinical trials are underway to determine the benefit of MSC-based therapies. While systemic administration of MSCs is an attractive strategy, and is the route currently used for the administration of MSCs in clinical studies for myocardial infarction, the majority of infused cells do not appear to localize to infracted myocardium in animal studies. Recently, important progress has been made in identifying chemokine receptors critical for the migration and homing of MSCs. Here, we review recent literature regarding mechanisms of MSC homing and recruitment to the ischemic myocardium, and discuss potential influences of low engraftment rates of systemically administered MSCs to the infracted heart tissue on the effects of MSC-based therapies on myocardial infarction. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Dong M.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2010

To assess the efficacy of calcium-magnesium (Ca/Mg) infusion and glutathione (GSH) for preventing the neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin. This is a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trail. The patients receiving FOLFOX4 chemotherapy for their solid tumor were randomized to receive Ca/Mg, GSH or normal saline with chemotherapy simultaneously. The incidence and severity of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity were observed. The ECOG performance status was recorded and compared among the 3 groups. Ninety-three patients admitted in our department from Mar 2006 to Dec 2007 were entered into this study, including 29 patients in the Ca/Mg group, 33 in the GSH group and 31 in the chemotherapy alone group. The incidences of acute neurotoxicity were 82.8%, 90.9% and 93.5%, respectively. At the third cycle, the incidences of grade 1-2 chronic neurotoxicity were 37.9%, 48.5% and 42.0%, respectively. No grade 3 neuropathy was observed. After 6 cycles, the incidence of grade 1-2 neuropathy was increased to 68.2%, 88.9% and 85.2%, respectively. A lower percentage was observed in Ca/Mg arm without a statistically significant difference, and grade 3 neuropathy occurred in 5 patients. After 9 cycles, the incidence of grade 1-2 neuropathy was increased to 81.3%, 90.0% and 92.9%, respectively. Grade 3 neuropathy occurred in another 2 patients. No statistically significant difference was observed among the 3 arms. Changes of patient's ECOG score after chemotherapy were similar. This study didn't provide evidence that Ca/Mg infusion and GSH can prevent the oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

Sankaranarayanan R.,The International Agency for Research on Cancer | Ramadas K.,Regional Cancer Center | Qiao Y.-L.,Peking Union Medical College
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Asia accounts for 60% of the world population and half the global burden of cancer. The incidence of cancer cases is estimated to increase from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030, due to ageing and growing populations, lifestyle and socioeconomic changes. Striking variations in ethnicity, sociocultural practices, human development index, habits and dietary patterns are reflected in the burden and pattern of cancer in different regions. The existing and emerging cancer patterns and burden in different regions of Asia call for political recognition of cancer as an important public health problem and for balanced investments in public and professional awareness. Prevention as well as early detection of cancers leads to both better health outcomes and considerable savings in treatment costs. Cancer health services are still evolving, and require substantial investment to ensure equitable access to cancer care for all sections of the population. In this review, we discuss the changing burden of cancer in Asia, along with appropriate management strategies. Strategies should promote healthy ageing via healthy lifestyles, tobacco and alcohol control measures, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, cancer screening services, and vertical investments in strengthening cancer healthcare infrastructure to improve equitable access to services. © 2014 Sankaranarayanan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chen W.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo yi liao qi xie za zhi = Chinese journal of medical instrumentation | Year: 2013

The paper reviewed the development history, current application and technical features of 3D ultrasound and 3D breast ultrasound. 3D ultrasound is used in breast screening methods. Special 3D breast ultrasound equipment can enhance breast characteristics, corresponding the breast characteristics to carry out technological innovation and improvement, provide more accurate and convenient way to inspect breast.

Sun X.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2010

To analyze the clinical features of patients with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in autoimmune diseases (AID). We collected the data of 11 patients with AID complicated with HPS in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2004 to 2009. The underlying diseases, clinical features, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 11 patients, 3 were male, 8 were female. Mean age was (30.7 ± 18.3) years. The underlying diseases included Still disease (n = 4), systemic lupus erythematosus(n = 3), and rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis and Crohn disease in each one case. HPS was associated with the onset of AID (n = 4), active infection alone (n = 1) and both factors (n = 6). HPS was clinically characterized by high fever (100%), hepatosplenomegaly (72.7%), lymphadenopathy (63.3%) and central nervous system involvement (36.3%). 4 patients presented with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (36.3%). Laboratory data mainly manifested with cytopenia (100%), liver dysfunction (100%), hypofibrinogenemia (62.5%), hypertriglyceridemia (81.8%), serum ferritin > 500 μg/L (100%), low NK-cell activity (80%) and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow (100%). Based on treating underlying infections and use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents in combination with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) therapy, 5 patients recovered, 6 patients died. The mortality rate was 54.5%. DIC were associated with mortality (r = 0.69, P = 0.019). The episode of HPS always occurs simultaneously with multiple system involvement that was often difficult to distinguish from active AID. The present of DIC on HPS related with poor prognosis and high mortality. Corticosteroids and immunodepressant and IVIG may improve the prognosis of HPS, while anti-infection therapy is very important and necessary for the patients accompany with active infection.

Huang L.,Peking Union Medical College
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2013

Since fractional photothermolysis was first introduced in 2004, it has become a very popular procedure, especially with more and more ablative fractional laser systems and treatments. Fractional ablative laser has been shown to be very effective; however, it does not reach the efficacy of conventional ablative laser treatments in most instances. In an attempt order to make the fractional CO2 laser treatment more efficacious and safe, we combined both the conventional CO2 laser and the fractional CO2 laser to treat acne scars. We report our experience with this new modality. A total of 44 Chinese patients with facial acne scars and skin type IV were included in this study. Each patient received a minimum of two treatment sessions. For each laser session, both the conventional CO2 laser treatment and the DeepFX laser treatment were focused on treating the scar areas only. Following this technique, the more superficialf ActiveFX fractional CO2 laser was performed to the entire face. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated 3 months after the final laser treatment. The improvement in acne scars and the overall skin texture change were assessed by photographic evaluation using the following scales: ≤25 % (mild), 26-50 % (moderate), 51-75 % (marked), and >75 % (excellent). Side effects from this therapy were mild to moderate. Two cases of HSV outbreak were noted; they were treated and resolved without adverse sequelae. Post-laser erythema was resolved within 1 month in one half of the patients. Prolonged erythema (≤3 months) was noted in 12(27 %) cases. Temporary post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH; ≤1 month) was seen in approximately 50 % of the patients. PIH (≤3 months) was noted in four cases (9 %). Sixty-four percent of the patients (28/44) had an improvement of between 51 and 75 % after more than two sessions of the combination of laser treatments. The average overall improvement was 52.50 % (±12.25 %). Three patients achieved improvement of >75 %. This new modality of ablative conventional CO2 laser therapy with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing was shown to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of acne scars in Asian patients. It did not increase the risk of PIH compared to other reports of laser therapy and PIH. It is the hope that future study with combination therapy will further enhance the clinical results and thus lessen potential adverse events. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Ltd.

Studies have demonstrated that ~60%–80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology

Zhou A.,Peking Union Medical College
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Sunitinib is the gold standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, demonstrating an overall survival benefit of over 2years in a pivotal phase 3 trial of 750 patients. While sunitinib is generally well tolerated with most adverse events, manifesting as mild to moderate in severity and manageability, it has a distinctive adverse event profile that benefits from careful monitoring during treatment. As sunitinib gains widespread use across the globe, best practices are being developed for specific patient groups. This review will focus on the current clinical trial data in Asian populations and on the mechanism, incidence and management of selected sunitinib-related adverse events, including hand-foot syndrome, hypertension, proteinuria, cardiac toxicities, myelosupression, fatigue/asthenia, hypothyroidism, diarrhea and hepatotoxicity. Taken together, the developing body of literature reviewed here demonstrates that sunitinib is well tolerated in Asian patients and provides efficacy that is similar, if not superior, to other patient groups. Asian patients, like all patients, should begin treatment of sunitinib at 50mg on Schedule 4/2 (4weeks on treatment/2weeks off). Prophylactic measures, good communication between patient and health-care providers, and early, aggressive intervention at the development of adverse events can limit the dose reductions required and maximize both patients' response to treatment and their quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Wang W.J.,Peking Union Medical College
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University | Year: 2010

To construct a recombinant adenovirus for carry tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and expressing bioactive TH protein in the animal model of Parkinson disease. The TH gene was inserted into the shuttle plasmid, which was transformed into E.coli BJ-5183 for homologous recombination with the adenovirus genome. 293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenovirus genome to obtain the recombinant virus, and the transcription and expression of TH were determined by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The production of L-DOPA in the in vitro reaction system was determined using capillary electrophoresis. We have successfully constructed the recombinant adenovirus. The TH mRNA and the corresponding protein were detected by RT-PCR and immunofluoresence assay in 293 cells. L-DOPA was also detected in the reaction system. The adenovirus constructed allows efficient expression of bioactive TH protein in vitro, which provides a basis for future study of gene therapy of Parkinson disease in animal models.

Li J.P.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2010

The present study was aimed to investigate the pathways, by which IL-27 regulates the expression of adherent molecule Mac-1, chemotactic factor receptor fMLP-R and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in human neutrophils. Highly purified human neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients centrifugation and erythrocyte lysis. The mRNA expression of IL-27 receptor components (WSX-1/TCCR and gp130) in human neutrophils was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After incubation with IL-27 and specific inhibitors (p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and ERK inhibitor U0126), the mRNA levels of fMLP-R and IL-1beta were determined by real time RT-PCR, and the adherent molecule Mac-1 expression in human neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry. The IL-1beta level in culture supernatant of human neutrophils was assayed by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that IL-27 receptor components (WSX-1/TCCR and gp130) were constitutively expressed in human neutrophils. IL-27 down-regulated Mac-1 expression in human neutrophils (p<0.05). After incubation with specific inhibitors, SB203580, not LY294002 and U0126, inhibited the down-regulation of Mac-1 expression by IL-27. However, IL-27 up-regulated the mRNA expression of fMLP-R and IL-1beta, and increased the release of IL-1beta (p<0.05). Interestingly, LY294002, not SB203580 and U0126, inhibited the up-regulation of fMLP-R and IL-1beta by IL-27. It is concluded that the IL-27 may regulate the expression of Mac-1, fMLP-R and IL-1beta in human neutrophils through p38 MAPK and PI3K signal pathways.

Zhuang X.-F.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Objective: To generate an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) permissive mouse melanoma cell line B16RHSV, preserving the tumorigenic ability in syngeneic mice. Methods: The herpes simplex virus entry mediator (HVEM) gene was amplified by PCR from human melanoma cell line A375, and cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector for sequencing. The HVEM gene was then cloned into pcDNA3 vector to generate pcDNA3-HVEM for transfection of mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10 cells. After that, the putative transfected cells were selected in full growth medium containing G418. The HVEM-expressing cells were isolated by immunomagnetic bead separation. The mouse melanoma cell line expressing oHSV receptor-HVEM, designated as B16RHSV, was generated. The permissibility of B16R HSV cells to oHSV infection was examined with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing oHSV (oHSVCFP). To investigate the tumorigenic ability of both cells in vivo, 2 × 105 cells in 100 μl were subcutaneously inoculated into the right flanks of C57/BL mice. Results: In vitro, the B16RHSV mouse melanoma cells were shown by fluorescence microscopy capable of being infected by oHSVGFP. In vivo, the B16RHSV cells, like their wild type counterpart, grew to form melanoma in syngeneic mice. Conclusion: A herpes simplex virus-permissive mouse melanoma cell line was established. Its tumorigenicity remained unchanged.

Li H.,Shanghai AIER Eye Hospital | Sun T.,Shanghai AIER Eye Hospital | Wang M.,Wang Vision Institute | Zhao J.,Peking Union Medical College
Journal of Refractive Surgery | Year: 2010

PURPOSE: To establish safety and effectiveness of thinflap LASIK using a femtosecond laser and microkeratome in correcting high myopia in Chinese patients. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-four eyes of 148 Chinese patients with high myopia whose spherical equivalent refraction (SE) ranged from -6.12 to -15.75 diopters (D) received thin-flap LASIK with the VISX S4 IR excimer laser system. Corneal flaps were created with a femtosecond laser (15-kHz IntraLase, 134 eyes of 76 patients, target flap thickness 100 μm) and Moria M2 microkeratome (90-μm head, 140 eyes of 72 patients, target flap thickness 110 μm). Clinical outcomes were assessed with uncorrected (UCVA) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction, wavefront aberrometry, Schirmer tests, and tear break-up time (TBUT) at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: At 3 months, both groups showed comparable clinical outcomes in most parameters assessed, including the percent of postoperative UCVA better than or equal to preoperative BSCVA (P=.642), mean residual spherical equivalent refraction (P=.448), mean Schirmer test (P=.950), and mean TBUT (P=.867). Postoperative coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration were similar in both groups (P=.202, P=.898, and P=.890, respectively). Both groups had a similar percent of eyes with a change of SE of <1.00 D (P=.284). CONCLUSIONS: Thin-flap LASIK with a femtosecond laser and microkeratome are both safe and effective for the correction of high myopia in Chinese patients. Femtosecond laser shows similar predictability, stability, and induction of higher order aberrations to the microkeratome. Copyright ©SLACK Incorporated.

Sun H.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2010

To investigate antimicrobial resistance among gram-positive cocci in China in 2009. From June to December 2009, 1169 consecutive and non-repetitive gram-positive cocci were collected from 12 teaching hospitals at 9 cities. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method. The prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) were 45.3% (211/466) and 89.5% (214/239), respectively. The isolation rate of MRSA was 33.3% - 68.1% from different samples. All Staphylococci isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Five point five percent (7/128) E.faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin. All E. faecalis strains were susceptible to vancomycin. About 99.1% (108/109) of E.faecalis and E.faecium were susceptible to linezolid. The prevalence of penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) was 21.6% (48/222). Only 1 (0.5%, 1/222) Streptococcus pneumoniae strain was resistant to penicillin. Teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline were the most active agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae (susceptible rate 100%). The high prevalence of methicillin-resistance is among Staphylococcus strains. Different samples show a different MRSA prevalence. Teicoplanin, vancomycin and linezolid show very high activity to Staphylococci, E. faecalis, E. faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Li Y.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2011

To summarize the clinical characteristics of AIDS phobia patients and establish the preliminary clinical diagnostic criteria. The clinical information of 46 AIDS phobia patients was collected and summarized. General demographic data, clinical manifestations and laboratory results were analyzed. The clinical characteristics of AIDS phobia patients include: (1) With or without high-risk behavior of HIV-1 infection; (2) Patients repeatedly demanded HIV/AIDS related laboratory tests, suspected or believed in HIV-1 infection with daily life affected; (3) The main complaints were non-specific including influenza-like symptoms (headache, sore throat and so on), fasciculation, formication, arthrodynia, fatigue and complaint of fever with normal body temperature; physical examination did not reveal any positive physical sign except white coated tongue; (4) Symptoms mainly appeared 0-3 months after the high-risk behavior while HIV-1 antibody kept negative; (5) T lymphocyte subsets test was carried out in 23 patients and showed 19 (82.6%) with CD(4)(+) T lymphocyte count > 500/μl, the remaining 4 were 300 - 500/μl, with the lowest count of 307/μl. Few patients had inversed CD(4)(+)/CD(8)(+) ratio but without excessive CD(8)(+)T lymphocyte activation. AIDS phobia is a complicated physical and mental disease, whose diagnosis and treatment still need further investigation.

Huo H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2011

To develop a simplified Chinese version of the 32-item Quebec sleep questionnaire (QSQ) and to examine the reliability and validity. A cross-sectional sample of 141 patients [22 simple snorers and 119 obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS)] and a longitudinal sample of 55 patients [35 in uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) group and 20 in control group] completed the simplified Chinese version of QSQ for assessment of its feasibility, reliability, validity and responsiveness. QSQ had good feasibility. All internal consistency coefficients exceeded 0.65. Intraclass correlation coefficients of five domains for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.82 - 0.91. There were significant differences in four domains (daytime sleepiness, diurnal symptoms, nocturnal symptoms and social interactions) among patients with different severity of apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest saturation of arterial oxygen (LSaO2, P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Correlations between QSQ scores and five domains and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Correlations between QSQ scores and three domains (daytime sleepiness, nocturnal symptoms and social interactions) and polysomnography (PSG) indices (AHI and LSaO2) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in scores of five domains of patients between at baseline and after UPPP. There were significant differences in change scores of five domains between patients who were treated and those who were not. The simplified Chinese version of QSQ offers good reliability, validity and responsiveness and can be used as a OSAHS-specific instrument to assess impact of illness and treatment effectiveness in OSAHS patients.

Xiao S.K.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases | Year: 2010

To investigate the serogroups/types distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of different serogroups/types in both children and adults in China, and to explore the significance of vaccines in preventing pneumococcal infections and control of epidemic Streptococcus pneumoniae. A total of 580 consecutive and non-repetitive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected from 13 hospitals between 2005 and 2008. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 11 antibacterial agents. Serotyping was performed by latex agglutination test and the Quellung reaction test. The most prevalent serogroups/types in 362 isolates from adults were 19F (55, 15.2%), 19A (46, 12.7%), 3 (44, 12.2%), 23F (24, 6.6%), 15 (23, 6.4%), and 17 (11, 3.0%), while in the 218 isolates from children, 19F (71, 32.6%), 19A (31, 14.2%), 23F (13, 6.0%), 15 (12, 5.5%), 14 (11, 5.0%), and 6B (10, 4.6%) were the most prevalent. Resistance to β-lactams was related to the serotypes. 19F and 19A were more resistant toβ-lactams than the other serotypes. The prevalence of Penicillin Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae increased from 7.4% in 2005 to 24.9% in 2008. The coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13 among all age groups was 35.5% (206/580), 38.7% (224/580) and 61.8% (358/580), respectively. The coverage of PCV-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13 among children under 5 years was 55.7% (78/140), 58.6% (82/140), and 77.9% (109/140) respectively. Penicillin intermediate isolates were on the rise with years. PCV-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines showed a higher coverage in children than in adults.

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of loss of human esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC.) Methods: PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were used to detect the mutation of ECRG4 exons in esophageal cancer and matched adjacent normal tissues of 80 patients. DNA bisulfite-modifying ssPCR sequencing assay was used to examine the methylation status of ECRG4 promoter in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells. The re-expression of ECRG4 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR in EC9706 cells, after treatment with either demethylation drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine or arsenic trioxide. Results: No mutation in the four ECRG4 exons was found in all the ESCC and matched normal adjacent tissues. RT-PCR showed that 11 of 16 CpG islands of ECRG4 promoter were hypermethylated, while ECRG4 mRNA expression level was undetectable in the EC9706 cells. The ECRG4 mRNA was re-expressed after treatment with either demethylation drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine or arsenic trioxide. Conclusion: The epigenetic mechanism of methylation is a reason of loss of ECRG4 gene expression in the ESCC cell line EC9706.

Chen X.,Nanjing University of Technology | Guo B.,Nanjing University of Technology | Hu P.,Nanjing University of Technology | Wang Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Electroanalysis | Year: 2014

In this study, a novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was fabricated based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotube/self-doped polyaniline (AuNPs/CNTs/SPAN) hollow spheres modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). SPAN was in-site polymerized on the surface of SiO2 template, then AuNPs and CNTs were decorated by electrostatic absorption via poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). After the SiO2 cores were removed, hollow AuNPs/CNTs/SPAN spheres were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical catalytic performance of the hollow AuNPs/CNTs/SPAN/GCE for H2O2 detection was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Using chronoamperometric method at a constant potential of -0.1V (vs. SCE), the H2O2 sensor displays two linear ranges: one from 5μM to 0.225mM with a sensitivity of 499.82μAmM-1cm-2; another from 0.225mM to 8.825mM with a sensitivity of 152.29μAmM-1cm-2. The detection limit was estimated as 0.4μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The hollow AuNPs/CNTs/SPAN/GCE also demonstrated excellent stability and selectivity against interferences from other electroactive species. The sensor was further applied to determine H2O2 in disinfectant real samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Simon M.,Northwestern University | Chang E.-S.,Rush University Medical Center | Zeng P.,Peking Union Medical College | Dong X.,Rush University Medical Center
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2013

Background: As one of the leading causes of death around the world, suicide is a global public health threat. Due to the paucity of systematic studies, there exist vast variations in suicide ideation, attempts and suicide rates between various regions of Chinese aging communities. Objectives: Our systematic study aims to (1) identify studies describing the epidemiology of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and behaviors among global Chinese communities; (2) conduct systematic review of suicide prevalence; (3) provide cross-cultural insights on this public health issue in the diverse Chinese elderly in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Asian societies and Western countries. Data sources: Using the PRISMA statement, we performed systematic review including studies describing suicidal ideation, attempts, and behavior among Chinese older adults in different communities. Literature searches were conducted by using both medical and social science data bases in English and Chinese. Results: Forty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Whereas suicide in Chinese aging population is a multifaceted issue, culturally appropriate and inter-disciplinary approach to improve the quality of life for the Chinese older adults is critical. Conclusions: Future research is needed to explore the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts, attempts and behaviors in representative Chinese aging populations. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Shi Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2012

To assess the value of procalcitonin (PCT) measurement to differentiate infection from non-infection in critically ill patients requiring long-term immunosuppressive therapy. A prospective study was conducted in patients with underlying diseases requiring corticosteroids or chemotherapy in ICU from January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were divided into the infection group and the non-infection group and their PCT levels were compared. A total of 103 patients (65 women) were enrolled in this prospective study [aged (47.9 ± 21.9) years old] with 84 in the infection group and 19 in the non-infection group. The baseline level of PCT was significantly higher in infection than in non-infection patients [2.58 (0.08 - 44.65) pg/L vs 0.62 (0.15 - 6.00) pg/L, P = 0.002]. Different levels of PCT were manifested in different pathogen groups with 3.41 (0.45 - 44.65) pg/L in bacteria infection, 0.99 (0.28 - 6.67) pg/L in fungus infection, 0.11 (0.08 - 0.20) pg/L in virus infection group (P = 0.018). The AUC(ROC) of PCT was 0.867 for diagnostic bacterial infection. By multivariate analysis, the factors associated with the level of PCT were bacteria infection (OR 5.1, P = 0.031) and septic shock (OR 7.5, P = 0.027), while the factors not associated with the level of PCT were age, renal function, infection site and prognosis (P > 0.05). The level of PCT is increased in the critically ill patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy with infection and it can be used for diagnosis for bacterial infection.

Lu C.X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi | Year: 2011

To identify the pathogenic mutations of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from Hebei Province. Genomic DNA was extracted from 55 unrelated PKU patients from September 2007 to July 2009. All PAH exons and exon-intron junctions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplifications (MLPA) was performed to detect the deletions or duplications of PAH. Gap-PCR was used to determine the breakpoints of large deletions. Among them, 108 mutant alleles (98.2%) were found. All PAH exons with the exceptions of exons 9 and 13 were affected. A total of 41 different mutations were detected, including missense (n = 24), nonsense (n = 7), splicing (n = 7), small deletion (n = 1) and large deletion (n = 2). Among them, 4 missense mutations (p.Pro147Leu, p.Gly289Arg, p.Phe392Ser, p.Ile421Thr) and 2 large deletions (-4163_-406del and -1932_+3402del) were novel. The most common mutations were p.Arg243Gln (12.7%), c.611A > G (11.8%) and c.1197A > T (9.1%). The mutations of PKU patients with from Hebei Province are scattered throughout the PAH gene. Most of them are of single nucleotide substitutions, but large deletions are not rare.

Fang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

The etiology and pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) are still unknown, recent studies showed that immune responses play a mediation role in the pathogenesis of food allergy, inflammation-related and post-infectious FD. The increased and activated eosinophils in duodenal mucosa, the infiltration of inflammatory immune cells in gastric and duodenal mucosa, and the peripheral immune responses are correlated with delayed gastric emptying, decrease of sensory function of proximal stomach, visceral hypersensitivity and FD symptoms. Strategies that suppress immune response might be prospective for subset of FD patients with evidences of immune dysregulation. Copyright © 2015 by Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology.

Jing C.,Southern Medical University | Jia-Han W.,Southern Medical University | Hong-Xing Z.,Peking Union Medical College
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2010

To explore further the role of substance P (SP) in wound healing and scar formation, SP concentrations in wounds of scalded rats were assayed. Expressions of apoptosis-associated genes in fibroblasts cultured with SP were detected. SP concentrations in superficial wounds increased earlier than those in deep wounds. SP was associated with an increased proliferation and a decreased apoptosis of fibroblasts. It had a greater influence on keloid fibroblasts than on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by elevating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and BCL-2 in fibroblasts. Spantide completely suppressed the effects of SP on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, and partly inhibited its effects on keloid scar fibroblasts. SP may play an important role in wound healing by promoting wound fibroblast proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. It may also participate in pathological scar formation by modulating the expression of apoptosis-associated genes. SP is postulated to play a dual role in wound repair. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

Zhu Y.-C.,Peking Union Medical College | Dufouil C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dufouil C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Tzourio C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose- Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) have been recognized as common lesions in elderly subjects and their diagnosis relies on brain imaging. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the different MRI parameters and criteria used for their evaluation in the literature to better understand the variation across studies and related limitations. Method- Original MRI studies of SBI performed in human populations and reported in the English literature were reviewed. Analyses were restricted to population-based studies or studies in which at least 50 subjects with SBI were detected. The MRI parameters as well as the MRI criteria of SBI (size, signal characteristics, and criteria for differentiation of dilated Virchow-Robin spaces) were described and analyzed. Result- Magnetic field strength, slice thickness, and gap between slices greatly varied among the 45 articles included in this review. The MRI definition of SBI was inconsistent across studies. In half of them, SBI was defined as hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Exclusion criteria for dilated Virchow-Robin spaces were used only in 7 studies. Conclusions- The variation in MRI characteristics and diagnostic criteria for SBI represent a major limitation for interpretation and comparison of data between studies. Efforts are needed to reach unified imaging criteria for SBI. © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.

Zhang Y.X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To establish HPLC fingerprint of Folium Pyrrosiae for identification. The HPLC method was developed with Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm),and a mixture liquid of acetonitrile-0.8% acetic acid solution as mobile phase in a gradient elution. HPLC fingerprints of44 samples were analyzed by similarity, cluster and principal component analysis. The HPLC fingerprint common pattern of Pyrrosia petiolosa, Pyrrosia lingua and common pattern of Pyrrosia sheareri were set up separately. Samples from different species were classified based on the result of cluster and principal component analysis. Fingerprints of Pyrrosia sheareri and Pyrrosia lingua have high degree of similarity, but were different from Pyrrosia petiolosa, while Pyrrosia calvata and Pyrrosia assimlis were classified as adulterants with their dissimilar fingerprints. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility and provides a reference standard for identifying Folium Pyrrosiae from different habitats and species.

Shen S.-J.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Objective: Mammography is the principle imaging modality used for early diagnosis of breast cancer in Western countries. It has not been well-established whether this Western diagnostic modality is adoptable for Chinese women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective accuracy of the common diagnostic tools for breast cancer including history-taking, physical examination, ultrasound and mammography. Methods: Clinical presentation and investigations for consecutive patients undergoing history-taking, physical examination, ultrasound, mammography and pathological assessment at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were prospectively recorded between April 2010 and September 2011. Breast cancer high-risk factors acquired by history-taking were input into the risk assessment model established previously by Eleventh Five Year Key Programs for Science and Technology Development of China (Grant No. 2006BAI02A09) and classified into low-, medium-, high- and extremely high-risk groups. The low- and medium-risk groups were defined as test negative, while the high- and extremely high-risk groups were defined as test positive. Each mammogram and ultrasound was reported prospectively using a five-point reporting scale of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). Clinical data were compared with pathological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PRV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of respective diagnostic methods were calculated and compared. The patients were divided into two groups, above and below 50 years of age for subgroup analysis. Results: A total of 1468 patients (1475 breast lesions) constituted the study population. The median age was 44 (range 13-92) years. Five hundred and fifty-one patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years and breast cancer peaked in the age group of 40-60 years. The sensitivity of risk assessment model, physical examination, ultrasound and mammogram was 47.5%, 86.2%, 89.8% and 79.3%, respectively; specificity was 68.8%, 83.3%, 81.0% and 88.7%, respectively; PRV was 47.6%, 75.5%, 73.8% and 80.8%, respectively; NPV was 68.8%, 91.0%, 93.0% and 87.8%, respectively; and accuracy was 60.9%, 84.4%, 84.3% and 85.2%, respectively. Further subgroup analysis demonstrated that age is an important factor influencing the sensitivity and specificity of physical examination, ultrasound and mammography. Conclusions: Ultrasound is more sensitive than mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer in Chinese women and should be routinely used as a first-line diagnostic tool. Only a single diagnostic method is not enough sometimes and combined examination is needed for some high-risk populations.

Zhang C.,Harvard University | Li Y.,Harvard University | Malhotra A.,Harvard University | Ning Y.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 2 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objective: To examine the potential long-term impact of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and other common sleep complaints on subsequent physical function (PF), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of 12,556 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods: We used a set of questions recommended by the International RLS Study Group to assess RLS in 2002. We asked questions regarding other sleep complaints-insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness-in 2004. We used the Physical Function (PF-10) survey of the Short Form-36 Health Survey to characterize PF in 1996 and 2008. We examined the 2008 PF-10 scores across categories of baseline RLS (2002), adjusted for age, 1996 PF-10 score, and other potential confounders. Results: The participants with RLS at baseline had significantly lower PF-10 score 6 years later than those without RLS (mean difference = -22.32, p = 0.01), after adjusting for potential confounders. The magnitude of difference in PF-10 score for RLS symptoms ≥15 times/month vs no RLS was more than that of a 5-year increase of age or moderate amount of smoking. Having daily daytime sleepiness and sleep duration ≥9 hours/day were associated with lower mean PF value than not having these symptoms (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusions: RLS and other sleep complaints are associated with lower PF. Our findings need to be replicated by more longitudinal studies including women and populations of other social and cultural backgrounds. It is important to understand whether RLS is an independent risk factor or a marker for other unknown risk factors for disability. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

Qiu H.Z.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery | Year: 2011

To report a case of APPEAR performed using a laparoscopic-assisted approach. A laparoscopic-assisted APPEAR was performed with end-to-end anastomosis on October 12, 2010 for a patient with low rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. After total mesorectal excision was completed laparoscopically, a crescent-shape incision was then made in the middle perineum. The distal part of the rectum was dissected with electrocautery. An double-stapling end-to-end anastomosis was performed after transaction of the rectum. Total operative time was 195 minutes. The perineal approach cost 30 minutes. The estimated blood loss was 50 ml. First stoma output with flatus was on postoperative day 3, and the patient resumed liquid diet. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 7. There were no complications including pelvic sepsis, perineal infection, or anastomotic leak. The APPEAR procedure can be performed safely with the abdominal approach completed laparoscopically.

Wang H.,University of Calgary | Wang H.,Peking Union Medical College | Moreau F.,University of Calgary | Hirota C.L.,University of Calgary | MacNaughton W.K.,University of Calgary
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in both inflammation and tumorigenesis in epithelial cells. Interleukin (IL)-8 is a potent chemoattractant and is also involved in angiogenesis. The molecular mechanism whereby PARs induce epithelial IL-8 expression is not known. In HT-29 colonic epithelial cells, PAR1 or PAR2 agonists stimulated the expression of IL-8 through a NF-κB-dependent pathway without inducing IκB degradation and disassociation of IκB from NF-κB. Further studies revealed that PAR activation induced the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-276 in the nucleus, which increased the recruitment of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 to p50. Inhibition of ERK activation completely blocked PAR-induced IL-8 expression, phosphorylation of p65 and HAT activity. We also demonstrated that RSK p90 was the downstream kinase that mediated ERK-induced nuclear p65 phosphorylation. In conclusion, activation of either PAR1 or PAR2 stimulated the transcriptional up-regulation of IL-8 in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells through a pathway that involved ERK/RSK p90, NF-κB phosphorylation, and HAT activity. These studies provide evidence of a new role for serine proteinases and PARs in the regulation of gene expression in colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis. © FASEB.

Wang T.,Capital Medical University | Wang Z.,Capital Medical University | Yang R.,Peking Union Medical College
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2011

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a relatively common blood disorder related to the production of anti-platelet antibodies. It is now clear that platelet production is also substantially impaired in most patients. After the cloning of TPO and analogs, there were reported therapeutic successes in a few refractory ITP patients, but neutralizing antibodies led to the withdrawal of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factor from development. Second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors are now available that stimulate c-mpl but share no homology with the native hormone. Second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors have shown responses in 50-80% of ITP patients with only modest toxicity, and thus they offer another therapeutic option. The first of these agents to enter clinical trials and to be approved by the FDA is romiplostim, a once weekly subcutaneous peptibody. Eltrombopag is the second FDA-approved thrombopoietic growth factor and has the advantage of oral formulation. Some concerns persist on the potential of these agents to cause increased thrombosis risk, rebound thrombocytopenia on drug withdrawal, reticulin fibrosis of the marrow, and induction of malignancy, but these have not emerged as major problems in clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kang D.-Y.,University of Sichuan | Li H.-J.,Peking Union Medical College
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels=0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P<0.001). The difference in means of PSA levels were significant higher for patients that received testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels=0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P=0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR]=1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P=0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Wang W.B.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2010

To verify the obtained immunogenic membrane antigens candidate of pancreatic cancer in the performed research. Pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 membrane protein underwent immunoblot with serum IgG purified from clinically collected sera of 66 pancreatic cancer patients. Number 3 and number 8 positive dots of immunoblot were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting matching. The candidate membrane antigens were further validated in cell lines by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and Western blot, and their different expression level of gene and protein in pancreatic cancer cell lines were contrastly studied. Number 3 and number 8 positive dots were identified as: voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC3) and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT). RT-PCR, real-time PCR and Western blot showed that gene and protein of VDAC3 and COMT were expressed in the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, AsPc and P3 respectively. VDAC3 and COMT might be the candidate immunogenic membrane antigens of human pancreatic cancer, and their gene and protein are differently expressed in the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, AsPc and P3.

Mi S.,Peking Union Medical College
Sheng li ke xue jin zhan [Progress in physiology] | Year: 2010

Abnormal cardiovascular tissue remodeling characterized by myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial cell loss and myocardial fibrosis, are the primary pathological changes for multiple cardiovascular diseases. Targeting tissue remodeling using small molecules (e.g., relaxin, KNK437), biological agents (e.g., BCG, anti-TLR2 antibody), or herb medicine complex CFX and so on, can attenuate tissue fibrosis and improve cardiac functions. Therefore, regulating the property of inflammation and reversing tissue fibrosis should promote the formation of optimal tissue environments for stem cells mobilization and proliferation, which enhances the myocardial regeneration and is potential therapeutic strategy against chronic cardiovascular diseases.

To analyze the relationship between electrocardiographic (ECG) features and disease severity in patients with the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). The study group consisted of 61 subjects with a definite diagnosis of ARVC on the basis of published guideline criteria and patients were divided into 3 subgroups according to the extent of diseased myocardium defined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Group A: local involvement (n = 19, 31%), Group B: diffuse involvement of whole right ventricle (n = 28, 46%) and Group C: involvement of both right and left ventricles (n = 14, 23%). Normal electrocardiogram was shown in 1 patient in each group. Epsilon wave was detected in 24 (39%) patients, QRS duration was prolonged [≥ 110 ms (V(1)-V(3))] in 21 (34%) patients, S-wave upstroke was prolonged (≥ 55 ms) in 17 (28%) patients, complete right branch bundle block was evidenced in 10 (16%) patients and pathologic Q waves was found in 9 (15%) patients. The incidence of above abnormal ECG changes was increased in proportion to the degree of disease severity (group A < group B < group C). Incidence of Epsilon wave and prolonged QRS duration [ ≥ 110 ms (V(1)-V(3))] were significantly higher in Group C than in Group A. Incidence of prolonged S-wave upstroke (≥ 55 ms) was significantly higher in Group C than in Group A and Group B. T-wave inversion in V(1) leads was often found in Group A. T-wave inversion in inferior leads (V(1)-V(3) leads or beyond V(3)) was often presented in Group B and Group C. Normal ECG does not exclude the possibility of diagnosis of ARVC. The extent of T-wave inversion in the precordial leads and incidence of Epsilon wave, prolonged QRS duration [ ≥ 110 ms (V(1)-V(3))] and prolonged S-wave upstroke (≥ 55 ms) were related to degree of disease severity in patients with ARVC.

Wu J.,Zhejiang University | Wei H.,Zhejiang University | Xue J.,Peking Union Medical College
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Degradation of imidacloprid in chrysanthemi flos and cultivated soil was studied. The half-lives of imidacloprid were 3.55-5.17 days (soil), 2.10-3.98 days (fresh buds and flowers), 22.14 days (dry flowers, 5-C) and 13.08 days (dry flower, 20-C), separately. The temperature can affect imidacloprid degradation in soil and dry chrysanthemum buds and flowers. Imidacloprid residues in chrysanthemum flowers were more stable during store stage than growing one. Few imidacloprid residues would be dissolved into chrysanthemum tea liquor when the residue in dry buds or dry flowers was below 0.8 mg/kg. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Guo F.P.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2010

To evaluate the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)on bone mineral density(BMD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and correlating clinical factors. The clinical data from 2007 to 2008 were analyzed, including 50 patients treated with HAART (named treated group), 12 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients (named untreated group) and 20 healthy people (named control group). Lumbar, femoral neck, femur, femoral greater trochanter and whole body BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The data were respectively analyzed. There were 19(38.0%) patients with osteopenia and 1 (2.0%) patient with osteoporosis in the treated group. There were 6 (50.0%) patients with osteopenia and 2 (16.7%) patient with osteoporosis in the untreated group. There were 5 (25.0%) patients with osteopenia, no one with osteoporosis in the control group. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was statistically higher in the untreated group than that in the control group (P=0.02). The BMD of femur, femoral neck and greater trochanter [(0.97±0.14), (0.91±0.13), (0.76±0.12) g/cm2] in the HIV-infected group (including the treated and untreated group) were significantly lower than that in the control group [(1.04±0.12), (0.98±0.14), (0.84 ± 0.11) g/cm2, P<0.05]. There were no significantly differences in the BMD between the untreated group and the treated group. In the treated group, osteopenia/osteoporosis correlated with body weight less than 60 kg (r=0.074, P=0.004) and the viral load before HAART (r=5.103, P=0.021). The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients is higher. The BMD of HIV-infected patients are reduced compared with the healthy people. The BMD is similar among HIV-infected patients irrespective of antiretroviral treatment. Body weight less than 60 kg and the viral load before HAART are the risk factors of osteopenia/osteoporosis for the HIV-infected antiretroviral patients.

Cheng Z.W.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2010

To summarize the electrocardiography and echocardiography features of patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) diagnosed by endo-myocardial biopsy (EMB). A total of 20 consecutive patients [7 men, mean age (50 ± 12) years] referred for EMB because of clinical suspicion of CA from September 2006 to October 2009 were included in the study. Primary CA was diagnosed in 11 out of 20 patients (55%) by EMB and biomarkers examination. The electrocardiography and echocardiography features were analyzed. The voltage of all the limb leads were low in the 11 CA patients [mean values of (0.33 - 0.51) mV], the incidence of low voltage and pseudo-infarction patterns were 45% and 45%, respectively. Concentric hypertrophy and normal left ventricular diameters were evidenced in all CA patients on echocardiography, left atrial enlargement (n = 10, 91%), granular/sparking appearance of the myocardium (n = 9, 82%) and moderate to large pericardial effusion (n = 7, 64%) as well as left ventricular systolic dysfunction (n = 8, 73%) were often presented in CA patients. The diagnosis of primary CA should be considered in patients with unknown origin of heart failure, concentric hypertrophy and normal left ventricular diameters with granular/sparking appearance of the myocardium or pericardial effusion presented on echocardiography and low voltage of limb leads or pseudo-infarction pattern presented on electrocardiography. EMB and serum (urine) biomarkers examinations should be then performed to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of CA.

Xie M.Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi | Year: 2010

To outline the clinical features of Kennedy disease in Chinese patients. The peripheral blood was collected from the male lower motor neuron disease patients of our inpatients and outpatients from July 2005 to September 2008. Then the genome DNA was extracted and the target gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The clinical data of positive samples were analyzed and summarized. The number of expanded CAG repeats of 12 patients ranged from 43 to 57. And the number of CAG repeats was inversely correlated with the age of onset (r = -0.756, P < 0.005). The first symptom of all of these patients was extremity weakness. The progression of disease was slow. One of the patients died from pneumonia. And the whole disease course lasted for 14 years. As an adult onset degenerative disease with a slower clinical progression, Kennedy disease has its own characteristics of inheritance pattern and natural course. It can be accurately diagnosed by androgen receptor gene analysis.

Li Y.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Jiang Y.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Chen H.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | Liao W.,Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Sciences and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2015

An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Yuan J.,Peking Union Medical College
National Medical Journal of China | Year: 2016

Objective: To provide evidence for establishing standardized treatment strategy of severe anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in China, by demonstrating the clinical characteristics and comparing the treatment strategy with that adopted in foreign countries. Methods: A total of 35 hospitalized cases who met the diagnostic criteria for severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical history, past medical history, laboratory tests, imaging studies, treatment and the follow-up information were recorded using unified forms. Results: Mental and behavioral abnormalities, seizures and consciousness disturbance occurred in all cases; involuntary movements, speech disorders, memory loss, central hypoventilation and autonomic dysfunction happened in 45% -65% of cases. Sixteen patients (45.71%) required mechanical ventilation. Modified Rankin score (mRS) arranged 4 -5 (mean mRS 4. 86). The percentage of patients with elevated intracranial pressure, white blood cell and protein in cerebrospinal fluid were 42. 86% , 60. 00% , and 14. 29% , respectively. Abnormal findings in brain magnetic resonance imaging scan happened in 31.43% cases, located in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, insular lobe, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, brain stem, and cerebellum. All cases received intravenous immunoglobulin, for one to maximum seven cycles, with an average of three cycles. 91.43% of cases received glucocorticoid therapy, including 54.29% of cases received high-dose methyl prednisolone. Two patients (5.71%) received plasma exchange. Five patients (14. 29%) received second-line therapy including rituximab for 4 patients and intravenous cyclophosphamide (CTX) for one. Fifteen patients (42. 86%) received long-term immunosuppression therapy. All cases acquired improvement after immunotherapy and were transferred out from ICU, the median ICU time was 46 days and median hospitalized duration was 72 days. The mRS were 5 for 2 cases, 1 -4 for the rest patients, and no patient died during hospitalization. During a median follow-up period of 17.6 months, 30 of 35 patients (85.71%) achieved complete recovery or a good outcome (mRS 0-2). Eleven patients (31.43%) relapsed. One patient(2. 90%) died 2 years after discharge. Conclusion: Intravenous immunoglobulin combined with high-dose methylprednisolone therapy is effective for severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Retrial of the first-line immunotherapy is an option for initially unresponsive cases.

Zhang S.,Peking Union Medical College
Europace | Year: 2015

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Similar to the number of SCDs in western countries including the USA, the number of SCDs in China is ∼544 000 annually. However, there are significant differences in patient characteristics between Chinese primary prevention population and U.S. primary prevention population. In contrast to western countries where implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) devices have been well adopted as a major effective method for both primary and secondary prevention of SCD, China has a low prevalence of ICD utilization (∼1.5 device per 1 million people). Socioeconomic and political factors, awareness and knowledge of SCD, and the difference in disease patterns have led to the underutilization of ICD in China. China, as the most populated and the second largest economic country in the world, has now taken variable approaches to address this pressing health problem and enhances the delivery of lifesaving therapies, including arrhythmia ablation and medical treatment besides ICD, to patients who are at risk of SCD. © 2015 Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

Wang Y.,Peking Union Medical College
National Medical Journal of China | Year: 2016

Objective To study the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic features of Sweet syndrome with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods The clinical data of 3 patients with Sweet syndrome and MDS diagnosed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between October 1988 and November 2015 were reviewed. The laboratory test results, histopathological findings, and therapeutic regimens of these patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results The three cases were 29, 49 and 49 years old, respectively, including 2 females and 1 male. Two patients presented with Sweet syndrome before the onset of MDS, the other one patient developed Sweet syndrome and MDS simultaneously. The rash of all of these patients manifested as red painful papules in face, trunk and limbs, as well as edematous plaques and nodules. Histopathological examination of skin confirmed the diagnosis of Sweet syndrome. Complete blood count showed cytopenia of at least one lineage. Bone marrow cytology showed dysplasia of hematopoietic cells with abnormal high proportion of myeloblasts. Bone marrow pathology results were normal in 2 patients, while hypoplasia of hematopoietic tissue with excess adipose tissue was found in 1 patient. All the patients were treated with corticosteroid or immunosuppressants and skin lesions alleviated. But relapse was common in process of corticosteroid reduction. Conclusions Sweet syndrome may be a precursor of MDS. The clinical manifestations, histopathological and hematological findings of these rare cases are characteristic. Corticosteroid indicates short-term response. The patients who had recurrent skin lesions should be further examined to exclude MDS.

Li H.,Peking Union Medical College
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Large facial reconstruction is a complicated surgical procedure. The purpose of this study was to develop 2 procedures for large facial reconstruction: an expanded cervical postauricular combined skin flap and a bipedicled expanded cervical skin flap. METHODS:: Two patients with large facial nevus lesions were selected for reconstruction. In 1 case, an expanded cervical postauricular combined flap with a bipedicle was designed; the upper pedicle was based at the temple region, the lower pedicle was based at the neck. In another case, an expanded cervical-only flap with a bipedicle was designed; the lower pedicle was based at the neck and the upper pedicle was based on healthy facial skin and a nevus lesion skin. All donor sites were closed simultaneously. Both patients underwent a second operation to cut the upper pedicle and repair the facial defect that resulted from the nevus lesion excision, using healthy skin to form a skin flap. The authors also formed a free skin graft from the scalp portion of the tubed pedicle to repair the facial defect where the flap could not reach. RESULTS:: Both patients were treated successfully. All flaps survived, without infection or necrosis. Scarring was minimal and the aesthetic and functional outcomes were good. CONCLUSION:: This technique provides a large source of skin, proximal to the lesion, as well as good blood supply, especially to the distal end of the flap. It is a safe and reliable alternative for the treatment of large facial nevus lesions. © 2016 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Arabi Y.M.,Peking Union Medical College
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES:: Despite being the epicenter of recent pandemics, little is known about critical care in Asia. Our objective was to describe the structure, organization, and delivery in Asian ICUs. DESIGN:: A web-based survey with the following domains: hospital organizational characteristics, ICU organizational characteristics, staffing, procedures and therapies available in the ICU and written protocols and policies. SETTING:: ICUs from 20 Asian countries from April 2013 to January 2014. Countries were divided into low-, middle-, and high-income based on the 2011 World Bank Classification. SUBJECTS:: ICU directors or representatives. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Of 672 representatives, 335 (50%) responded. The average number of hospital beds was 973 (SE of the mean [SEM], 271) with 9% (SEM, 3%) being ICU beds. In the index ICUs, the average number of beds was 21 (SEM, 3), of single rooms 8 (SEM, 2), of negative-pressure rooms 3 (SEM, 1), and of board-certified intensivists 7 (SEM, 3). Most ICUs (65%) functioned as closed units. The nurse-to-patient ratio was 1:1 or 1:2 in most ICUs (84%). On multivariable analysis, single rooms were less likely in low-income countries (p = 0.01) and nonreferral hospitals (p = 0.01); negative-pressure rooms were less likely in private hospitals (p = 0.03) and low-income countries (p = 0.005); 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio was lower in private hospitals (p = 0.005); board-certified intensivists were less common in low-income countries (p < 0.0001) and closed ICUs were less likely in private (p = 0.02) and smaller hospitals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: This survey highlights considerable variation in critical care structure, organization, and delivery in Asia, which was related to hospital funding source and size, and country income. The lack of single and negative-pressure rooms in many Asian ICUs should be addressed before any future pandemic of severe respiratory illness. Copyright © by 2016 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Guo L.,Tsinghua University | Ge J.,Tsinghua University | Zhou Y.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2014

The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue repair/regeneration is substantially dampened by the loss of primitive properties and poor engraftment to target organs. In this study, the multipotency and cell sizes of human MSCs, which had been expanded in monolayer culture for several passages, were dramatically restored after an episode of three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture. Unlike MSCs derived from monolayer, which caused embolism and blindness, MSCs derived from 3D spheroids did not cause vascular obstructions, after intra-carotid artery infusion in rats. Importantly, intra-carotid infusion of 1 million 3D spheroid MSCs in rats 24h after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion resulted in engraftment of the cells into the lesion and significant (over 70%) reduction of infarct size along with restoration of neurologic function. Moreover, the enhanced effect of spheroid MSCs was coincided with significantly increased differentiation of the MSCs into neurons and markedly increased number of endogenous glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural progenitors in the peri-infarct boundary zone. However, the similarly administered monolayer MSCs resulted in a modest functional improvement. Our results suggest that 3D MSCs, in combination with intra-carotid delivery, may represent a novel therapeutic approach of MSCs for stroke. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Li P.,University of California at San Diego | Li P.,Peking Union Medical College | Oh D.Y.,University of California at San Diego | Bandyopadhyay G.,University of California at San Diego | And 11 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2015

Insulin resistance results from several pathophysiologic mechanisms, including chronic tissue inflammation and defective insulin signaling. We found that liver, muscle and adipose tissue exhibit higher levels of the chemotactic eicosanoid LTB4 in obese high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Inhibition of the LTB4 receptor Ltb4r1, through either genetic or pharmacologic loss of function, led to an anti-inflammatory phenotype with protection from insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. In vitro treatment with LTB4 directly enhanced macrophage chemotaxis, stimulated inflammatory pathways, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myocytes, and impaired insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in primary mouse hepatocytes. This was accompanied by lower insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and higher Irs-1/2 serine phosphorylation, and all of these events were dependent on Gαi and Jnk1, two downstream mediators of Ltb4r1 signaling. These observations elucidate a novel role of the LTB4-Ltb4r1 signaling pathway in hepatocyte and myocyte insulin resistance, and they show that in vivo inhibition of Ltb4r1 leads to robust insulin-sensitizing effects. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Qiu Z.Q.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics | Year: 2011

Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSDIb, MIM: 232220) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the glucose-6-phosphate translocase. The clinical manifestations include symptoms and signs of both the typical GSDIa, including hepatomegaly, fasting hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia and hyperlipidemia, and the dysfunction of neutrophils of recurrent infection and neutropenia. More than 84 mutations have been identified since the discovery of the SLC37A4 gene as the disease causing gene. Up to date, 5 mutations in 4 Chinese patients were reported from Hong Kang and Taiwan. In order to see the spectrum of the SLC37A4 gene mutations and the correlation between genotype and phenotype in patients with GSDIb of the mainland of China, the authors investigated 17 GSDIb patients from 15 families in this study. Data of 17 patients from 12 provinces, 11 male and 6 female, aged 6 months to 35 years, were collected from the genetic clinics of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Oct. 2006 to Mar. 2009. All of them were Han Chinese in ethnicity. Consanguineous status was confirmed in 2 unrelated patients. All patients were presented with hepatomegaly, fasting hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia and neutropenia with variable frequency of infections. The full coding exons, their relevant exon-intron boundaries, and the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the SLC37A4 gene were amplified and directly sequenced. RT-PCR was performed to verify the effect of the 2 novel splicing mutations. A total of 11 mutations were identified in 15 families. Four mutations, p.Gly149Glu, p.Pro191Leu, p.Arg415X and c.1042_1043 del CT, were previously reported, and seven mutations, p. Leu23Arg, p.Gly115Arg, p.Gly281Val, p.Arg415Gly, c.784 + 1G > A, c.870 + 5G > A and c.1014_1120del107, were novel. The frequent mutations are p.Pro191Leu, p.Gly149Glu and c.870 + 5G > A, accounting for 37%, 15% and 11% of mutant alleles respectively. RT-PCR analysis of novel mutation c.784 + 1G > A confirmed the splicing of exon 5 of 159 bp, causing inframe deletion. While mutation c.870 + 5G > A was proved to cause exon 6, 86 bp, deletion causing frame-shift. Among 15 families, 12 genotypes were identified, including 3 with homozygous mutation and 9 with compound heterozygous mutations. Homozygous p.Pro191Leu mutation was the only genotype detected in more than 1 family and was found in 4 unrelated families, including 1 patient from consanguineous marriage. A total of 11 SLC37A4 gene mutations were identified in 15 families of the mainland of China. The frequent mutations are p.Pro191Leu, p.Gly149Glu and c.870 + 5G > A. The number of Chinese SLC37A4 gene mutations was extended from 5 to 14.

Luo Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

Chen L.X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2012

To analyze the clinical characteristics and effects of rehabilitation treatment on hemophiliacs with iliopsoas hemorrage. The hemophilia patients with iliopsoas bleeding treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2006 to December 2010 were enrolled. The clinical characteristics including symptoms, signs, complications, and rehabilitation treatment were analyzed retrospectively. All of the forty-one hemophiliacs with iliopsoas bleeding were male, 20 cases wee the left bleeding, 18 the right, and 3 the bilateral. The median median age was 18 (6 - 61) years old(y). The median age of the iliopsoas bleeding for the first time was 17 (6 - 20) y. 34 patients accompanied with femoral nerve injury, 19 of them had secondary knee bleeding on the same side. 20 patents had quadriceps atrophy. Pelvic pseudotumor developed in 2 patients and permanent abnormal posture in 2 patients. The main finding of the ultrasound image was low-echo mass in iliopsoas muscles or inguinal region. 34 patients received rehabilitation therapy for 8 - 12 weeks under the support of factor replacement, complete hematomas absorption in 33 of them, with hip range of motion recovering back to baseline. 27 of 32 (84.4%) cases with femoral nerve injury got quadriceps strength above 4/5 grade, 20 cases of femoral nerve injury (62.5%) still had numbness on front of their thigh after treatment. In this cohort of iliopsoas bleeding, most of the patients are adolescent. High prevalence of the femoral nerve injury and the secondary knee bleeding are found. Rehabilitation treatment under the support of factor replacement is safe and effective on hematoma absorption and neurological function recovery.

Shi X.C.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2010

To investigate the clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) first presenting as fever of unknown origin (FUO). The clinical data of 100 cases of FUO, diagnosed as TB finally, among in-patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. (1) Sites of TB:there were 39 patients with merely pulmonary TB, 28 patients with merely extrapulmonary TB, and 33 patients with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. (2) Clinical manifestations: depending on the different sites of tuberculous lesion, the clinical symptoms varied accordingly. The common laboratory findings included anemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevation of the level of ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP). (3) Methods for diagnosis: 34 cases were diagnosed by sputum smear- or cultivation-positive for acid-fast bacilli; 8 cases by histopathology; 49 cases by clinical diagnosis of TB with an effective anti-TB therapy; and 9 cases by effective diagnostic anti-TB therapy. (4) Responses to treatment: among 73 cases with complete follow-up data, only 2 cases (2.7%) died and the other cases were cured or alleviated. Fifty-five cases (77.5%) showed marked efficacy after less than 4 weeks of regular anti-TB therapy, 37 cases (52.1%) suffered adverse effects of anti-TB agents, and all of them had improved after modifying anti-TB therapy and supporting treatment. The diagnosis of TB that presents as FUO is quite difficult, and the median interval time for making diagnosis is 14 weeks (3 - 77 weeks). Investigating clinical manifestations comprehensively, reviewing radiology data carefully, and eliciting microbiological and pathologic evidence of TB, are extremely important for making the correct diagnosis. In some cases, a therapeutic trial of anti-TB therapy is necessary.

Lee M.K.,Humphrey Oei Institute of Cancer Research | Tong W.M.,Peking Union Medical College | Wang Z.Q.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Wang Z.Q.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2011

Cellular stimulation results in phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p53 on multiple residues, though the functional relevance is not always clear. It is noteworthy that the serine (S) 315 residue is unique, as it has been suggested to be phosphorylated not only by genotoxic signals, but also during cell-cycle progression and by endoplasmic-reticulum stress. However, in vitro data have been conflicting as phosphorylation at this site was shown to both positively and negatively regulate p53 functions. We have thus generated knock-in mice expressing an unphosphorylable S312 (equivalent to human S315), by substitution with an alanine (A) residue, to clarify the conflicting observations and to evaluate its functional relevance in vivo. Born at Mendelian ratios, the p53 S312A/S312Amice show no anomalies during development and adulthood. p53 activation, stability, localization and ability to induce apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest and prevent centrosome amplification are not compromised in p53 S312A/S312Acells. p53 S312A/S312A mice are unable to rescue mdm2 / lethality, and tumorigenesis- both spontaneous and irradiation/oncogene-induced- is not accentuated. Taken together, the results show that the S312 phosphorylation site is not in itself necessary for efficient p53 function, and advocates the possibility that it is neither relevant in the mouse context nor important for p53 functions in vivo. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Sunsaneewitayakul B.,Chulalongkorn University | Yao Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Thamaree S.,Naresuan University | Zhang S.,Chulalongkorn University
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology | Year: 2012

Endocardial Mapping and Ablation of Brugada Syndrome. Introduction: Brugada syndrome (BS) is characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) leads and episodes of ventricular fibrillation (VF). This study aimed to observe the feasibility of substrate modification by radiofrequency catheter ablation and its effects on VF storm. Methods and Results: Ten BS patients (all men; median age 36.5 years) with VF storm (group I, n = 4) and no VF storm (group II, n = 6) were enrolled in the study between August 2007 and December 2008. All patients underwent electrophysiological study using noncontact mapping. The multielectrode array was placed in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The isopotential map was analyzed during sinus rhythm and the region that had electrical activity occurring during J point to +60 (J+60) milliseconds interval of the V1 or V2 of surface ECG was considered as the late activation zone (LAZ) and also the substrate for ablation. LAZ was found in RVOT with variable distribution in both groups. Endocardial catheter ablation of the LAZ modified Brugada ECG pattern in 3 of 4 patients (75%) and suppressed VF storm in all 4 patients in group I during long-term follow-up (12-30 months). One patient had complete right bundle branch block from the ablation procedure. Conclusions: LAZ on RVOT identified by noncontact mapping may serve as potential VF substrate in BS patients with VF episodes. Radiofrequency ablation on LAZ normalized ECG, suppressed VF storm, and reduced VF recurrence. The procedure is safe and may prevent VF occurrence.

Chen W.,Yeshiva University | Chen W.,Peking Union Medical College | Frangogiannis N.G.,Yeshiva University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2013

Fibroblasts are the predominant cell type in the cardiac interstitium. As the main matrix-producing cells in the adult mammalian heart, fibroblasts maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix network, thus preserving geometry and function. Following myocardial infarction fibroblasts undergo dynamic phenotypic alterations and direct the reparative response. Due to their strategic location, cardiac fibroblasts serve as sentinel cells that sense injury and activate the inflammasome secreting cytokines and chemokines. During the proliferative phase of healing, infarct fibroblasts undergo myofibroblast transdifferentiation forming stress fibers and expressing contractile proteins (such as α-smooth muscle actin). Mechanical stress, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad3 signaling and alterations in the composition of the extracellular matrix induce acquisition of the myofibroblast phenotype. In the highly cellular and growth factor-rich environment of the infarct, activated myofibroblasts produce matrix proteins, proteases and their inhibitors regulating matrix metabolism. As the infarct matures, "stress-shielding" of myofibroblasts by the cross-linked matrix and growth factor withdrawal may induce quiescence and ultimately cause apoptotic death. Because of their critical role in post-infarction cardiac remodeling, fibroblasts are promising therapeutic targets following myocardial infarction. However, the complexity of fibroblast functions and the pathophysiologic heterogeneity of post-infarction remodeling in the clinical context discourage oversimplified approaches in clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lu S.,Peking Union Medical College
GM crops | Year: 2010

How the abundant tree biomass resources can be efficiently used for future biofuel production has attracted a great deal of interest and discussion in the past few years. Capable technologies are expected to be developed to realize the production of biofuel from wood biomass. A significant effort is put into the field of modifying wood properties of trees and simplifying the process of biomass-to-ethanol conversion, which includes mainly genetic engineering of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose of woods. Current research in this field has achieved some promising results and opened up new opportunities to utilize wood biomass efficiently. This review will discuss the main developments in genetic modification of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis in trees as well as other potential genetic technology of biofuel production from wood biomass.

Wang J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

To explore the assessment methods of dysphagia. The data of 37 patients with dysphagia were retrospectively analyzed. These patients took the Kubota drinking test, Tengdao's evaluation, videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Fourteen out of thirty-seventh patients showed abnormal results during Kubota drinking test. Tengdao's evaluation results showed that 29/37 patients were abnormal. There 27/37 and 33/37 patients showed abnormalities in positive-aspiration score and swallow dysfunction score of VFSS. The number of abnormal patients in aspiration score of FEES was 19/21. The Kappa values were 0.137, 0.416 between Kubota drinking test. Tengdao's evaluation and VFSS. The FEES was measured against the VFSS for sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, the values were 88.9%, 66.7%, 94.1% and 50.0%. Kubota drinking test and Tengdao's evaluation can be applied for screening purpose and evaluating result after treatment; VFSS and FEES can be used as more accurate assessments, they can study the dysphagia's character, position and severity. The combination of a variety of dysphagia evaluation methods is the most important basis for diagnosis and treatment of deglutition disorders.

Xue F.S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ye T.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

To assess the effects of midazolam on explicit and implicit memories, 12 volunteers were randomly divided into the two groups: one with an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score of 3 (mild sedation) and one with a score of 1 (deep sedation). Blood oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was measured before and during an auditory stimulus, then with midazolam sedation, and then during a second auditory stimulus with continuous midazolam sedation. After 4 h, explicit and implicit memories were assessed. There was no evidence of explicit memory at the two levels of midazolam sedation. Implicit memory was retained at a mild level of midazolam sedation but absent at a deep level of midazolam sedation. At a mild level of midazolam sedation, activation of all brain areas by auditory stimulus (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) was uninhibited. However, a deep level of midazolam sedation depressed activation of the superior temporal gyrus by auditory stimulus. We conclude that midazolam does not abolish implicit memory at a mild sedation level, but can abolish both explicit and implicit memories at a deep sedation level. The superior temporal gyrus may be one of the target areas. © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

Song A.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2012

To study on the difference of plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) or primary aldosteronism (PA) or pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and to analyze the sensitivity and specificity on the diagnosis of PA among patients with hypertension with aldosterone/PRA ratio (ARR). The plasma aldosterone, Ang II and PRA concentrations in supine and upright positions were measured by radioimmunoassay from 413 patients including idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA, n = 111), aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA, n = 118), PHEO (n = 98) and EH (n = 86). ARR was calculated. Plasma aldosterone concentrations in both of supine and upright positions in PHEO group [374 (294, 465) pmol/L and 629 (449, 997) pmol/L] and PA group [471 (346, 632) pmol/L and 673 (499, 825) pmol/L] were higher than those in EH group [277 (224, 332) pmol/L and 427 (341, 501) pmol/L] (P < 0.01). They were also higher in APA group [576 (416, 731) pmol/L and 726 (554, 906) pmol/L] than those in IHA group [399 (313, 504) pmol/L and 609 (485, 776) pmol/L] (P < 0.01). Ang II levels in both positions were lower in PA group [43.2 (26.4, 74.4) ng/L and 60.1 (38.5, 103.6) ng/L] than in EH group [56.7 (43.3, 78.9) ng/L and 84.3 (61.3, 108.4) ng/L] or PHEO group [54.3 (29.9, 101.5) ng/L and 102.8 (49.9, 167.0) ng/L] (all P values < 0.01), and there was no difference between IHA and APA group (P > 0.05). The PRA level in both positions of each group were PHEO group [0.3 (0.2, 1.0) μg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 1.4 (0.6, 3.4) μg · L(-1) · h(-1)] > EH group [0.2 (0.1, 0.4) μg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) μg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P < 0.01) > PA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) μg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) μg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P < 0.01), and APA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) μg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.1 (0.1, 0.3) μg · L(-1) · h(-1)] < IHA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.2) μg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) μg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (supine P < 0.01; upright P < 0.05). APA was divided into 2 types with renin-Ang II-responsive APA (n = 26) and unresponsive APA (n = 92). The plasma aldosterone concentration was lower in supine position but higher in upright position in renin-Ang II-responsive APA than in unresponsive APA patients. ARR in upright was higher in PA group (P < 0.01) but lower in PHEO group (P < 0.05) compared with EH. ARR was higher in APA than in IHA (P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of ARR as 40 (aldosterone unit: ng/dl; PRA unit: μg · L(-1) · h(-1); its value should multiply 27.7 when transferred to pmol/L, simili) were 93% and 76%, respectively. The levels of PRA, Ang II and aldosterone from patients with EH, PA and PHEO are significant different. ARR as 40 in upright position could be used for PA screening cutoff point.

The aim of the present study was to screen and identify the chromosomal aberrations that are correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of rectal cancer using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). Forty-eight fresh frozen tumor tissues of rectal carcinoma were analyzed by array-CGH. The results showed that most frequent gains included 8q24.3, 20q11.21-q13.32, 20q13.33 and losses in 8p23.3-p12, 17p13.1-p12 and 18q11.2-q23 were noted. Fourteen amplifications and seven homozygous deletions were identified in the rectal cancer samples. Losses of 4p16.1-p15.31, 8p21.1-p12 and gains of 7p12.3-p12.1 and 13q33.1-q34 were associated with positive lymph node status and advanced clinical stage (stages III and IV). The 17q24.2-25.3 gain was more frequent in patients with distant metastasis. Integrated analysis indicated that overexpression of PDP1, TRIB1, C13orf27, FOXA2, PMEPA1 and PHACTR3 was associated with gains, and underexpression of FHOD, SMAD4 and BCL2 was associated with losses. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that pathways of nitrogen metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, cell cycle, maturity onset diabetes of young, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK signaling pathway and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy were influenced by copy number changes.

Zhou H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban | Year: 2010

To study the relaxant effects of glycyrrhizinate and salvianolic acid B on rat portal vein in vitro. Healthy female Wistar rats were canalized from hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein in vitro. Remained blood in liver was eliminated with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit solution through hepatic artery, then the liver was isolated under infusing manner. Being constricted with phenylephrine and relaxed with acetylcholine, and infused with glycyrrhizinate or salvianolic acid B, the portal pressures of infused rat livers were consistently monitored by BL-420S physiological experiment system. The median effective concentration (EC50) of the two agents were analyzed with non-linear various slope regression using Prism-4 software. EC50 of glycyrrhizinate in relaxing the phenylephrine-contracted portal was 1.5556 x 10(-9) mol/L, suggesting one of the mechanism of action of diammonium glycyrhizinate for the treatment of portal hypertension was direct relaxation. Salvianolic acid B showed constrictive action on the phenylephrine-retracted portal vein, the EC50 was 1.4639 x 10(-9) mol/L, indicating that its indirect control action was took part in the portal hypertension therapy synergistically. Under the mode with both controlled-velocity and monitored pressure, glycyrrhizinate showed relaxation and salvianolic acid B showed constriction on portal pressure in vitro.

Qu F.-L.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the effect and adverse effects of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of primary hepatocarcinoma patients, and conduct the pharmacokinetics study. Methods: A total of one hundred and eleven advanced primary hepatocarcinoma patients in five centers were treated with As2O3 injection 7-8 mg/m2 i. v. qd for 14 days and was repeated after 7-14 days. Evaluation of the clinical response and adverse effects was conducted after two cycles of treatment. The patient who had reached partial PR and SD was treated continuously until disease progression or intolerance. Results: Among the 102 patients evaluable for clinical efficacy analysis, there were 7 PR, 71 SD and 24 PD, the response rate was 6.9% and the clinical benefit rate was 76.5%. The quality of life was improved in 22.5% of patients. The pain relief rate was 71.7%, time to progress (TTP) was 97 days, and the median survival time (MST) was 195 days. The major adverse effects were reversible WHO I-II grade gastrointestinal reactions and bone marrow suppression. The results of pharmacokinetic study showed that the distribution and elimination characteristics in vivo was found to be a two-compartment model. The plasma elimination half-life was (23.94 ± 18.39) h. Conclusions: As2O3 is effective in the management of primary hepatocarcinoma, with a significant analgesic effect. To some extent, it can extend TTP and MST in advanced liver cancer patients, while the treatment is well tolerated in the majority of patients.

Since regional drug administration enables to maintain a high drug concentration within tumors, we compared the plasma concentration and biodistribution of doxorubicin (Dox) from drug-loaded conventional liposomes by local or systemic administration. The results demonstrated that drug concentration was substantially improved in liver as well as a decrease in blood and other organs by spleen injection mimicking portal vein perfusion (regional administration). To further investigate the targeted therapeutic effect of galactosylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (Dox) by regional administration, liver targeting liposomes were prepared by incorporating galactosylated-DPPE to conventional liposomes. Liposome uptake and targeting were verified in vitro and in vivo by fluorescence microscopy and xenogen IVIS imaging system, respectively. The results showed that galactose targeted liposomes presented a stronger specific cell uptake by human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells compared to the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the intra-hepatic deposition of conventional and galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection was more than that via tail vein administration, and galactosylated liposomes had higher fluorescent intensity over conventional liposomes in the liver post spleen administration. The anti-tumor effect of various drug administration routes for both liposomal formulations was evaluated using a murine liver metastasis model of colon cancer. The results indicated that tumor progression in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly suppressed by Dox-loaded galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection, while no significance was observed in non-targeted formulations. Our data indicated that local perfusion of galactosylated liposomal doxorubicin had a great promise for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon cancer.

Reddy M.A.,Beckman Research Institute | Zhang E.,Beckman Research Institute | Zhang E.,Peking Union Medical College | Natarajan R.,Beckman Research Institute
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

The incidence of diabetes and its associated micro- and macrovascular complications is greatly increasing worldwide. The most prevalent vascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in these pathologies. Clinical trials have underscored the beneficial effects of intensive glycaemic control for preventing the progression of complications. Accumulating evidence suggests a key role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications in chromatin, and non-coding RNAs in the complex interplay between genes and the environment. Factors associated with the pathology of diabetic complications, including hyperglycaemia, growth factors, oxidant stress and inflammatory factors can lead to dysregulation of these epigenetic mechanisms to alter the expression of pathological genes in target cells such as endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, retinal and cardiac cells, without changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Furthermore, long-term persistence of these alterations to the epigenome may be a key mechanism underlying the phenomenon of ‘metabolic memory’ and sustained vascular dysfunction despite attainment of glycaemic control. Current therapies for most diabetic complications have not been fully efficacious, and hence a study of epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved is clearly warranted as they can not only shed novel new insights into the pathology of diabetic complications, but also lead to the identification of much needed new drug targets. In this review, we highlight the emerging role of epigenetics and epigenomics in the vascular complications of diabetes and metabolic memory. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wang L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To describe the status and characteristics of under-reporting of death cases within national disease surveillance system (DSPs). Six villages (communities) were selected in each of the 161 counties of DSPs by multi-stage random cluster sampling methods, the information of resident from 2006 to 2008 was collected, and a survey of the under-reporting deaths cases was carried out which covered 6 422 667 people in all. The under-reporting rate was estimated by ages, genders and regions. The mortality was compared before and after the adjustment of the under-reporting rate. The total crude rate of under-reporting of whole nation was 16.68% (6271/37 603), and after the adjustment by weight the rate was 17.44%; the under-reporting rate of urban areas was a bit lower than rural areas, which were 16.08% and 18.14% respectively (P < 0.01); the under-reporting rate of middle and west regions were higher than the east, which were 19.27%, 18.15% and 15.46% respectively (P < 0.01). The under-reporting rate of children of under-five years old was much higher than that of people of five and above-five years old, which were 34.95% and 16.90% respectively (P < 0.01). The gender difference was especially obvious in age group 0-4, for women 39.36% while 31.93% for men. After adjusted by under-reporting rate, the mortality rate of male raised from 6.38‰ to 7.74‰ and for female raised from 4.66‰ to 5.64‰. In the middle region, the mortality rate of male raised from 6.49‰ to 8.00‰ and for female raised from 4.59‰ to 5.73‰ after the adjustment. And the mortality rate of male in age group 0-4 raised from 2.48‰ to 3.64‰ and for female raised from 1.98‰ to 3.27‰. Of which in urban area, the mortality rate of male was much higher than female before the adjustment, which were 1.76‰ and 1.39‰ respectively; however, the mortality rate of male was a bit lower than female after the adjustment, which were 2.26‰ and 2.41‰ respectively. The mortality in male of five and above-five raised from 6.60‰ to 7.69‰ after the adjustment while in female raised from 4.80‰ to 5.77‰. There are regional and age-group differences of the under-reporting rate of the National Disease Surveillance System. The gender differences mainly shows in age 0-4.

Huang L.-M.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore the association between HLA-DQA1 gene copy number polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in Chinese population, and the interaction of those genes and environmental factors. Methods: The genotype of HLA-DQA1 gene copy number polymorphisms was determined in 343 patients with gastric cancer and 330 controls by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the impact of this polymorphism on the risk of developing gastric cancer and the gene-environment interaction. Results: Compared with 0 copy of HLA-DQA1 gene carriers, the 2 copies of HLA-DQA1 gene carriers had a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.15-3.06, P = 0.012). Gene-environment interaction of HLA-DQA1 gene copy number polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection significantly increased the risk of gastric cancer in a multiplicative manner, with an OR of 3.89 (95% CI = 1.75-8. 57, P = 0.001). Conclusions: HLA-DQA1 gene copy number polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility, and there is a multiplicative gene-environment interaction between this polymorphism and Hp infection in the development of gastric cancer.

Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk; however, the mechanisms by which genetic factors influence the development of sporadic pancreatic cancer remain largely unknown. Here, by using genome-wide association analysis and functional characterization, we identify a long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA), LINC00673, as a potential tumor suppressor whose germline variation is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. LINC00673 is able to reinforce the interaction of PTPN11 with PRPF19, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and promote PTPN11 degradation through ubiquitination, which causes diminished SRC–ERK oncogenic signaling and enhanced activation of the STAT1-dependent antitumor response. A G>A change at rs11655237 in exon 4 of LINC00673 creates a target site for miR-1231 binding, which diminishes the effect of LINC00673 in an allele-specific manner and thus confers susceptibility to tumorigenesis. These findings shed new light on the important role of LINC00673 in maintaining cell homeostasis and how its germline variation might confer susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Liu S.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2012

To investigate the incidence and correlative factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 116 SLE patients and 115 controls were enrolled into the study. The incidence of MS, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) of patients with SLE combined with MS (MS-SLE) and patients without MS (n-MS-SLE), lupus characteristics, cumulative glucocorticoids, administration dose of glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine were compared between SLE group and the control group. The incidence of MS of SLE group was obviously higher than that of the control (34.48% vs 14.78%, P < 0.05). The ratios of patients with lower HDL-C, higher TG and higher blood pressure in SLE group (50.86%, 56.03%, 46.55%) were higher than those in the controls (34.78%, 16.52%, 20.00%, all P < 0.05). MS-SLE group had significantly higher mean waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and lower HDL-C than n-MS-SLE group (all P < 0.05). No significant difference was found regarding duration of disease, renal involvement, ESR, C-reactive protein,high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, SLEDAI, cumulative and current glucocorticoids use in MS-SLE group and n-MS-SLE group. The ratio of patients taking hydroxychloroquine in n-MS-SLE group was higher than that of MS-SLE group (46.05% vs 15.00%, P < 0.05). Patients with SLE has a higher incidence rate of MS. Hydroxychloroquine may reduce their MS incidence.

Liu C.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To explore the correlations between serum uric acid (UA) levels and the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters of multiple sclerosis (MS). The medical reports of 47 MS patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2008 and 2010 were reviewed. And 49 age- and gender-matched cerebral infarction patients were enrolled as control. The mean serum UA level of the MS patients was compared with that of the control group. The correlations between the UA levels and the clinical parameters including gender, disease duration, relapse rate, and disease disabilities as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, were explored. Forty-one patients had CSF examinations. The correlations between the UA levels and the CSF parameters reflecting inflammation and tissue damage, including CSF protein, white blood cell count, oligoclonal band, 24-hour IgG index, and myelin basic protein, were also investigated. The mean serum UA level in the MS patients was lower than that in the control group (247.75±52.59 μmol/L vs. 277.94±74.33 μmol/L, P=0.025) and inversely correlated with the relapse rate (P=0.049). MS patients with lower serum UA levels tended to have higher white blood cell counts and myelin basic protein level. But there was no correlation between CSF protein levels (r=0.165, P=0.273), white blood cell counts (r=-0.051, P=0.732), IgG index (r=0. 045, P=0.802), or myelin basic protein level (r=-0.248, P=0.145) and the serum UA level, respectively. In MS patients, UA levels might partly reflect the extent of disability and inflammation.

Huang J.,Capital Medical University | Qian H.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Li Z.-Z.,Capital Medical University | Zhang J.-M.,Capital Medical University
American Journal of the Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

PURPOSE:: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients younger than 35 years with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS:: A total of 117 patients younger than 35 years with AMI admitted to the hospital during the recent 10 years were chosen, and 355 patients older than 65 years with AMI served as a control group. The case history, clinical data, coronary angiography and prognosis of the patients were analyzed and compared. RESULTS:: Among the younger patients with AMI, men (96.6%) and those smoking cigarettes (66.7%) account for the majority. ST-segment elevation (69.2%) and anterior wall infarction (43.6%) were more prevalent in the younger patients than in the older patients. Compared with the older patients, the younger patients had a higher level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.93 ± 1.48 versus 2.35 ± 1.21, P = 0.0428) and higher left ventricular ejection fraction (59.82 ± 10.86 versus 48.31 ± 12.48, P = 0.0396). Coronary angiography data showed that most of the younger patients were characteristic of having single-vessel lesion (66.7%), left anterior descending artery lesion (69.3%) and coronary artery spasm more than the older patients (6.8% versus 0.56%, P = 0.0001). In addition, the in-hospital mortality, and the prognosis after 1 and 12 months in the younger patients were comparatively better. CONCLUSIONS:: The main risk factors for young adults aged <35 years with AMI include cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia and family history of coronary artery disease, and smoking cessation and lifestyle improvement are important considerations for the prevention of this disease in this population. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Yang L.,Langfang Peoples Hospital | Liu H.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2014

Endometriosis is one of the major female health burdens which affects the quality of life and reproductive potential of individuals. Although some treatment strategies are available, the complete cure of endometriosis is not yet possible. Investigation of new and alternative strategies for endometriosis treatment thus remains necessary. Identification of small RNA molecules and their roles in gene regulation and other cellular functions has revolutionized modern biomedical science. Several micro RNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been found to be associated with endometriosis progression. Some of them are down-regulated, while some are up-regulated. Detail profiling of miRNAs and/or siRNAs may serve as an important tool for endometriosis diagnosis. Meanwhile, targeting the specific miRNAs/siRNAs which are up-regulated in endometriosisis, or using miRNAs/siRNAs precursors, which are down-regulated in endometriosisis, have produced some success stories in endometriosis theraputics. Extensive studies on miRNAs/siRNAs may aid potential therapeutic approaches in endometriosis treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Retrospective review. To evaluate the efficacy of multimodal intraoperative neuromonitoring for predicting iatrogenic neurological injury during surgical correction of a spine deformity and evaluate the potential risk factors for neurological monitoring changes. Single modal intraoperative neuromonitoring is insufficient to predict neurological injury during surgical correction of spine deformity. Multimodal monitoring can provide more accuracy. Some risk factors were reported to be correlated with high rates of neurological deficits during scoliosis correction. But few studies have reported on the risk factors for neurological monitoring changes (NMCs). The records of 176 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of spinal deformities were reviewed. The patients were monitored using transcranial electric motor-evoked potential (MEP) and/or somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP). Alterations with the MEP wave amplitude decreasing more than 75% and SEP amplitude decreasing more than 50%, as compared with the baseline, were diagnosed as positive changes. Risk factors related to NMCs were evaluated, in light of preoperative neurological deficits, comorbidity of spinal cord deformity, procedure of osteotomy, main curve Cobb angle, and a diagnosis of kyphosis. Combined MEP/SEP monitoring was successfully achieved in 175 of 176 cases. Eleven cases were presented with true NMCs according to MEPs. One patient had an irreversible neurological deficit and 4 patients had transient neurological deficits after waking up from the operation. SEP lagged MEP for an average of 15 minutes when both were presented with positive changes. The sensitivity and specificity of MEP were 91.7% and 98.8%, respectively. Solo SEP were 50% and 95.2%. Combined MEP and SEP were 92.9% and 99.4%. The procedure of osteotomy, curve Cobb angle more than 90 degrees, and preoperative kyphosis were correlated with a higher incidence of NMCs. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring provides higher sensitivity for monitoring during spine deformity surgery and can predict events of neurological injury. The detection of NMCs and adjustment of surgical strategy may prevent irreversible neurological deficits. The possible risk factors for NMCs during spine deformity surgery include an osteotomy procedure, kyphosis correction, and preoperative Cobb angle more than 90 degrees.

To investigate the association of orthostatic hypertension and hypotension with hypertensive target organ damage in middle and old-aged hypertensive patients. This cross-section study was conducted in 4711 hypertensive patients aged 40-75 years old in 7 communities of Xinyang County, Henan Province by a multistage cluster sampling method. All patients received a standardized questionnaire, physical and biochemical examinations, echocardiography, ankle-brachial blood pressure index and orthostatic blood pressure measurement. Orthostatic hypertension was defined as an elevation of systolic blood pressure by 20 mm Hg or more while orthostatic hypotension as a drop of blood pressure by 20/10 mm Hg or more. When an upright posture was assumed. Others not belonging to these two conditions were classified into orthostatic normotension. The prevalence of orthostatic hypertension and hypotension was 16.3% and 23.8% in hypertensive patients. Peripheral artery disease was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with orthostatic hypertension (10.1%) or hypotension (10.7%) than those with orthostatic normotensives (7.4%) (both P<0.05). Patients with orthostatic hypotension had more common left ventricular hypertrophy (53.0% vs 43.2%, P<0.001) and a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (38.6% vs 34.4%, P<0.05) than did those with orthostatic normotension. After controlling for age, gender, body mass index and other confounders, orthostatic hypertension was positively associated with peripheral arterial disease (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.05-1.84) while orthostatic hypotension was significantly associated with peripheral arterial disease (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.13-1.86) and left ventricular hypertrophy (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.11-1.84). But no independent association was found between orthostatic hypertension or hypotension and a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for left ventricular hypertrophy, as predicted by the quintiles of orthostatic systolic blood pressure changes, showed a J-shaped relationship in hypertensive women, and so did peripheral artery disease in untreated hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients with orthostatic hypertension or hypotension may have an elevated risk of developing target organ damage.

Shi X.,Oregon Health And Science University | Shi X.,Peking Union Medical College
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

A large population of perivascular cells was found to be present in the area of the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis of normal adult cochlea. The cells were identified as perivascular resident macrophages (PVMs), as they were positive for several macrophage surface molecules including F4/80, CD68, and CD11b. The macrophages, which were closely associated with microvessels and structurally intertwined with endothelial cells and pericytes, constitutively expressed scavenger receptor classes A1 and B 1 and accumulated blood-borne proteins such as horseradish peroxidase and acetylated low-density lipoprotein. The PVMs were demonstrated to proliferate slowly, as evidenced by the absence of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive PVMs at 3-14 days in normal mice injected with BrdU. However, in irradiated mice, the majority of the PVMs turned over via bone-marrow-cell migration within a 10-month time-frame. The existence of PVMs in the vascular wall of the blood-labyrinth barrier might therefore serve as a source for progenitor cells for postnatal vasculogenesis and might contribute to the repair of damaged vessels in the context of a local inflammatory response. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Yang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Biologicals | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the purification effects of two gel chromatographic methods on human rotavirus (RV) as well as their influence on antigenicity and immunogenicity of RV. Methods: Virus harvest was concentrated by ultrafiltration, purified by Q Sepharose Fast Flow (QFF) ion exchange chromatography and Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (4FF) gel filtration chromatography, then observed for morphology by electron microscopy, and determined for antigenicity by diagnostic kit (colloidal gold) for group A RV, for infectious titers before and purification by fluorescent focus method, and for antigen content by double antibody sandwich ELISA. The purified viral protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, analyzed for pattern of nucleic acid by PAGE, and used for immunization of mice to evaluate the immunogenicity. Results: The elution peak 1 of QFF chromatography and elution peak 1 of 4FF chromatography were positive for RV antigen. Intact RV particles each at a diameter of about 70 nm were observed under electron microscope. After purification by QFF and 4FF chromatography, the infectious titers of RV were 7.10 and 4.50 Ig CCID50/ml, while the final recovery rates of antigen were 65.3% and 11.8%, and the removal rates of total protein were 99.68% and 99.52%, respectively. SDS-PAGE showed no obvious foreign protein bands in the samples purified by QFF and 4FF chromatography, indicating high specificity. The purified RV after inactivation showed no change in pattern of genome, of which high antigenicity and immunogenicity were maintained. Conclusion: Both QFF and 4FF chromatography were suitable for purification of human RV, however, comprehensively, QFF ion exchange chromatography was superior to 4FF gel filtration chromatography.

Tang R.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To determine the safety and efficacy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE). The medical records of patients with HAE admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital who had received FFP infusion during 2004 and 2010 were reviewed and PubMed database from 1966 to the present were searched using the following hereditary angioedema and fresh frozen plasma. The patient's age, sex, body location of HAE attacks, the dose of FFP infusion, time of beginning to improvement, time to complete remission, complication, C1 inhibitor activity, and outcome were analyzed. A total of 13 enrolled patients (7 male and 6 female) received 16 times of FFP infusion, including 2 patients undergoing FFP infusion in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and 11 patients reported in the literature. The mean dosage of FFP infusion was 586∓337 mL. Two cases suffered from worsening abdominal pain and one case experienced skin rash. Only 1 patient had no improvement in symptom owing to transfusion related reaction. There was a definite improvement in symptom 49∓19 minutes after beginning FFP infusion. The remission time decreased from 61.7∓27.0 hours to 3.3 (2.0, 12.0) hours after FFP infusion. FFP infusion was effective for both type I and type II HAE. FFP seems to be safe and effective for acute attacks of HAE.

Zou N.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2012

To further analyse the relationship between the new technology and clinical characteristics in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) patients, and summarize the data of PNH during the past 15 years in China. 76 consecutive patients with PNH diagnosed in Peking Union Medical Colleague Hospital from 1997 - 2011 retrospectively. Most of the patients were diagnosed based on flow cytometric data. There were 46 male and 30 female patients. The median age at diagnosis was 40 (10 - 74). 46 (60.5%) patients presented with classical PNH, 16 (21.1%) pancytopenia, and 14 (18.4%) thrombosis. Anatomic locations of first thrombosis were intra abdominal in 7 patients, lower extremities in 3 patients, intracerebral in 2 patients, and pulmonary thrombosis in 2 patients. The size of PNH clone at first determination (shown by CD55 and CD59 negative percentage) was (61.23 ± 27.47)% and (60.24 ± 25.59)% on neutrophils; (34.24 ± 25.50)% and (32.22 ± 23.12)% on erythrocytes, respectively. The mean LDH level was (1199.2 ± 893.5) U/L. In our cohort, 13(17.0%) patients suffered from renal deficiency, 12 (15.8%) patients cholecystolithiasis, 10 (13.2%) patients hemorrhage and 9 (11.8%) patients infections. In a median of 7-year (range 0.5 - 20 years) follow-up (68 patients), 2 (2.9%) patients developed into myelodysplastic syndromes/ acute myeloid leukemia, 1(1.5%) patient ovary cancer, 11(14.5%) patients died. Patients with thrombosis had higher percentage of CD59 negative neutrophils \[(73.45 ± 22.32)%\] compared with those without thrombosis \[(58.3 ± 20.2)%\] (P < 0.05). The cohort had higher percentage of classical hemolysis, thrombosis and renal dysfunction compared with previous reports in China. Patients with thrombotic events had higher percentages of CD55 and CD59 negative neutrophils.

Wu Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2011

We used the individual patient data from clinical trials, pooled in the INDANA data set, to explore whether blood pressure reduction was related to the baseline individual characteristics, and quantify the potential associations. We used the data from 31 140 patients with essential hypertension recruited in four randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, MRC35-64, MRC65-74, STEP and SYST-EU. Thiazide diuretics, β-blocker, and calcium channel blocker, three of six major BP lowering drugs were analyzed. Patients were all with the same first dosage of the drug in each trial. Age, body weight, height, level of total cholesterin (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) when initialed and at first visit of follow-up, pharmacological treatment, gender, status of smoking, history of myocardium infarction were factors taken into model. Data were managed by software SAS(®). Statistical analyses were performed with SAS(®) and R. Model was developed to evaluate the relationship between decrease of SBP and characteristics of patients. Initial SBP is the only modifier of treatment effect on SBP response in the 3 BP lowering drug classes (β = 0.09, 0.37 and 0.18, respectively). Age and initial DBP were factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for diuretic (β = 0.17 and 0.14), and age was one of factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for β-blocker (β = -0.17). Smokers would receive less SBP fall compare to non-smokers in β-blocker active treated group (β = -2.07). There is converse effect of age between the diuretic and β-blocker; older people seem sensitive to diuretic, while young people are sensitive to β-blocker. As to calcium channel antagonist class, body weight is another modifier (β = 0.06) (All P value are 0.000 except 0.050 for body weight in calcium channel antagonist class). We identified 5 significant modifiers (baseline SBP and DBP, age, smoking status and body weight) for SBP response to treatment effect, while gender, TC and history of myocardial infarction are not modifiers for SBP response to treatment effect.

To further explore the role of rituximab when added to the CHOP-like regimen in the treatment of immunohistochemically defined non-germinal center B-cell subtype (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL), 159 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were studied retrospectively based on the immunohistochemical evaluation of CD10, Bcl-6, MUM-1, and Bcl-2. Altogether, 110 patients underwent the CHOP-like regimen, and rituximab was added for the other 49 patients. Cox regression analysis showed that compared with the CHOP-like regimen, the rituximab-based regimen(R-CHOP regimen) significantly decreased the risk of disease relapse and progression in CD10-negative patients (P=0.001), Bcl-6-negative patients (P=0.01), and MUM-1-positive patients (P=0.003). The risk of disease relapse in patients with non-GCB subtype (P=0.002) also decreased. In contrast, patients with the opposite immunohistochemical marker expression profile and GCB subtype did not benefit from treatment with the R-CHOP regimen. In addition, non-GCB subtype patients had a significantly higher expression rate of Bcl-2 than GCB subtype patients (P=0.042). Although univariate analysis found that both Bcl-2-positive and -negative patients had significantly higher event-free survival rates with the R-CHOP regimen, only Bcl-2 positivity (P=0.004) maintained significance in the Cox regression analysis. We conclude that the addition of rituximab can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with non-GCB subtype DLBCL, which is closely related to the expression of CD10, Bcl-6, MUM-1, and Bcl-2.

Yu Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

To study the clinical characteristic, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma (TDCa). A total of 110 patients with thyroglossal duct remanat in our hospital between 1991 and 2011 was reviewed. Five patients of them were diagnosed with TDCa by pathological examination, including 4 cases of papillary carcinoma and 1 case of squamous cell carcinoma. All five patients were men and the median age was 41 years (range from 17 - 73 years). Pulmonary metastasis was found preoperatively in one patient with papillary carcinoma. All five patients were managed by surgical treatment. Sistrunk operation was performed with resection of the tumor, thyroglossal remanat and partial hyoid bone in 2 patients, with resection of thyroid nodule in one patient, with total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection in one patient with pulmonary metastasis, with extensive resection of invading tissues in one patient with squamous TDCa. Two patients with papillary carcinoma underwent the treatment with TSH suppression postoperatively, of them one with pulmonary metastasis received radioactive iodine therapy simultaneously. The remaining three patients did not receive any further treatment. With follow-up of 14 - 45 months, local recurrence occurred in one patient with squamous TDCa after two months and caused death seven months after surgery, and the other four patients survived. TDCa is a rare malignant tumor that is usually diagnosed after surgery. The Sistrunk operation may be adequate for low-risk cases.

Guo L.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2011

To investigate the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I. The clinical information of 62 patients with GSD type I who admitted to Peking Union Medical Hospital were reviewed and the cardiovascular risk profile was analyzed. The age of the patient cohort was (8.4 ± 6.9) years and the ratio of male vs. female was 36:26. The median disease duration was (6.7 ± 6.2) years and treatment duration was (38.3 ± 35.2) months. The rate of abnormal change in electrocardiogram and echocardiography was 17.7% and 24.2%, respectively. The serum concentration of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid in patient before and after treatment were (6.18 ± 2.47) mmol/L vs. (5.61 ± 1.84) mmol/L (P = 0.020), (11.17 ± 9.85) mmol/L vs. (6.81 ± 5.97) mmol/L (P = 0.010), (2.55 ± 1.27) mmol/L vs. (2.78 ± 1.07) mmol/L (P = 0.617), (0.98 ± 0.37) mmol/L vs. (0.96 ± 0.23) mmol/L (P = 0.005), (526.53 ± 127.09) μmol/L vs. (490.78 ± 129.79) μmol/L (P = 0.977), respectively. The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels tended to be higher after therapy compared before treatment (2.33 ± 3.30) mg/L vs. (3.35 ± 3.39) mg/L, P = 0.431. Patients with GSD I are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

Koenekoop R.K.,McGill University | Sui R.,Peking Union Medical College | Sallum J.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Van Den Born L.I.,Medical Retina | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Leber congenital amaurosis, caused by mutations in RPE65 and LRAT, is a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration leading to blindness. We aimed to assess replacement of the missing chromophore 11-cis retinal with oral QLT091001 (synthetic 9-cis-retinyl acetate) in these patients.Methods In our open-label, prospective, phase 1b trial, we enrolled patients (aged ≥6 years) with Leber congenital amaurosis and RPE65 or LRAT mutations at McGill University's Montreal Children's Hospital. Patients received 7 days of oral QLT091001 (10-40 mg/m2 per day). We assessed patients at baseline and days 7, 9, 14, and 30, and then 2 months and every 2 months thereafter for up to 2·2 years for safety outcomes and visual function endpoints including Goldmann visual fields (GVF), visual acuity, and functional MRI assessment. We regarded patients as having an improvement in vision if we noted at least a 20% improvement in retinal area on GVF compared with baseline or a visual acuity improvement of five or more letters compared with baseline in two consecutive study visits (or any improvement from no vision at baseline). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01014052.Findings Between December, 2009, and June, 2011, we enrolled and treated 14 patients aged 6-38 years who were followed up until March, 2012. Ten (71%) of 14 patients had an improvement in GVF areas (mean increase in retinal area of 28-683%). Six (43%) patients had an improvement in visual acuity (mean increase of 2-30 letters). Self-reported or parent-reported improvements in activities of daily living supported these findings. After 2 years, 11 (79%) patients had returned to their baseline GVF retinal area and ten (71%) had returned to baseline visual acuity letter values. Thus, three (21%) patients had a sustained GVF response and four (30%) had a sustained visual acuity response. Four patients had functional MRI scans, which correlated with visual response or absence of response to treatment. No serious adverse events occurred, although we noted transient headaches (11 patients), photophobia (11 patients), reduction in serum HDL concentrations (four patients), and increases in serum triglycerides (eight patients) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations (two patients).Interpretation Non-invasive oral QLT091001 therapy is well tolerated, and can rapidly improve visual function in some patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and RPE65 and LRAT mutations.Funding QLT, Foundation Fighting Blindness Canada, CIHR, FRSQ, Reseau Vision. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Fan X.H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2011

To investigate the relationship between the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and serum uric acid in general population. The study participants were derived from the epidemiological study on the association of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Pinggu district, Beijing. A total of 992 participants (463 men and 529 women) aged from 30 to 75 years were enrolled in this study. For each participant, UAE, serum uric acid, serum creatinine, and serum lipids were detected and other potential risk factors for CKD were surveyed. (1) The frequencies of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and hyperuricemia were 12.9%, 1.8% and 4.3% respectively. The persons with hyperuricemia had significantly higher frequency of albuminuria than those without hyperuricemia (37.2% vs 13.7%, P < 0.01). (2) The participants were divided according to the quartiles (25%, 50%, 75%) of serum uric acid level, and the frequencies of albuminuria in males were 13.2%, 13.9%, 17.2% and 25.4%, while those in females were 8.4%, 6.2%, 9.6% and 24.8%. (3) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed, hyperuricemia was significantly associated with albuminuria in females (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 1.15-4.68; P = 0.02), but not in males. If the persons with reduced renal function were excluded, similar result still could be gained. The prevalence of albuminuria increases gradually with uric acid elevation. Serum uric acid is an independent risk factor of elevated UAE, especially in females.

Luo L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] | Year: 2011

To analyze the clinical characteristics of Behcet's disease with intracardiac thrombus. The data of 8 patients diagnosed as Behcet's disease with intracardiac thrombus in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January, 1990 to January, 2011 were studied retrospectively. Behcet's disease with intracardiac thrombus was found in 8 patients (5 men and 3 women) with a median age of 28.5 years. Most of them were young men. Thrombus was mostly found in the right side of the heart. Most of the patients had pulmonary thromboembolism with negative anticardiolipid antibody and basically normal C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Intracardiac thrombus associated with Behcet's disease most commonly occurs in young men and usually involves the right side of the heart.

Yao Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Li J.,National Center for Clinical Laboratories | Wang L.,National Center for Clinical Laboratories
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

In the human genome, the fraction of protein-coding genes that are stably transcribed is only up to 2%, with the remaining numerous RNAs having no protein-coding function. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have received considerable attention in cancer research in recent years. Breakthroughs have been made in understanding microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, but larger RNAs such as long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) remain an enigma. One lncRNA, HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), has been shown to be dysregulated in many types of cancer, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepatoma. HOTAIR functions as a regulatory molecule in a wide variety of biological processes. However, its mechanism of action has not been clearly elucidated. It is widely believed that HOTAIR mediates chromosomal remodeling and coordinates with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to regulate gene expression. Further study of HOTAIR-related pathways and the role of HOTAIR in tumorigenesis and tumor progression may identify new treatment targets. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of HOTAIR, as well as data pertaining to its mechanism and its association with cancers. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Ye W.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2010

To analyze the outcome and risk factors of endovascular revascularization of lower limb artery for elder patients. From January 2006 to November 2008, 86 elder patients (98 ischemia limbs) underwent endovascular revascularization due to lower limb ischemia. Age of this group were 60 to 82 years old with a mean of (70 +/- 6) years old. Fifty-four limbs (55.0%) had severe intermittent claudication, 28 limbs (28.6%) had rest pain, 11 limbs (11.2%) had ulcer, and 5 limbs (5.1%) had gangrene. Sixty-six limbs were mono segment disease, including 25 aorta-iliac lesions, 33 femoral-popliteal lesions and 8 infra-popliteal lesions. Thirty-two limbs were multiple segment disease involving 2 or 3 segment lesions. Mortality, morbidity, primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage were retrospectively analyzed. Risk factors on outcome were also evaluated. Ten limbs underwent angioplasty, while the rest 88 limbs underwent angioplasty plus primary stent implantation. The total operation success rate was 95.9%. Perioperative mortality within the first 30 d was 0. Perioperative morbidity within the first 30 d was 5 cases (5.1%), including 2 myocardial infarction, 2 major amputations and 1 irreversible contrast-induced nephropathy. Follow-up duration were 1 to 35 months with a mean of (18 +/- 10) months. Eighty-three (96.5%) patients had effectively follow-up. Mortality was 2.3% (2 cases died due to myocardial infarction). Primary patency rate was 83.7%, secondary patency rate was 94.9% and limb salvage rate was 95.9%. Risk factor analysis showed that diabetes mellitus, critical ischemia and multiple segment lesions were associated with worse patency. Endovascular treatment is effective, safe and repeatable revascularization for elder patients of Critical lower limb ischemia. Patients with diabetes mellitus, critical ischemia and multiple segment lesions should be paid more attention because their rather worse outcome.

Zhou L.,Peking Union Medical College
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2016

A 7-year-old female presented with blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism and brachydactyly. She displayed typical manifestations of type II blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (normal uterus position, ovarian volume, and normal serum hormone levels). She takes levothyroxine sodium daily due to her congenital hypothyroidism. Karyotype analysis and genetic analysis of FOXL2 coding sequence was found to be normal. mtDNA A3243G, A8344G, 8993, and 13513 genes were also normal. The absence of mutations excluded mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism and brachydactyly. © 2016 by The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., All rights reserved.

BACKGROUND:: Many studies have shown that autologous fat grafting and cell-assisted lipotransfer can improve skin quality, with both mature adipocytes (MAs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) considered to play a role. However, it is unclear whether transplantation of ADSCs or MAs has the same impact on the overlying skin. METHODS:: Nine pigs were divided into 3 equal groups, with lipoaspirates obtained from the porcine dorsum of each pig. Transplant content was injected into the right upper eyelids, while the left eyelids were used as controls. Following cellular isolation, 1 group underwent MA grafting, 1 underwent ADSCs transplantation, and 1 underwent cotransplantation of MAs and ADSCs. Epidermal thickness, epidermal cell proliferation, dermal thickness, collagen content, and arteriole density were examined. RESULTS:: While no significant skin changes in the areas examined were noted following MAs or ADSCs transplantations, the cotransplantation of MAs and ADSCs resulted in significant increases in epidermal cell proliferation, dermal thickness, collagen content, and arteriole density. CONCLUSION:: Subdermal injection of MAs or ADSCs alone does not significantly impact the overlying skin and the benefits to the skin can only be seen when MAs and ADSCs are cotransplanted; these findings suggest that ADSCs-enhanced fat grafting is necessary for the aim of antiaging treatments. © 2016 by The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., All rights reserved.

Dabigatran and rivaroxaban may simultaneously inhibit coagulation and platelet activation. This study aimed to reveal the in-vitro effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on thrombin generation and platelet aggregation (PAg) derived via tissue factor (TF) pathway. Citrated blood was obtained from six healthy adults (26–60 years old) and pretreated with increasing concentrations of dabigatran or rivaroxaban. Plasmatic endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was measured by the calibrated automated thrombogram method. The whole blood PAg was evaluated via a kinetic counting method. TF produced an ETP of 1904.69?±?121.42?nmol?min and a PAg of 78?±?5%. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban concentration-dependently reduced ETP with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 460.1?±?1.4 and 678.1?±?1.4?nmol/l, and inhibited PAg with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 119.5?±?1.5 and 77.5?±?1.6 nmol, respectively. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly inhibit TF-induced hypercoagulation and platelet activation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Rivaroxaban displays stronger inhibition on thrombin generation and PAg than dabigatran. Copyright © 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lau C.-P.,University of Hong Kong | Zhang S.,Peking Union Medical College
Europace | Year: 2013

Remote monitoring of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has emerged as a tool to replace regular follow-up of such devices, and to detect hardware failure, arrhythmias, and heart failure decompensation. The Asia-Pacific region is a geographically diverse area, with widely different cardiac device implant rates and expertise. However, common to all countries, distance and logistic for patients to reach an expert monitoring centre for routine follow up are significant, and in some countries, this will likely be replaced by remote monitoring. Unscheduled visits such as for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and ICD shocks will be expedited.There has been an increase in both pacemaker and ICD implant rates in Asia-Pacific, due to an ageing population and improvement in economic condition. Among the countries, Australia and Japan are the major users of remote monitoring. According to the statistics of the suppliers, in Australia, up to 15% of pacemakers, 40% ICD, and 30% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CTRD) are remotely monitored. The corresponding numbers for Japan are 5, 50, and 50% respectively. The monitoring personnel include nurses, technicians, and doctors, either from local centre or from device companies. Cost, lack of reimbursement, and logistic support are major issues in widespread application of remote monitoring technology.In conclusion, remote monitoring is increasing in Asia-Pacific region despite the increase in cost. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and CRT/CRTDs are more likely than pacemakers to be enabled with remote monitoring Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) in treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma among Chinese reproductive age women. From April 2010 to April 2012, 80 premenopausal women with symptomatic leiomyoma volunteered to participate in this prospective study in Department of Outpatient of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Among 23 reproductive aged patients with size of uterus less than 16th gestational weeks, 2.5 to 10 cm of diameter of myoma, less than 10 myomas and expressing symptoms clearly were treated by MRgFUS. Treatment data, non-perfused volume ratio (NPVR) and adverse events were recorded. After treatment, patients were followed up at 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Patients at initial screening and each time of the follow-up filled out uterine fibroid symptoms quality of life (UFS-QOL), which include symptoms severity score (SSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The volumes of leiomyoma and uterine were evaluated on MRI before and after the treatment (at 6 and 12 months, respectively). Before operation, routine blood test were performed on all patients, anemia patients at 3 months and 1 year after treatment were checked with blood test. (1) Treatment data and adverse events: the mean therapeutic temperature was (69 ± 7)°C, the mean treatment time was (144 ± 62) min, the mean NPVR was (62 ± 23)%. Adverse events included mild erythema(1/23), abdominal cramp (8/23), vaginal discharge (5/23), and leg numbness (4/23). (2) The rate of secondary surgery: one patient was treated by myoectomy and hysterectomy within one year following up and 4 patients chose surgical treatment during the second-year follow-up. (3) Volume change:the volumes of leiomyoma before the treatment and 6, 12 months after the treatment are 75.6(P25 = 43.8, P75 = 128.9), 52.3(P25 = 23.8, P75 = 111.2), 45.9(P25 = 26.3, P75 = 71.7) cm(3), respectively; and the volumes of uterine before the treatment and 6, 12 months after the treatment are 270.0 (P25 = 208.4, P75 = 390.3), 216.4 (P25 = 151.1, P75 = 290.0), 200.0 (P25 = 149.1, P75 = 267.6) cm(3), respectively. Both leiomyoma and uterine volumes decreased significantly after treatments (P < 0.01). (4) UFS-QOL change:the symptoms severity score (SSS) before the treatment and 3, 12 months after the treatment are (34 ± 13), (22 ± 11), (19 ± 12), which decreased significantly (P < 0.01). The health-related quality of life (HRQL) before the treatment and 3, 12 months after the treatment are (74 ± 15), (82 ± 13), (89 ± 10), which increased dramatically (P < 0.01). (5) Hemoglobin (HGB) change: eleven patients suffered from anemia before treatments, the mean HGB before treatment was (87 ± 6) g/L and were (106 ± 14) g/L 3 months after treatment, (112 ± 10) g/L 12 months after treatment. The HGB was increased significantly after treatments (P < 0.01). MRgFUS is a safe and effective non-invasive management for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in short-term follow up. But there is additional treatment ratio after MRgFUS.

Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Jiang L.,Capital Medical University | Mu Y.,Capital Medical University
Oncology Letters | Year: 2013

Liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic livers are associated with early recurrence and poor survival. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) have been reported to inhibit cell proliferation by interacting with specific somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 2 and 5. The present study investigated whether SSTR expression in HCC was associated with the clinical outcome following octreotide long-acting release (LAR) treatment. Paired tumor and cirrhotic liver samples were obtained following a liver resection from 99 patients with stage I-II HCC and HBV-related cirrhosis. The expression of SSTR2 and 5 was assessed using quantitative (q)PCR and immunohistochemistry. The patients were classified into two groups, the high expression (n=47) and low expression (n=52) groups, based on the gene expression levels. The clinicopathological data and survival results of the two groups were compared. When compared with the surrounding cirrhotic tissue, the SSTR2 and 5 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the HCC tissue. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the baseline characteristics. The tumor recurrence rate was significantly lower in the high expression group compared with that of the low expression group (63.83% vs. 82.69%; P=0.033). The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of the high expression group were 97, 89 and 71% and 98, 89 and 74%, respectively. The survival time of the members of the high expression group was longer compared with that of the low expression group. The multivariate analysis revealed that the TNM-7 stage and SSTR2 expression were independent prognostic factors for survival. In conclusion, SSTR mRNA expression correlated with survival in patients with early-stage hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC who were treated with octreotide LAR following surgery. The inhibitory effects of SSAs on tumor growth may be mediated by SSTR expression.

Cho J.,University of Pittsburgh | Shen H.,University of Pittsburgh | Yu H.,University of Pittsburgh | Li H.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

The longevity of organisms is maintained by stem cells. If an organism loses the ability to maintain a balance between quiescence and differentiation in the stem/ progenitor cell compartment due to aging and/or stress, this may result in death or age-associated diseases, including cancer. Ewing sarcoma is the most lethal bone tumor in young patients and arises from primitive stem cells. Here, we demonstrated that endogenous Ewing sarcoma gene (Ews) is indispensable for stem cell quiescence, and that the ablation of Ews promotes the early onset of senescence in hematopoietic stem progenitor cells. The phenotypic and functional changes in Ews-deficient stem cells were accompanied by an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and a marked induction of p16INK4a compared with wild-type counterparts. With its relevance to cancer and possibly aging, EWS is likely to play a significant role in maintaining the functional capacity of stem cells and may provide further insight into the complexity of Ewing sarcoma in the context of stem cells. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Lei P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lei P.,Peking Union Medical College
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

4-Azido modified desosamine 4a was synthesized and coupled to erythronolide 9. Using trichloroacetimidate donor in the presence of TMSOTf was considered as the most efficient condition for the glycosylation reaction. Five novel 14-membered ketolides 12a-e bearing modified 5-O-4′-[1,2,3] triazol desosamine side chain were synthesized by the azide/alkyne click chemistry method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ren H.,Peking Union Medical College | Ren H.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Zhang H.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences
Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

The Wnt signaling pathway regulates multiple aspects of the development of stem cell-like epithelial seam cells in Caenorhabditis elegans, including cell fate specification and symmetric/asymmetric division. In this study, we demonstrate that lit-1, encoding the Nemo-like kinase in the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, plays a role in specifying temporal identities of seam cells. Loss of function of lit-1 suppresses defects in retarded heterochronic mutants and enhances defects in precocious heterochronic mutants. Overexpressing lit-1 causes heterochronic defects opposite to those in lit-1(lf) mutants. LIT-1 exhibits a periodic expression pattern in seam cells within each larval stage. The kinase activity of LIT-1 is essential for its role in the heterochronic pathway. lit-1 specifies the temporal fate of seam cells likely by modulating miRNA-mediated silencing of target heterochronic genes. We further show that loss of function of other components of Wnt signaling, including mom-4, wrm-1, apr-1, and pop-1, also causes heterochronic defects in sensitized genetic backgrounds. Our study reveals a novel function of Wnt signaling in controlling the timing of seam cell development in C. elegans. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ma L.K.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2012

To explore the pregnancy outcome and obstetric management of pregnancy and delivery after vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT). Forty-two cases of VRT from December 2003 to May 2012 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Among them ten cases got pregnant successfully. The average age of patient at VRT surgery was (30.6 ± 3.7) years old and average follow-up time was 29.5 months. There were 31 patients attempted conception. Ten of them got fourteen conceptions successfully. Overall conception rate was 45% (14/31). There were four cases of first trimester abortion. Among them, two were miscarriage, two were elective abortion. There was one case of ectopic pregnancy operation and non of second trimester loss. Nine cases reached the third trimester. The total preterm delivery rate was 4/9. There were two cases delivered before 32 gestational weeks (2/9). Cesarean section was performed through a transverse incision in all of nine cases. No uterine rupture and postpartum hemorrhage occurred. All newborns had good outcomes. The average follow-up time after postpartum was 22.9 months. All cases were disease-free. The conception rate of patients after VRT in our series is 45%. The preterm birth rate of pregnancy after VRT is higher. Routine cerclage of cervix during VRT procedure and pregnancy is not necessary. Cesarean section shortly after full term pregnancy through a transverse incision should be considered as a suitable and safe procedure.

FAN Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

To evaluate the efficacy and satisfaction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) in patients with outer and middle ear deformities. Seven patients with bilateral microtia and aural atresia, and three patients with unilateral microtia and bilateral middle ear malformation were fitted with soft-band BAHA for a few months, followed by receiving unilateral BAHA implantation. Mean pure-tone thresholds and speech audiometry tests results were compared among patients without hearing aid, with soft-band BAHA, and with implanted BAHA. Scores from the BAHA users' questionnaires and Glasgow children's benefit inventory (GCBI) were used to measure patient satisfaction and subjective health benefit. The mean pure-tone thresholds of the patients were (64.8 ± 5.9) dBHL for those without hearing aid, (30.2 ± 3.7) dBHL for those with soft-band BAHA, and (20.3 ± 3.9) dBHL for those with implanted BAHA. The average decline in pure-tone threshold was (36.2 ± 8.0) dBHL for those with soft-band BAHA, and an additional decline of (12.2 ± 3.4) dBHL was achieved with implanted BAHA. The average gains in speech discrimination scores (SDS) were (3.00 ± 1.07)% for those without hearing aids and (89.39 ± 5.83)% for those with implanted BAHA in sound field of 45dBHL. SDS were (57.55 ± 10.30)% for those without hearing aids and (91.19 ± 4.16)% for those with implanted BAHA in sound field of 65dBHL. The average gains in SDS were (88.21 ± 6.86)% and (38.04 ± 7.56)% tested with 45dBHL and 65dBHL respectively. Sound reception thresholds (SRT) without hearing aids were (63.1 ± 5.9) dBHL and (24.7 ± 3.5) dBHL for those with implanted BAHA. The average gains in SRT was (39.6 ± 6.2) dBHL. The BAHA application questionnaire demonstrated excellent patient satisfaction. The general benefit score was 35.59 ± 14.35. BAHA remains one of the most reliable methods of auditory rehabilitation and improves quality of life for patients with ear deformities.

Liu Y.,Peking University | Dai W.,Ministry of Health | Dai X.,Peking Union Medical College | Li Z.,Peking University
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Purpose We aimed to investigate the combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women. Methods Data for 292,568 singleton term pregnancies were selected from 1993 to 2005 based on the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System, with anthropometric measurements being collected prospectively. Prepregnancy BMI was categorized according to the definitions of the World Health Organization (WHO). Total GWG was categorized into four groups. Adjusted associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were estimated using logistic regression analyses. GWG was categorized as below, within and above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2009) recommendations. Results Maternal overweight and high GWG or GWG above the IOM recommendation were associated with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy, cesarean delivery, macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Maternal underweight and low GWG or GWG below the IOM recommendation were risk factors for lowbirth- weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Moreover, being overweight [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0–1.3) and having a low weight gain (OR 1.1, 95 % CI 1.0–1.1) increased the risk of newborn asphyxia. Conclusion Being overweight/obese and having a high weight gain, as well as being underweight and having a low weight gain, were associated with increased risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Wang W.M.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2013

To investigate the relationship between genetic variantions of circadian clock genes and risk of breast cancer. A case-control study including 406 breast cancer patients and 412 controls was conducted and genes Clock (rs2070062) and Per2 (rs2304672, rs2304669, rs934945) were genotyped by TaqMan real-time PCR. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between the genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer. Individuals with the rs2304669-TT genotype showed significantly increased breast cancer risk with the OR of 2.33 when compared with the individuals with rs2304669-CC and CT genotypes (P = 0.001). In addition, the three haplotypes containing the risk T allele of rs2304669 were identified to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, it was found that rs2304672, rs2070062 and rs934945 polymorphisms were not related with breast cancer risk. The locus rs2304669 on Per2 gene is associated with breast cancer risk. Genetic variation of circadian clock genes may increase the susceptibility to breast cancer. Therefore, it may become an important biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer.

Xu M.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu M.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Wang W.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Chen S.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Zhu B.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences
EMBO Reports | Year: 2012

Histone lysine methylation has been implicated in epigenetic regulation of transcription. Using stable-isotope labelling and quantitative mass spectrometry, we analysed the dynamics of histone lysine methylation. Here we report that histone methylation levels are transiently reduced during S phase and are gradually re-established during subsequent cell cycle stages. However, despite the recovery of overall methylation levels before the next S phase, the methylation levels of parental and newly incorporated histones differ significantly. In addition, histone methylation levels are maintained at steady states by both restriction of methyltransferase activity and the active turnover of methyl groups in cells undergoing an extended G1/S phase arrest. Finally, we propose a 'buffer model' that unifies the imprecise inheritance of histone methylation and the faithful maintenance of underlying gene silencing. © 2012 EUROPEAN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ORGANIZATION.

Liang-Kun M.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsüeh k'o hsüeh tsa chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

To investigate the clinical features and treatment of placenta previa complicated with previous caesarean section. The clinical data of 29 patients with placenta previa complicated with a previous caesarean section (RCS group) admitted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during a period from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 243 patients with placenta previa without a previous caesarean section (FCS group) during the same period. There was no difference in the mean age (28.9±3.6 vs.28.1±4.5 years) and the average gravidity (2.35±1.48 vs.2.21±1.53) between RCS group and FCS group (all P>0.05).The RCS group had more preterm births (24.1% vs.13.2%), complete placenta previa (55.2% vs.4.9%), placenta accreta (34.5% vs.2.5%), more blood loss during caesarean section (1412±602 vs.648±265 mL), blood transfusion (51.7% vs.4.9%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.8% vs.2.1%), and obstetric hysterectomy (13.8% vs.0.8%) than the FCS group (all P<0.05).The preterm infant rate (30.0% vs.13.0%), neonatal asphyxia rate (10.0% vs.4.9%), and perinatal mortality rate (6.7% vs.0.4%) of the RCS group were higher than those of the FCS group (all P<0.05). More patients had complete placenta previa and placenta accreta, postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion, uterine packing, obstetric hysterectomy, and perinatal morbidity in the placenta previa patients with previous caesarean section.The patient should be informed of the risk and unnecessary first cesarean sections should be avoided.

Yu H.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2012

To investigate the clinical features and pregnant outcomes of the pregnant women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). The clinical features, therapies, pregnant outcomes of the pregnant women with 21-OHD were retrospectively reviewed in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, from January 2005 to April 2011. There were 8 pregnant women with 21-OHD including 5 simple virilizing patients and 3 nonclassical 21-OHD women. Eight patients were accepted progestational and prenatal continual lower glucocorticoid treatment. During the gestational period, the dosage of glucocorticoid was adjusted in one pregnancy. The serum level of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) were elevated after pregnancy [(70 ± 38) versus (24 ± 23) nmol/L, P < 0.05]. The fertility and offspring rate of 8 patients was 8/12, the fertility and offspring rate of patients who started treatment at preadolescence was significantly increased (4/5 versus 4/7). Four patients were accepted genital reconstructive surgery (clitorectomy, clitoroplasty, vulvoplasty) before pregnancy. The incidence of GDM was 1/8. All patients selected caesarean at from 37(+6) gestation weeks to 39(+6) gestation weeks. The average newborn birth weight was (3210 ± 447) g, and height was (48 ± 2) cm of 8 neonates, none of them was CAH. Medical and surgical therapy provides satisfactory fertility and pregnancy outcomes for women with 21-OHD. It is safe to pregnant women with 21-OHD and their fetus in continual lower glucocorticoid treatment. The dosage of glucocorticoid should be carefully adjusted during the pregnancy individually according to serum level of 17-OHP.

To investigate the concordance and correlation between fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assessment for HER-2 status in breast cancer patients and analyze their relationship to clinical characteristics. A total of 128 samples of breast cancer tissue were analyzed retrospectively. FISH was employed to detect the HER-2 gene amplification. And the FISH findings were compared with IHC test results by analyzing the concordance and correlation between two results. And their relationships to the clinical characteristics were analyzed. The overall coincidence rate of IHC and FISH was 90.6% (kappa = 0.405, P = 0.000). And the discordance was mainly found in the IHC (++) group. A positive correlation was found between the two results (r = 0.655, P = 0.000). The ER (estrogen receptor) expression was negatively correlated with HER-2 gene amplification and the expression of Her-2 protein (r = -0.300, P = 0.001; r = -0.223, P = 0.011). There was a negative correlation between ER/PR status and HER-2 gene amplification (r = -0.213, P = 0.016). The similar results were found in subgroup analysis. Tumor grade was negatively correlated with the expression of Her-2 protein (r = -0.293, P = 0.008), but not with HER-2 gene amplification (P > 0.05). IHC is a preferred method to detect the Her-2 status in breast cancer. The strong positive expression (+++) of HER-2 protein tested by IHC is strongly consistent with HER-2 gene amplification by FISH. But HER-2 gene amplification should be further detected by FISH in patients with HER-2 positive expression (+-++) in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment. ER, ER/PR (progesterone receptor) status and tumor grade are correlated with HER-2 gene amplification and/or the expression of Her-2 protein. This study helps improve the accuracy of judging HER-2 gene amplification according to the clinical and pathological features such as ER status and the results of IHC.

Cui R.,Peking Union Medical College
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2014

Crossed cerebellar hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET has been well described. However, crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism is rare. We described a case of crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism in a middle-aged woman. The patient underwent FDG PET to assess epileptogenic focus during her subclinical seizure episode, which was shown on video electroencephalography. The crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism was no longer visualized when her subclinical seizure was controlled.

To predict clinical chemotherapy sensitivity of primary ovarian cancer by jointing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-tumor chemo-sensitivity assay (TCA) method in vitro and detection of drug resistance genes, provide reference for clinical treatment. Forty-seven primary epithelial ovarian tumor samples were collected from the patients who received cytoreductive surgery. Viable ovarian cancer cells obtained from malignant tissue were tested for their sensitivity to carboplatin (CBP), cisplatin (DDP), paclitaxel (PTX) and CBP + PTX using ATP-TCA method in vitro; at same time, real-time quantitative PCR was used to analysis BRCA1 and ERCC1 mRNA relative expression in forty-six specimens (1 frozen tumor samples mRNA were not detected due to serious degradation). The relationship between ATP-TCA test results, clinical indicators, and the effectiveness of the joint prediction on clinical chemo-sensitivity by combining these two methods were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. (1) The results showns that three programs of DDP, CBP and PTX + CBP were significantly related with clinical results (P < 0.05) in vitro, in which the compliance rate in PTX + CBP program was the highest 83% (39/47), and the predictive sensitivity, predictive specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and predictive accurate rate were 90%, 71%, 84% and 80%, respectively. PTX + CBP combined in vitro test results was also related with residual tumor size and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which was more prone to drug resistance with residual tumor larger than 2 cm (P = 0.023) and with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.011). (2) BRCA1 mRNA expression levels in the clinical-resistant group and the clinical-sensitive group was 0.673 ± 2.143 and -1.436 ± 2.594 (P = 0.008), ERCC1 mRNA expression levels in the clinical-resistant group and the clinical-sensitive group was -0.529 ± 1.982 and -3.188 ± 2.601 (P = 0.001). There were also significant correlation among the expression levels of BRCA1, ERCC1 mRNA and clinical efficacy (P < 0.01). (3) ATP-TCA and detection of drug resistance genes combined to predict the clinical application of PTX + CBP resistance may occur in 8/9 cases. ATP-TCA may be an ideal method of in vitro drug sensitivity testing method, which could effectively predict clinical chemotherapy sensitivity. Combination of the drug-resistant associated genes detection method and the ATP-TCA method can increase the predictive effectiveness of ovarian cancer chemosensitivity and guide individual chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

Li P.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Biologicals | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate the effect of chitooligosaccharide (COS) adjuvant on humoral immune response induced by hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine in mice. Methods: ICR mice were randomly divided into nine groups, six for each. The mice in six test groups were injected s. c. with live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine HepA-1 18 EU + COS at concentrations of 100 μg, 500 μg, 1 mg, 2. 5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively, while those in negative control group with physiological saline, those in antigen control group with HepA-1 18 EU alone, and those in aluminum adjuvant control groups with HepA-1 18 EU + 200 μg aluminum hydroxide, 200 μ1 for each. The specific IgG level against HAV in sera of mice at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 after immunization were determined by indirect ELISA. The healthy statuses of mice were observed during the study. The kidney, spleen, liver, lung and heart of mice immunized with HepA-1 + COS at the optimal dosage and those in negative control group were taken out at week 16 after immunization, and prepared into sections for pathological observation. Results: Anti-HAV IgGs were induced in mice in various groups except negative control group 4 weeks after immunization, of which the levels increased as time went on, and reached peak values at week 8 then decreased gradually. The anti-HAV IgG level of mice immunized with HepA-1 + COS at dosages of 2. 5, 5 and 10 mg at various time points were significantly higher than those in antigen control and aluminum control groups (each P < 0. 05) and maintained for a long time, which showed no significant difference with that in aluminum adjuvant control group (P > 0. 05). The IgG levels induced by HepA-1 18 EU + 5 mg COS were the highest at various time points, which showed significant difference with those induced by HepA-1 18 EU + 2. 5 mg COS (P < 0. 05), and equal to those induced by HepA-1 18 EU + 10 mg COS. However, the IgG levels induced by HepA-1 18 EU + 5 mg COS and HepA-1 18 EU + 10 mg COS at week 16 after immunization showed significant difference (P < 0. 05). The optimal dosage of COS was 5 mg for each mouse. No abnormality was observed in the physiological indexes of mice in various groups, while no pathological changes in the kidney, spleen, liver, lung and heart of mice immunized with HepA-1 + 5 mg COS. Conclusion: COS enhanced the humoral immune responses induced by HAV antigen in mice significantly, which might be developed as a novel adjuvant instead of aluminum adjuvant.

Liu J.,Peking Union Medical College
Journal of spinal disorders & techniques | Year: 2012

An analysis of computed tomography (CT) images of patients with adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis for posterior pedicle screw placement. To evaluate the relative position of the aorta to the spine by the axial CT scans in patients with right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis, and to discuss the safe trajectory and screw length for posterior pedicle screw placement. Posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion are widely used in the correction of scoliosis. Pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine implies risk of injuring the aorta. Literatures on the relative position of the aorta to the spine are mostly focused on the anterior surgery. However, few are reported about the posterior surgery. A total of 47 patients with adolescent right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis who underwent CT scan of total spine before surgery were included in this study. Transverse plane including bilateral pedicles, lamina, and transverse process was selected for measurement from T4 to T12. We defined a new coordinate system, and 5 parameters were measured in each vertebral body from T4 to T12 of the patients. The point where the left pedicle axial line and the base of the left transverse process intersected was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A line connecting bilateral intersection was defined as x-axis. y-axis perpendicular to the x-axis is drawn ventrally from the origin. The left pedicle-aorta angle (α), the left aorta angle (β), the left pedicle-aorta distance (PAD), the aorta-x-axis distance (AXD), and the vertebral rotation angle (γ) were measured. The values of angles α and β had a tendency of first increasing and then decreasing, and increasing again from T4 to T12. The lowest value of angle α occurred at T10 (7.45±6.10 degrees), followed by T4 (8.89±6.49 degrees), T11 (9.13±7.59 degrees), and T9 (9.74±6.11 degrees). PAD and AXD values had a tendency of decreasing first and then increasing from T4 to T12. The lowest values of PAD and AXD occurred at T6; 25.94±5.33 and 23.64±6.53 mm, respectively. From the cephalad to the caudal spine, angle γ increased first and then decreased. The highest value occurred at T7 (2.32±6.83 degrees), which rotated to the right side. The second largest value occurred at T8 (2.23±7.76 degrees). Statistical analysis indicated that the apical vertebral translation and vertebral rotation angle were significantly positively correlated to angles α and β (P<0.05). The highest risk of injuring the aorta when placing pedicle screw during posterior scoliosis surgery was at T10, followed by T4, T11, and T9 in right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Taking a spine CT scan and evaluating the relative position of the aorta to the thoracic spine before surgery are significant in precise and safe pedicle screw placement.

Hao D.C.,Dalian Jiaotong University | Xiao P.G.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Science Bulletin | Year: 2011

Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), like cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a monooxygenase that uses the reducing equivalents of NADPH to reduce one atom of molecular oxygen to water, while the other atom is used to oxidize the substrate. Recently, it was shown that some CYP isoforms have been subject to positive selection. However, it is unknown whether the highly conserved phase I detoxification enzyme, FMO, has undergone similar positive Darwinian selection. We used maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution, evolutionary fingerprinting, and cross species comparison to investigate the occurrence of adaptive evolution in FMO sequences. We used recent genomic data from a range of species, including vertebrates and invertebrates. We present the evidence for the occurrence of adaptive evolution in mammalian FMO 3, 4, 5, and fugu FMOs but not in mammalian FMO 1, FMO 2, frog FMOs, other fish FMOs and invertebrate FMOs. The sites under adaptive evolution were significantly associated with the insertion domain in mammalian FMO 5. We identified specific amino acid sites in FMOs 3-5 that are likely targets for selection based on the patterns of parallel amino acid change. The most likely role of adaptive evolution is the repair of mutations that permitted optimal NADP+ binding and improved catalytic efficiency. The occurrence of positive selection during the evolution of phase I detoxification enzymes such as FMOs 3-5 and fugu FMO suggests the occurrence of both high selection pressure acting on species within their unique habitats and significant changes in intensity and direction (forms of xenobiotics and drugs) resulting from changes in microhabitat and food. © 2011 The Author(s).

Xu C.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu C.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Xu Y.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Gursoy-Yuzugullu O.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Price B.D.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires remodeling of the local chromatin architecture to allow the repair machinery to access sites of damage. Here, we report that the histone variant macroH2A1.1 is recruited to DSBs. Cells lacking macroH2A1 have defective recruitment of 53BP1, defective activation of chk2 kinase and increased radiosensitivity. Importantly, macroH2A1.1 is not incorporated into nucleosomes at DSBs, but instead associates with the chromatin through a mechanism which requires PARP1 activity. These results reveal an unusual mechanism involving a direct association of macroH2A1.1 with PARylated chromatin which is critical for retaining 53BP1 at sites of damage. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Han B.,Peking Union Medical College
International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society | Year: 2010

To assess whether dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) expression is correlated with the concentration of methotrexate (MTX) exposure and the resistance index during the establishment of MTX-resistant human choriocarcinoma JeG-3 cell line. Two series of different MTX-resistant JeG-3 sublines were established by intermittent- and consecutive-inducing methods. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure DHFR messenger RNA expression in the sublines during different concentrations of MTX exposure. [beta]-Human chorionic gonadotropin ([beta]-HCG) secretion in these cell lines were detected by using chemoluminescence method. In the 2 series of MTX-resistant cell lines, the same dynamic profiling of [beta]-HCG secretion and DHFR transcript level were found: At a certain range of concentration, the upward [beta]-HCG secretion and the messenger RNA level of DHFR were correlated with the dose of MTX exposing. However, once the concentration of MTX exceeded this range, the expression would not increase but decrease sharply. According to the concentration of MTX exposure from low to high, the multiples of [beta]-HCG increases were 1.86-, 5.15-, 8.38-, 64.17-, 2.6-, and 0.78-fold for intermittent induction and 22.05-, 6.12-, 5.80-, and 1.77-fold for continuous induction; the multiples of DHFR gene expression increases were 12.84-, 99.02-, 129.01-, 177.63-, 420.78-, and 86.09-fold for intermittent induction and 9.59-, 20.56-, 96.05-, and 58.72-fold for continuous induction. The transcript level of DHFR gene only correlated with MTX drug resistance at a certain phase. It would be of limited use as a biomarker for the MTX-based chemoresistance prediction.

Qiao Y.-L.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Cervical cancer ranks the second common cancer in women, affecting women severely in developing countries. It is a critical issue to develop simple, rapid, accurate, safe, acceptable, and inexpensive screening tests which can be used in cervical cancer prevention programs in developing countries. Due to the shortage of funding and qualified cytological professionals in most developing countries, WHO has been actively promoting visual inspection with acetic acid/iodine solution (VIA/VILI) as the alternative approach to screening cervical cancer. After the discovery of a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, the HPV prophylactic vaccine and CareHPV test have been successfully developed. The cervical cancer will be the first cancer eliminated by the combination of vaccination, screening, early diagnosis and treatment.

Li L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology | Year: 2011

To investigate the expression of CXCR3 and its association with clinicopathologic features in breast carcinoma. The expression level of CXCR3 in 18 samples of breast cancer and corresponding normal tissues was investigated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR analysis. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to examine the expression of CXCR3 in 80 breast cancers, 20 fibroadenomas and 15 normal breast tissues. (1) RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analysis showed a higher level of CXCR3 in breast cancer tissues than that in the corresponding normal breast tissues (P < 0.05). (2) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the positive rate of CXCR3 in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in fibroadenomas and the normal breast tissues (P < 0.05). The expression level of CXCR3 in the lymph node-positive group was higher than that in the lymph node-negative group (P < 0.05). The expression of CXCR3 was positively correlated with the number of lymph nodes involved by metastasis, tumor size and pTNM tumor stage (P < 0.05). Chemokine receptor CXCR3 was up-regulated in breast cancer, and was associated with the progression of breast cancer. CXCR3 might be a novel molecular marker to predict lymph node metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer.

Zhao D.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2010

To evaluate the predictive value of the adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in the chemotherapy applied in primary epithelial ovarian cancer (PEOC), and to analyze if the neoadjuvant chemotherapy have any influence on the postoperative chemosensitivity. ATP-TCA results from 61 PEOC specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into sensitive group and resistant group according to the ATP-TCA results. Sensitive index (SI) was applied to analyze the ATP-TCA results. The correlation between in vitro results and clinical outcome was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. SI set at > 250 had the highest test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 91.6%, 73.9%, 84.6% and 85.0%, respectively. The ATP-TCA results had significant correlation with clinical outcome (chi(2) = 26.9, P < 0.001). Patients with tumors shown to be resistant had a higher risk of recurrence in comparison with those who were tested as sensitive (P = 0.030, OR = 0.033, 95%CI 0.002 approximately 0.724). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of in vitro-sensitive patients were 26 months and 39 months, respectively, significantly longer than those in the in vitro drug-resistant group of patients (PFS 10 months and OS 25 months) (both P < 0.01). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a significant correlation with the clinical chemoresistance (chi(2) = 15.214, P < 0.001). ATP-TCA assay may effectively predict the chemosensitivity of primary ovarian cancer, and predict the early recurrence of the tumor.

Shen S.M.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To study the chemical constituents contained in ethanol extracts from aerial parts of Emilia sonchifolia. The compounds were separated and purified with various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Fifteen compounds were separated from ethyl acetate fraction of 90% ethanolic extract and identified as rhamnetin (1), isorhamnetin (2), quercetin (3), luteolin (4), tricin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 8-(2"-pyrrolidinone-5"-yl) -quercetin (6), 5, -2', 6'-trihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone-2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), succinic acid (8), fumaric acid (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10), 4-hydroxy isophthalic acid (11), 3, 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (12), esculetin (13), isowedelolactone (14) and uracil (15), respectively. All compounds except compound 3 were separated from this genus for the first time.

Wang S.,Peking Union Medical College
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2012

We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CPFX) derivatives with remarkable improvement in lipophilicity by introducing a substituted benzyl moiety to the N atom on the C-7 piperazine ring of CPFX. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds was evaluated. Results reveal that compound 4f has good in vitro activity against all of the tested Gram-positive strains including MRSA and MRSE (MICs: 0.06-32 μg/mL) which is two to eightfold more potent than or comparable to the parent drug CPFX (MICs: 0.25-128 μg/mL), Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa (MICs: 0.5-4 μg/mL) and M. tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294 (MIC: 1 μg/mL). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu X.,Peking Union Medical College
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2012

We have isolated an extraordinary pentapeptide, called 4862F, from the culture broth of Streptomyces albosporus I03A-04862 by Diaion HP-20 macroporous adsorbent resin column, ODS-A and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, followed by preparative HPLC. This peptide shows inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic approaches, including ESI-MS and various NMR methods. Absolute configuration of the amino acid residues in 4862F was defined using Marfey's method, and the structure was identified as N,N,N-(trimethylated)-Tyr-L-Leu-L-Val-L-Leu-(dehydrated)-His. The peptide 4862F displays inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease, with IC50 values of 15.26 nM, using a fluorescence-based assay.

Han Y.C.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2011

To analyze the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with prior ischemic stroke. A total of 2053 patients underwent PCI in Peking union medical college hospital from January 2003 to December 2007 were included in this analysis and patients were followed up to December 2009. End-point included all-cause mortality, cardiac death, stent thrombosis, target-lesion revascularization, myocardial infarction, re-cerebral infarction. Major bleeding events were recorded during follow-up. There are 1945 coronary heart disease patients were followed up and 222 patients with prior ischemic stroke. Compared patients without prior ischemic stroke, patients with prior ischemic stroke were older (P = 0.000), had higher hypertension morbidity (P = 0.000), higher diabetes mellitus morbidity (P = 0.005), higher incidence of multi-vessels disease (P = 0.000). During the follow-up of (35.0 ± 19.6) months, cardiac death rate (8.5% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.002) and re-cerebral infarction rate (5.8% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.000) were higher in patients with prior ischemic stroke than patients without prior ischemic stroke. Dual antiplatelet therapy treatment time [(13.77 ± 11.33) months vs. (13.94 ± 11.33) months, P = 0.986] and major bleeding events (5.8% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.100) were similar between the two groups and cerebral hemorrhage rate (1.8% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.028) were higher in patients with prior ischemic stroke than patients without prior ischemic stroke. Patients with prior ischemic stroke were associated with increased rate of risk factors, multiple coronary artery disease, cardiac death and re-cerebral infarction and higher cerebral hemorrhage rate during follow-up despite similar dual-anti platelet therapy time.

Yang J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi | Year: 2011

To evaluate the clinical and coronary angiographic features of patients with systemic vasculitis and coronary artery disease. Fifteen patients (11 male) with systemic vasculitis and coronary artery diseases admitted to our hospital from January 1999 to October 2009 were reviewed. There were 6 patients with Behcet's disease, 3 patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, 2 patients with Takayasu arteritis, 1 patient with polyarteritis nodosa, 1 patient with microscopic polyangiitis, 1 patient with Wegner's granulomatosis and 1 patient with Kawasaki disease. Mean age of this cohort was (39.3 ± 11.9) years. Adverse coronary events occurred in 4 patients during the inactive phase of systemic vasculitis and in 9 patients during the active phase of systemic vasculitis. Twelve patients were hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, 2 with angina pectoris and 1 with cardiac tamponade. There were 3 patients with acute left ventricular dysfunction and 3 patients with severe arrhythmias. Compared to patients in the inactive phase, patients in the active phase were younger [(32.4 ± 8.1) years vs. (47.0 ± 10.2) years], had less risk factors for atherosclerosis (1.2 ± 1.5 to 2.8 ± 1.7) and the time intervals between coronary artery disease and systemic vasculitis was shorter [0 - 7 years (average 1.6 years) to 3 - 30 years (average 17.7 years)]. Coronary angiography evidenced coronary stenosis or occlusions in 11 patients, coronary aneurysm and acute thrombosis in 1 patient, coronary aneurysms and occlusions in 1 patient and coronary spasm in 2 patients. LVEF measured by echocardiography was less than 50% in 8 patients. Patients with various systemic vasculitis could develop severe coronary artery disease due to coronary stenosis/occlusion, aneurysma, thrombosis and coronary spasm.

Ma Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

In order to search the preparation process and optimazing dosage ratio of adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and sabin inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-sIPV), the neutralizing antibody titers of IPV induced by different concentration of DTaP-sIPV were investigated on rats. Two batches of DTaP-sLPV were produced using different concentration of sIPV and the quality control was carried. Together with sabin-IPV and DTaP-wIPV ( boostrix-polio, GSK, Belgium) as control group, the DTaP-sIPV were administrated on three-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 month on rats. Serum sample were collected 30 days after each dose and neutralizing antibody titers against three types poliovirus were determined using micro-neutralization test. Two batches of prepared DTaP-sIPV and control sLPV were according to the requirement of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume III, 2005 edition) and showed good stability. The seropositivity rates were 100% for sabin inactivated poliovirus antigen in all groups. The GMTs (Geometric mean titers) of neutralizing antibodies against three types poliovirus increased. The prepared DTaP-sIPV was safe, stable and effective and could induced high level neutralizing antibody against poliovirus on rats.

Fa O.Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.. Isolation and purification were carried out on macroporous resin column, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as N-mono-cinnamoyl-putrescine (1), petunidin-3-trans-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside (2), 4-(p-cumaroyl) -methyl-L-rhamnoside (3), p-coumarinic acid (4), ferulic acid (5), rutin (6), quercetin (7), protocatechuric acid (8), malvidin (9). Compound 1 - 9 are obtained from Lycium ruthenicum for the first time.

Peng T.,Peking Union Medical College
Gene Therapy | Year: 2016

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a rare population in any type of cancer, including colon cancer, are tumorigenic and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a number of different solid tumors recently, although the isolation of CSCs in colon cancer is still challenging. We cultured colon cancer cells in stem cell medium to obtain colonosphere cells. These cells possessed the characteristics of CSCs, with a high capacity of tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The isolation and identification of CSCs have provided new targets for the therapeutics. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV) are an effective strategy for killing colon cancer cells in preclinical models. Here, we examined the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in killing colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). oHSV2 was found to be highly cytotoxic to the adherent and sphere cells in vitro, and oHSV2 treatment in vivo significantly inhibited tumor growth. This study demonstrates that oHSV2 is effective against colon cancer cells and colon CSLCs and could be a promising strategy for treating colon cancer patients.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 10 March 2016; doi:10.1038/gt.2016.15. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Li H.-J.,Peking Union Medical College
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2014

Testosterone replacement is strictly contraindicated for the treatment of male infertility was the advanced view from the '2013 European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on male infertility', and this view brings extensive concern and questions. Although sufficient numbers of well.performed and controlled clinical trials that provide evidence supporting drug treatment of male infertility are not available at present, the opportunity to prove that these drugs are effective should not be prevented, and rigorous examination of drug therapy should be encouraged and strengthened. Therefore, I believe the above conclusion in the EAU guidelines is poorly conceived. © 2014 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.

Xie F.G.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To study the chemical constituents of the root bark of Tripterygium hypoglaucum. Column chromatography was used to separate the chemical constituents. The structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 4'-0-(-) methylepigallocatechin (1),3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-f-D-glucopyranoside (3), (2R,3R)-3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxyflavan (4), 2-O-deacetyleuonine (5), tripfordine C (6), peritassine A (7) hypoglaunine C (8), wilfortrine (9), wilforgine (10) and wilfordine (11). Compounds 1-6 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

Zhou Y.L.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To evaluate the association between polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-509C/T and radiochemotherapy response and survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. The genotype of TGF-β1-509C/T was detected by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (PCR-RFLP) in 230 ESCC patients receiving radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the polymorphism and radiochemotherapy response. The associations between overall survival time or hazard ratio (HR) of ESCC patients and genetic variation or the clinical data were estimated by applying univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Among 208 patients with upper gastrointestinal contrast assessment, 87 cases were susceptible to radiochemotherapy treatment and the TGF-β1-509CC, CT and TT genotype patients were 17 (19.5%), 48 (55.2%) and 22 (25.3%), respectively. Among the patients who were insensitive to radiochemotherapy treatment (n = 121), the TGF-β1-509CC, CT and TT genotype patients were 39 (32.2%), 54 (44.6%) and 28 (23.2%), respectively. Compared with TGF-β1-509CC genotype, the CT and TT genotype carriers had a significantly better treatment response (adjusted OR = 2.07, 95%CI, 1.05 - 4.09, P = 0.036). The median survival time of CC genotype patients was 17.0 (95%CI, 12.0 - 23.0) months, CT genotype patients was 22.0 (95%CI, 16.0 - 33.0) months and TT genotype patients was 25.0 (95%CI, 15.0 - 41.0) months. Compared to CC genotype patients, the survival time difference of CT and TT group was close to the statistical break point (P = 0.063). Our data showed that the subjects with CT or TT genotype had an decreased HR respectively as compared with those with CC genotype (CT, adjusted HR = 0.81, 95%CI, 0.52 - 1.24; TT, adjusted HR = 0.86, 95%CI, 0.65 - 1.12), but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, tumor location, clinical stage and radiochemotherapy response affected the overall survival time of the patient significantly (adjusted HR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.61, P = 0.040; 1.49, 95%CI, 1.17 - 1.88, P = 0.001; 1.55, 95%CI, 1.06 - 2.26, P = 0.023, respectively). These results suggest that TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphisms were associated with radiochemotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which might be genetic markers for prediction of the radiochemotherapy response in ESCC patients.

Han S.J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2011

To analyze the clinical outcomes and losses of correction for posterolateral fusion on low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis. From October 2001 to July 2008, 37 patients with a mean age of 60.1 years (range, 27 - 88 years) with low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with posterolateral fusion, including 9 males and 28 females, were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). The fusion status and loss of correction were assessed using plain radiographs and CT. All the 37 patients had got complete follow-up for 14 - 96 months (average 36.4 months); post-operative reduction rate was 76.4%, and 34 patients (91.9%) showed loss of correction with a mean loss rate 5.8% (range, -3.0% - 25.8%). The percentage of slip of pre-operative, post-operative and final follow-up indicated significant difference (P < 0.05)compared with each other; post-operative intervertebral disc height indicated significant difference in comparison with that of pre-operatively and at final follow-up (P < 0.05); lumbar lordosis angle at final follow-up showed significant difference when compared with that of pre-operatively and postoperatively (P < 0.05); VAS and ODI at final follow-up indicated significant difference in contrast to that of pre-operative (P < 0.05). Upon final follow-up, the complications were found in 2 cases who presented degenerative scoliosis at 15 and 17 months after the surgery, in 1 case with cranial adjacent segment retrolisthesis at the 14 months after the surgery, in 1 case with cut-out and breakage of screws at the 24 months after the surgery, and in 1 case with postoperative infection which were cured after debridement. For mid-term follow-up of low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis, posterolateral fusion shows loss of correction in most cases, but presents good clinical outcome and fusion rate.

Wang P.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] | Year: 2010

To analyze the clinical characteristics of 18 patients with isolated right sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) who hospitalized in our department between August 2005 and February 2009. The epidemiological and clinical data of 18 non-drug addicts with RSIE were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of RSIE accounted for 7.23% of all IE patients hospitalized in our department during the same period. Predisposing conditions were as follows: congenital heart disease (76.5%, 14/18), post operative procedures (3/18) and high dose glucocorticoids use (1/18). Fever (100%) was the most common clinical manifestation. Septic pulmonary embolism was the most prevalent complication (5/18). Staphylococci aureus (4/7) were the most common causative patho organisms, while the most common etiological organisms of left-sided and both-sided IE were Streptococci Viridans. Transthoracic echocardiography evidenced 17 cases of vegetations including 59.1% (13/22) tricuspid vegetations. There was no in-hospital death and the mean hospitalization duration was (22.0 +/- 18.9) days. Congenital heart diseases, but not intravenous drug abuse, were the most prevalent predisposing factors for RSIE in this cohort. Staphylococci aureus were the most common causative organisms.

Chai J.J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases | Year: 2011

To determine the reliability and validity of the COPD assessment test (CAT) Chinese version in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to study its value in evaluating quality of life in Chinese patients. One hundred and thirty-five patients with COPD in stable condition from Peking Union Medical College Hospital were assessed by interview with CAT Chinese version, and underwent pulmonary function test on the same day. The validity was documented by performing correlation analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. The stages of COPD determined by CAT score and lung function were compared to observe the value of CAT in determining disease severity. Cronbach's alpha of CAT Chinese version was 0.805. CAT score increased with the severity of the disease, and was negatively correlated to FEV(1)% of predicted (r = -0.567, P < 0.01). CAT score varied significantly in patients (10 ± 5, 16 ± 6, 21 ± 7 and 23 ± 6), with different severity of COPD (χ(2) = 48.437, P < 0.01). There was a high degree of consistency between the stages of COPD determined by CAT score and lung function. The Chinese version of the CAT had good internal consistency reliability and validity, and can be used to assess the quality of life for Chinese COPD patients. It provided a simple, valid and standardized measurement of COPD health status.

Jinguang Z.,Peking Union Medical College
The Journal of craniofacial surgery | Year: 2010

To analyze the risk factors of infection and necrosis of expanded postauricular flaps during auricular reconstruction and to provide effective management strategies for complications in expanding postauricular flaps. Data were gathered retrospectively for cases of partial rupture and infection of expanding postauricular flaps from the 58 cases of patients undergoing auricular reconstruction after preliminary tissue expansion. Treatment included the following: (1) auricular reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage framework immediately (28 cases); (2) stretching the expanded postauricular flap and fixing in place after expander removal (15 cases); (3) removal of the expander and reinsertion of a similar expander more than 6 months after the wound had healed (12 cases); and (4) continuing expansion after antibiotic treatment (3 cases). Each method was applied to different types of cases. Most cases obtained a satisfactory contour and profile of the reconstructed auricle. Some individual and risks factors are involved in infection and rupture of expanded postauricular flaps, which can be prevented and minimized. An optimal method can be chosen to treat every case of infection and partial rupture of the expanded postauricular flap.

Yu J.C.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2011

To determine the prevalence of cancer-related anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer in North of China. A cross-sectional study of 262 inpatients diagnosed with gastric or colorectal cancer admitted to eight general hospitals in Beijing from August 2009 to December 2009 was performed. The blood samples were took on the day after admission and the seventh day after operation for the tests of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The morbidity of cancer-related anemia and IDA before and after the surgery was also compared respectively. The preoperative morbidity of cancer-related anemia was 36.6% in 131 patients with gastric cancer, and the morbidity of IDA was 52.1%. The mean age of the anemic patients was higher than that in cases without anemia [(62 ± 11) yrs vs. (57 ± 12) yrs, P < 0.05]; the postoperative morbidity of IDA increased to 72.6% (P < 0.05). In the 131 cases with colorectal cancer, the preoperative incidence of cancer-related anemia and IDA was 37.4% and 61.2%, respectively. About 45% of the cases with anemia had a tumor in the right colon. Postoperative incidence of IDA was significantly higher than that before the surgery (76.7%, P < 0.05). Only 10.3% of the anemic patients were treated with chalybeate therapy before surgical procedures, and the proportion was 22.7% after the operation. More than 50% of anemic patient received blood transfusion. Cancer-related anemia is a common clinical manifestation in patients with gastrointestinal cancer, and anemia occurs more frequently in elder and patients with right colon tumor. The treatment to cancer-related anemia is insufficient and a systematic therapy is needed to be established.

Zhou J.,Fudan University | Yu M.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Zhang X.,Beijing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Molecular imaging modalities provide a wealth of information that is highly complementary and rarely redundant. To combine the advantages of molecular imaging techniques, 18F-labeled Gd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped NaYF4 nanophosphors (NPs) simultaneously possessing with radioactivity, magnetic, and upconversion luminescent properties have been fabricated for multimodality positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laser scanning upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging. Hydrophilic citrate-capped NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02F4 nanophosphors (cit-NPs) were obtained from hydrophobic oleic acid (OA)-coated nanoparticles (OA-NPs) through a process of ligand exchange of OA with citrate, and were found to be monodisperse with an average size of 22 × 19 nm. The obtained hexagonal cit-NPs show intense UCL emission in the visible region and paramagnetic longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 0.405 s-1·(mM)-1). Through a facile inorganic reaction based on the strong binding between Y3+ and F-, 18F-labeled NPs have been fabricated in high yield. The use of cit-NPs as a multimodal probe has been further explored for T1-weighted MR and PET imaging in vivo and UCL imaging of living cells and tissue slides. The results indicate that 18F-labeled NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02 is a potential candidate as a multimodal nanoprobe for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging from the cellular scale to whole-body evaluation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Han J.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

The DNA barcoding of traditional Chinese medicine was summarized in this article. Based on analyzing a number of research findings, the authors discussed the possibility of nuclear DNA sequence and chloroplast genes in identifying medicinal materials. ITS was considered to evolve faster, which was used for plant molecular systematics analysis and species identification,while ITS2 was more suitable to identify medicinal materials. So, it is important that we should select suitable DNA sequences as barcodes based on the objective of a study. With the cost reduction of sequencing, identifying medicinal materials by cp-genome barcoding would be applied broadly and effectively in the future.

Pang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To identify Ephedrae Herba using the ITS2 barcode and to secure its quality and safety in medication. Total genomic DNA was isolated from Ephedrae Herba and its closely related species. Nuclear DNA ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using software MEGA 5.0. Identification analyses were performed using BLAST1, Nearest Distance and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The intra-specific genetic distances of Ephedrae Herba were ranged from 0 to 0.002. The inter-specific genetic distances between Ephedrae Herba and its closely related species were ranged from 0.004 to 0.034. All the three methods showed that ITS2 could discriminate Ephedrae Herba from its closely related species correctly. The ITS2 region is suitable to be used for authentication of Ephedrae Herba, and our study further confirmed the effectiveness of ITS2 to identify traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

Pang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To identify Junci Medulla using the ITS2 barcode. The ITS2 regions of Juncus effuses and its closely related species were PCR amplified and sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using software MEGA 5.0. Identification analyses were performed using BLAST1, Nearest Distance, PWG Distance and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The intra-specific genetic distances of J. effuses were ranged from 0 to 0.005, which were far lower than inter-specific genetic distances between J. effuses and its closely related species (0.215-0.614). All the four methods showed that ITS2 could discriminate J. effuses from its closely related species correctly. The ITS2 region is an efficient barcode for authentication of Junci Medulla, and our study further confirmed the ability of ITS2 to identify traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

Pang X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To identify Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and its closely related species using DNA barcoding technique. Total genomic DNA was isolated from Mentha canadensis and its closely related species. Nuclear DNA ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner V3.0. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using software MEGA 5.0. Identification analyses were performed using BLAST1, Nearest Distance and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The intra-specific genetic distances of M. canadensis were ranged from 0 to 0.006, which were lower than inter-specific genetic distances between M. canadensis and its closely related species (0.071-0.231). All the three methods showed that ITS2 could discriminate M. canadensis from its closely related species correctly. The ITS2 region is an efficient barcode for identification of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, which provides a scientific basis for fast and accurate identification of the herb.

Huang S.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2013

To summarize and analyze the clinical feature, therapeutic methods and prognosis of gastric small cell carcinoma (SCC). The clinical and pathological data of 41 patients diagnosed of gastric SCC were analyzed in this research. Also, the factors which may potentially affect the patients' survival outcome were evaluated. There were 35 male and 6 female patients. The age at diagnosis was 39-84 years, median age was 62 years. The 31 cases (75.6%) of gastric SCC patients were involved in the upper third of the stomach, 3 cases (7.3%) in the middle, 7 cases (17.1%) in the lower third. The time from the event of symptoms to final confirmation was 1 to 13 months, the median time was 3 months. The longest diameter of tumors was from 2.5 to 15.0 cm, the average was 6.5 cm. The 38 cases (92.7%) chosed surgery as the first treatment, among which 25 cases (61.0%) were performed radical tumor resection, 13 cases (31.7%) went through palliative resection, and 3 cases (7.3%) just employed chemotherapy. The initial II, III, IV stage were 2, 31 and 8 cases, respectively. The overall median survival time was 19 months, median disease free survival time was 11 months, 1-, 2-, 5-years survival rates were 70.7%, 46.3% and 36.6%, respectively. In univariate survival analysis, the tumor size (χ2 = 5.565), change of the body weight (χ2 = 3.688), type of operation (χ2 = 11.747) and relapse or not (χ2 = 17.966) were obviously correlaed with the prognosis (P < 0.05). Gastric SCC is a rare disease of the gastrointestinal tract, the misdiagnosis rate is high, and the prognosis is dismal. Muti-modality management, with radical surgical resection of the primary lesion followed by standard adjuvant-chemotherapy, affords better local disease control and a better survival outcome.

Hu G.,Peking Union Medical College
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man was incidentally found to have an occupying lesion in the left renal pelvis by ultrasonography during a routine health examination. CT images suggested renal cell carcinoma. FDG PET/CT scan was acquired for staging. The images did not reveal any hypermetabolic metastases. However, the metabolic activity of the lesion in the right renal pelvis was not unambiguously determined because of interference of radioactive urine. C-acetate PET/CT, on the other hand, clearly revealed increased activity in the left renal pelvis. Pathological examination demonstrated solitary extraosseous plasmacytoma. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Xiao Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] | Year: 2012

Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is a skill-dependent procedure. The present study aims to analyze the learning curve of a properly trained surgeon, with basic laparoscopic techniques, to become skillful in performing laparoscopic colorectal operations. A series of non-selective, consecutive 189 cases of laparoscopic colorectal surgery were accomplished, from December 2009 to February 2012, by one surgeon with years of skilled technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, rich experience in assisting laparoscopic colorectal surgery, and experience of approximately 180 procedures of gastric and colorectal surgery annually. 170 out of 189 procedures were radical operations for colorectal neoplasma, including right colectomies in 28 cases, left colectomies in 5 cases, sigmoidectomies in 28 cases, high Dixon procedures in 45 cases, low Dixon (total mesorectal excision, TME) procedures in 41 cases and Miles procedure in 23 cases. 19 other patients underwent combined procedures for multi-primary tumors or inflammatory enteritis. All these procedures were analyzed according to time span (the earlier half and later half) in respect to length of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, intraoperative events and postoperative complications. For radical right colectomy, the D2 dissection conducted in the earlier phase (n = 8) had the similar length of surgery, more blood loss and less LN retrieval, compared with the D3 dissection conducted in recent phase (n = 20). The earlier performed high Dixon procedures (n = 22) consumed longer time than the later procedures (n = 23) consumed, but with similar blood loss and LN retrieval. Low Dixon (TME) procedures showed significant differences in length of surgery and blood loss relative to time span. Recently performed simoidectomy and Miles procedures showed a trend of shorter time consumed compared with earlier performed procedures. Conversion ratio to open surgery was 1.05%. Adverse effects occurred in 8 cases of surgeries, including intestinal injury (3/189), insufficient distal margin (2/189), intraoperative bleeding (2/189) and vaginal injury (1/76). There was no operative death. Chief complications included urinary retention 5.82%, ileus 4.76%, anastomotic leak 4.24%, perineal infection 23.08% (6/26), wound dehiscence 2.65%, gastrointestinal bleeding 1.59%, peritoneal infection 1.06%. Surgery for distal rectum tended to have more complications, such as urinary retention, anastomotic leak and perineal infection. The later performed low Dixon procedures produced insignificantly fewer anastomotic leaks than those in the earlier phase. For a trained surgeon with basic laparoscopic techniques, there are at least 15 - 25 cases of different procedures needed for him/her to become skilled to perform laparoscopic surgery. The learning curve should also depend on the annual number of colorectal surgeries.

Zhang Y.X.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2013

To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (SCCT). Retrospective review of SCCT cases in our hospital from January 1999 to May 2012. Demographic data and clinical charts, including presenting symptoms, histologic grade of tumor, treatment, and outcome of 28 consecutive patients were obtained. Survival rates and prognostic factors were calculated with SPSS 13.0 software using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox model survival analysis. SCCT accounted for only 0.36% of all types of thyroid malignancy. There were 15 males and 13 females, and the median age was 63 years. The presenting symptoms were neck masses (26/28) and hoarse voice (18/28). The 28 SCCTs included 15 high grade tumors, eight intermediate grade tumors and five low grade tumors. According to the UICC 2002 staging criteria, 16 patients were stage IVa, and 12 were stage IVb. Of the 28 patients, 19 underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy, seven underwent surgery alone, and two received radiotherapy alone. The rates of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were 60.7% and 25.0%, respectively. The 1-year, 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate were 50.4%, 25.8% and 19.3%, respectively, and the median overall survival time was 12.2 months. Kaplan-Meier univariate survival analyses indicated that the sizes of the tumors, esophageal invasions and treatment policies are prognostic factors, and multivariate Cox model survival analyses confirmed that the sizes of the tumors and treatment policies were independent factors for OS. Multivariate survival analyses confirmed that the sizes of the tumors and treatment policies were independent factors for OS. SCCT is a rare malignant tumor with strong invasive ability, high malignancy and poor prognosis. Combined modality therapy was strongly recommended, and surgical resection plus postoperative radiotherapy may be the main treatment protocol for patients with SCCT.

Yu Y.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2013

To discuss the influence of the number of lymph nodes retrieved after selective neck dissection on the prognosis of hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed on 96 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma between January 1995 and December 2009, and all cases were accepted initial treatment for selective neck dissection. t test was used for analysis of normally distributed and Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed continuous data in two groups. Comparisons were made by χ(2) analysis for categorical variables. Overall survival, disease-free survival and neck-control rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieved in all patients with hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma was 19.0 ± 11.3. Preoperative radiotherapy significantly decreased the number of retrieved lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes (t = -4.45, P < 0.001 and U = 568, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of nodes retrieved ≤ 15 was associated with 3-year overall survival of 37.7% compared with 71.3% in those with nodes retrieved > 15 by using Kaplan-Meier analysis (χ(2) = 8.214, P < 0.01). 3-year disease-free survival rates were 34.8% in those with ≤ 15 nodes and 61.7% in patients with > 15 nodes (χ(2) = 7.345, P < 0.01). The 3-year neck-control rates were 97.4% and 76.7% (> 15 nodes vs. ≤ 15 nodes;χ(2) = 5.539, P < 0.05), respectively. After adjusting for the effect of T stage and N stage on multivariate analysis, the number of nodes retrieved > 15 was an independent prognostic factor in patients undergoing selective neck dissection for hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma (P < 0.05). The number of lymph nodes retrieved is a valuable prognostic factor in patients received selective neck dissection for hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma. These results suggest that at least 15 nodes should be examined in this setting.

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic treatments for early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the esophageal neoplasm are two types: endoscopic resection (ER) and ablation. Resection enables evaluation of the lesion in the ER specimens, while ablation cannot. We sought to establish a pre-ER evaluated system with a diagnostic and staging accuracy similar to ER for the development of ablation therapy.METHODS: In our study, we collected data pertaining to early esophageal cancer and esophageal neoplasm treated with ER, analyzed the pre- and post-ER data of the lesions and evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of pre-ER system compared with the gold standard.RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy rate was 91% based on the pre-ER system compared with the gold standard, and 93% based on the ER diagnosis. The AUC of the pre-ER system was 0.964, while the ER examination was 0.971.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the accuracy of pre-ER system was comparable to ER. The pre-ER system enables prediction of histological diagnosis and stage of the lesions, and the choice of treatment for superficial esophageal neoplasm.

Wang M.-J.,Peking Union Medical College
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), CA125 and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Methods: To detect the serum concentration of HE4 using ELISA and CA125 using ECL in patients of ovarian carcinoma group (n = 119), borderline ovarian tumor group (n = 36), benign ovarian neoplasm group (n = 96) and female healthy control group (n = 53). The ROMA based on the serum level of CA125, HE4 and a woman's menopausal status was used to calculate the predicted probability (PP) and diagnostic results of ovarian cancers. Results: The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed the cut-off value was 67.3 pmol/L (the AUC was 0.906, the sensitivity was 80.7% and specificity was 94.6%). The serum levels of HE4 and CA125 in the ovarian carcinoma group were significantly higher than that in the borderline ovarian tumor group, benign ovarian neoplasm group and female healthy control group (P < 0.01). The serum levels of CA125 and HE4 showed statistically no significant difference between the borderline ovarian tumor group and benign ovarian neoplasm group (P > 0.05). The levels of HE4 and CA125 were reduced significantly in ovarian patients after surgery therapy (P <0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of HE4 + CA125 combination was 92.7% and 72.5%. The ROMA that can classify patients into high and low risk groups was established as 9.3% in premenopausal and 27.3% in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: HE4 is a helpful biomarker for ovarian carcinoma diagnosis. Biomarker combination of HE4 and CA125, and applying of the ROMA are helpful to improve the accuracy in diagnosis of ovarian cancers.

Lu S.S.,Peking Union Medical College
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2013

To validate the feasibility for detecting EGFR and k-ras mutations using cytological specimens. Cytological specimens including fine-needle aspiration (FNA), pleural effusion (PLE) and fiberoptic bronchoscopic (FOB) brushing were collected from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ) from January 2011 to July 2011 at the Department of Cytology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CHCAMS). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify EGFR exons 18-21 and k-ras codons 12-13, and then the PCR products sequencing and analysis were performed. Fifty cytological specimens were collected including 19 cases of FOB, 9 cases of FNA, 22 cases of PLE. Of them DNA was successfully extracted in 43 cases, and specific PCR amplification products sequencing were performed in 42 cases. EGFR mutations were detected in 14 of 42 specimens (33.3%), the frequencies of EGFR mutations in exons 19, 20 and 21 were 16.7% (7/42), 4.8% (2/42) and 11.9% (5/42), respectively, and no mutation was found in exon 18. Higher frequencies of EGFR mutations were detected in exons 19 and 21 (85.7%). Mutations were identified in 38.7% (12/31) cases of adenocarcinoma. K-ras mutations were found in 2 of 42 specimens (4.8%). EGFR and K-ras mutations were not found in the same case. Cytological specimens are feasible for detecting EGFR and K-ras mutation. This is especially beneficial in patients in whom histological materials can not be obtained.