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Vandenbrink J.P.,Clemson University | Delgado M.P.,Clemson University | Frederick J.R.,Clemson Pee Dee Research and Education Center | Feltus F.A.,Clemson University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

The rate of hydrolysis among a genetically diverse panel of 381 field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) varieties was investigated. A high-throughput 96-well plate method was created to test large numbers of replicated sample biomass hydrolysis rates using Trichoderma viride cellulase. Analysis of the entire panel showed a wide range of hydrolysis rates, ranging from 0.6 μg/h/U cellulase to 2.7 μg/h/U cellulase, with an average rate of release of 1.5 μg/h/U cellulase. The detected hydrolysis rate is the hydrolysis yield potential (HYP) for each sorghum variety. Additionally, pretreatment with ammonium hydroxide increased the rate of hydrolysis by an average of 1.9 fold, yet did not correlate with non-pretreated hydrolysis yield potential. This study identifies specific sorghum varieties with high HYP and sets the stage for the genetic mapping of HYP genes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tallury S.P.,North Carolina State University | Tallury S.P.,Clemson Pee Dee Research and Education Center | Isleib T.G.,North Carolina State University | Copeland S.C.,North Carolina State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2014

Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm lines, GP-NC WS 16 (SPT 06-06) (Reg. No. GP-235, PI 669445) and GP-NC WS 17 (SPT 06-07) (Reg. No. GP-236, PI 669446), derived from interspecific hybridization, were developed in the peanut genetics program at North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, NC. These two lines were tested extensively by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service from 2006 through 2012 in disease evaluation tests. They have unique alleles introgressed from the diploid (2n = 2x = 20) wild species, A. cardenasii Krapov. & W.C. Gregory. The germplasm lines are also unique in that they exhibited multiple disease resistances superior to the germplasm lines derived from A. cardenasii that were released previously by NCSU. Resistance to multiple diseases included early leaf spot (ELS), Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), Sclerotinia blight (SB), and tomato spotted wilt (TSW). One of the lines, GP-NC WS 17, also exhibited drought tolerance in field and greenhouse studies. Thus, it can be concluded that these two peanut germplasm lines derived from diploid wild species have multiple biotic stress resistances, specifically for ELS, CBR, SB, and TSWV, as well as abiotic stress resistance in the case of GP-NC WS 17. These two lines should provide unique, improved germplasm for breeders interested in multiple disease resistance and in expanding the germplasm pool of A. hypogaea. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Singh D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Collakova E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Isleib T.G.,North Carolina State University | Welbaum G.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

The Virginia-Carolina region is the most important peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production region for the large-seeded, virginia-type peanut in the United States, but 85% of the production is rainfed and predisposed to water deficit stress. The mechanisms virginia-type peanut uses in response to drought stress are poorly understood. We evaluated several physiological and metabolic characteristics and their relationship with pod yield in eight virginia-type cultivars and advanced breeding lines in rainfed and irrigated field trials in 2011 and 2012. Each year, evaluations were performed at three sampling dates in conjunction with growth stages beginning flower, pod, and seed. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) genotypic variation in membrane injury, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio), and relative levels of metabolites and lipid-derived fatty acids was observed in response to water regime and sampling time. In general, in both years, the Fv/Fm ratio, organic acids, and fatty acids decreased in rainfed vs. irrigated plants, while the relative levels of sugar and cyclic polyols increased. Because higher levels of organic acids and lower levels of sugars were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with higher pod yield, we conclude that natural stress responses rather than adaptive mechanisms to drought prevailed for the genotypes used in this study. Based on its minimal changes in the Fv/Fm ratio and metabolite levels of the rainfed vs. irrigated plants, line SPT 06-07 showed improved tolerance to water deficit stress; this line can be an important source for drought tolerance improvement of the virginia-type peanut. © Crop Science Society of America.

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