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Szebenyi K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Furedi A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kolacsek O.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Csohany R.,Semmelweis University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2015

Intrarenal changes in cytoplasmic calciumlevels have a key role in determining pathologic and pharmacologic responses inmajor kidney diseases. However, cell-specific delivery of calcium-sensitive probes in vivo remains problematic. We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin- based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. The transposon-based method used allowed the generation of homozygous transgenic rats containing one copy of the transgene per allele with a defined insertion pattern, without genetic or phenotypic alterations. We applied in vitro confocal and in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine basal calcium levels and ligand- and drug-induced alterations in these levels in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Notably, renal ischemia induced a transient increase in cellular calcium, and reperfusion resulted in a secondary calcium load, which was significantly decreased by systemic administration of specific blockers of the angiotensin receptor and the Na-Ca exchanger. The parallel examination of in vivo cellular calcium dynamics and renal circulation by fluorescent probes opens new possibilities for physiologic and pharmacologic investigations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source


Szalay B.,Semmelweis University | Cseh A.,Semmelweis University | Meszaros G.,Semmelweis University | Kovacs L.,University of Szeged | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic dysfunction of T-cells. In this study we tested the impact of DMARD and anti-TNF agents on short-term activation characteristics of T-cells. We enrolled 12 patients with newly diagnosed RA (naïve RA) who were treated with methothrexate (MTX) and glucocorticsteroid (GCS) and 22 patients with established RA non responding to conventional DMARD therapy who were treated with different anti-TNF agents. Nine healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples were taken at baseline, then at 4th and 8th week of therapy. The characteristics of several intracellular activation processes during short-term activation of T-cells including cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, mitochondrial Ca2+ level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation were determined by a novel flow-cytometry technique. At baseline, the tested processes were comparable to controls in naïve RA. During GCS therapy, cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and ROS generation decreased. After the addition of MTX to GCS cytoplasmic Ca2+ level became comparable to controls, while ROS generation decreased further. In DMARD non responders, cytoplasmic Ca2+ level was higher than controls at baseline. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ level became comparable to controls and ROS generation decreased during each of the three anti-TNF-α agent therapies. Mitochondrial Ca2+ level and NO generation were unaltered in all of the patient groups. These results indicate that intracellular machinery is affected in T-cells of RA patients. This may alter the behavior of T-cells during activation. Different therapeutic approaches may modulate the abnormal T-cell functions. © 2014 Szalay et al. Source


Beres N.J.,Semmelweis University | Szabo D.,Semmelweis University | Kocsis D.,Semmelweis University | Szucs D.,University of Szeged | And 13 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Evidence suggests the central role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the pathomechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, its effect on epigenetic factors, including small non-coding microRNAs (miRs), is less known. Our present aim was the comparative investigation of the expression of TNF-α and immune response-related miRs in children with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Fresh-frozen (FF) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies were used to analyze the expression of miR-146a,-155,-122, and TNF-α by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in macroscopically inflamed (CD: 12 FFPE and 24 FF; UC: 10 FF) and intact (CD: 12 FFPE; 14 FF) colonic biopsies of children with IBD and controls (16 FFPE; 23 FF). The expression of miR-146a,-155, and-122 was also determined in TNF-α-treated HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Results: Increased expression of TNF-α was observed in the colonic mucosa of children with CD and UC in comparison with controls. Expression of miR-146a and-155 was higher in the inflamed mucosa of children with CD and UC than in the intact mucosa. Expression of miR-122 elevated in the macroscopically intact colonic regions of CD compared with controls and patients with UC. In HT-29 cells, TNF-α treatment increased the expression of miR-146a and-155, but not that of miR-122. Conclusions: Our results showed altered expression of miR-146a,-155, and-122 in the colonic mucosa of children with IBD and in TNF-α-treated colonic epithelial cells. Our data suggest the TNF-α-related involvement of these miRs in the pathogenesis of IBD. © 2016 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Source


Sziksz E.,Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Sziksz E.,Semmelweis University | Pap D.,Semmelweis University | Lippai R.,Semmelweis University | And 5 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2015

Importance of chronic fibroproliferative diseases (FDs) including pulmonary fibrosis, chronic kidney diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular or liver fibrosis is rapidly increasing and they have become a major public health problem. According to some estimates about 45% of all deaths are attributed to FDs in the developed world. Independently of their etiology the common hallmark of FDs is chronic inflammation. Infiltrating immune cells, endothelial, epithelial, and other resident cells of the injured organ release an orchestra of inflammatory mediators, which stimulate the proliferation and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production of myofibroblasts, the effector cells of organ fibrosis. Abnormal amount of ECM disturbs the original organ architecture leading to the decline of function. Although our knowledge is rapidly expanding, we still have neither a diagnostic tool to detect nor a drug to specifically target fibrosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the more comprehensive understanding of the pathomechanism of fibrosis and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the present review we provide an overview of the common key mediators of organ fibrosis highlighting the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine family members (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26), which recently came into focus as tissue remodeling-related inflammatory cytokines. © 2015 Erna Sziksz et al. Source


Sziksz E.,Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Sziksz E.,Semmelweis University | Pap D.,Semmelweis University | Veres G.,Semmelweis University | And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Gluten-sensitive enteropathy, also known as coeliac disease (CD), is an autoimmune disorder occurring in genetically susceptible individuals that damages the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of other nutrients. As it is triggered by dietary gluten and related prolamins present in wheat, rye and barley, the accepted treatment for CD is a strict gluten-free diet. However, a complete exclusion of gluten-containing cereals from the diet is often difficult, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. A class of proteins that have already emerged as drug targets for other autoimmune diseases are the heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are highly conserved stress-induced chaperones that protect cells against harmful extracellular factors. HSPs are expressed in several tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, and their levels are significantly increased under stress circumstances. HSPs exert immunomodulatory effects, and also play a crucial role in the maintenance of epithelial cell structure and function, as they are responsible for adequate protein folding, influence the degradation of proteins and cell repair processes after damage, and modulate cell signalling, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present review discusses the involvement of HSPs in the pathophysiology of CD. Furthermore, HSPs may represent a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of CD due to the cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and anti-apoptotic effects in the intestinal mucosal barrier. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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