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Florence-Graham, United States

Zeng Y.,Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering | Zeng Y.,North Carolina State University | Ye W.,Nematode Assay Section | Kerns J.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

The near-full-length 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 region were amplified and sequenced from 52 nematode populations belonging to 28 representative species in 13 families recovered from turfgrasses in North Carolina (38 populations) and South Carolina (14 populations). This study also included 13 nematode populations from eight other plant hosts from North Carolina for comparison. Nematodes were molecularly characterized and the phylogenetic relationships were explored based on 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference was performed using five groups of the plant-parasitic nematode populations Tylenchids, Criconematids, Longidorids, Xiphinematids, and Trichodorids. The 65 nematode populations were clustered correspondingly within appropriate positions of 13 families, including Belonolaimidae, Caloosiidae, Criconematidae, Dolichodoridae, Hemicycliophoridae, Hoplolaimidae, Heteroderidae, Longidoridae, Meloidogynidae, Paratylenchidae, Pratylenchidae, Telotylenchidae, and Trichodoridae. This study confirms previous morphological-based identification of the plant-parasitic nematode species found in turfgrasses and provides a framework for future studies of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses based upon DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationships. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Seiter N.J.,Clemson University | Seiter N.J.,Edisto Research and Education Center | Benson E.P.,Clemson University | Reay-Jones F.P.F.,Clemson University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

The plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.), which was recently introduced to the United States, forms nuisance aggregations on the exteriors of homes when it seeks overwintering sites in the fall. Little to no published information is available on the efficacy of insecticides labeled for professional use and exterior applications on homes and other structures against this insect. In a series of three experiments, we evaluated the residual efficacy of nine insecticides incorporating pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, and oxadiazine active ingredients on surfaces composed of five exterior building materials (vinyl soffit, brick, painted and unfinished plywood, and metal) at rates labeled for use in structural perimeter applications. Pyrethroids and pyrethroid- neonicotinoid mixes were broadly effective, resulting in 100% mortality or knockdown within 24 h in most cases. The neonicotinoid dinotefuran performed similarly on metal and vinyl surfaces, but its residual efficacy was reduced on more porous brick and wood surfaces. The oxadiazine indoxacarb acted more slowly than the other materials, but its performance was maintained on porous surfaces. Overwintering adults of M. cribraria were generally susceptible to the broad-spectrum insecticides most commonly used for exterior applications to homes and other structures. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

Puppala N.,New Mexico State University | Tallury S.P.,Pee Dee Research and Education Center
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2014

'NuMex 01' (Reg. No. CV-123, PI 670460) is a high oleic Valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) cultivar, developed by the New Mexico Agricultural State University Experiment Station located at Clovis, NM, and released on 17 Sept. 2013. NuMex 01 originated from a cross made between 'New Mexico Valencia A' (NM Valencia A) and 'Brantley'. NM Valencia A has predominantly three- to four-seeded pods, whereas Brantley has mostly two-seeded large virginia pods. Pedigree selection was practiced based on oil quality as determined by high oleic (O)/linoleic (L) fatty acid ratio, pod size and shape, seeds per pod, seed size, testa color, market type (Valencia), maturity, yield, and grade characteristics. The selected segregants with these characteristics were advanced by single-seed descent method until F4. Phenotypically uniform progenies were bulk harvested to conduct yield trials in F5. Performance tests in replicated trials across eastern New Mexico and west Texas began in 2010 and continued until 2012. NuMex 01 was tested under identity as NM083092. It matures in about 130 d, similar to the control cultivar, NM Valencia A. Averaged across 15 season-locations, NuMex 01 produced 13% higher pod yield and showed 4% greater 100-seed weight than NM Valencia A (average pod yield 3068 kg ha-1; 100 seed weight 46.5 g). NuMex 01 is the first high oleic (O/L ratio 23.3 compared with 1.1 in NM Valencia A) Valencia peanut cultivar released for cultivation in eastern New Mexico and west Texas. NuMex 01 has good roasted flavor attributes. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Yadagiri K.K.,Clemson University | Yadagiri K.K.,Vanderbilt University | Kerrigan J.,Clemson University | Martin S.B.,Pee Dee Research and Education Center
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

The genus Labyrinthula is a group of unicellular microorganisms with spindle-shaped cells that move in an ectoplasmic network. Most Labyrinthula species are saprotrophic and found in coastal marine or estuarine habitats; however, exceptions exist, such as Labyrinthula terrestris, a terrestrial plant pathogen that causes rapid blight on cool-season turfgrasses. Labyrinthula spp. can be grown in culture, which facilitates studies on their biology and pathology. However, axenic culture of L. terrestris has always been challenging. We modified the most commonly used Labyrinthula growth medium, serum seawater agar (SSA), and designed 2 media for improved pure culture, modified SSA (MSSA) and grass extract SSA (GESSA). A comparative assessment of these 2 media and basic SSA was made to measure the growth responses of 18 L. terrestris isolates. Results indicate that the average colony area was greatest on GESSA followed by MSSA, while cultures lived longest on MSSA followed by GESSA. We also suggest an improved long-term culture technique to maintain viable L. terrestris isolates for at least 2 years. Source

Zeng Y.,North Carolina State University | Zeng Y.,Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering | Ye W.,Agronomic Division | Tredway L.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2012

A new nematode species was discovered during a diversity survey of plant-parasitic nematodes on turfgrass conducted in North and South Carolina in 2010 and 2011. It is described herein as Hemicaloosia graminis n. sp. and is characterized by two annuli in the lip region, one lateral line, body 610.0-805.0 μm long, stylet 65.0-74.6 μm long, vulva at 84.1% -85.8% of the body , 254-283 annuli, vulva at the 38-53rd annulus from tail terminus, 12-14 annuli between vulva and anus, tail elongate-pointed, 67.5-84.8 μm long in females and spicule straight, 31.0 μm long, caudal alae well developed, two lateral lines in males. The newly described species is morphologically closest to H. paradoxa, but has a longer stylet (65.0-74.6 vs 61.0-65.0 μm) and a higher V-value (84.1-85.8 vs 78.1- 84.0%), less RV (38-53 vs 50-56), higher RVan (12-14 vs 10) in females, and a shorter tail (30.1 vs 36.7 μm) and more anteriorly located excretory pore (105.9 vs 140.0 μm) in the male. It was easily differentiated from other species based on near-full-length small subunit rRNA gene (SSU) and ITS1 sequences. Phylogenetic analysis from SSU supports placement in a monophyletic clade with the genus Caloosia. An identification key and a table of distinguishing characteristics are presented for all seven species of Hemicaloosia. © The Society of Nematologists 2012. Source

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