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Probiotics and biotherapeutic agents are defined as live microorganisms that, following ingestion, modify the composition of the human intestinal microflora, thus bringing health benefits. In several recent years, these microorganisms have been the subject of major medical interest. In early twenty-first century, initial scientific papers appeared concerning possible probiotic potential of bacterial strains isolated from breast milk. The composition of the intestinal microflora is primarily dependent on intestinal colonization immediately after birth the sources of which may be the vaginal mucosa, maternal intestinal microflora, hospital-like environment of the maternity unit and, possibly, the bacteria present in maternal breast milk. Given the fact that breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the development of infant formulae, it is essential to elucidate the role of bacteria present in human breast milk and their relationship to prebiotic oligosaccharides. The author summarizes some up-to-date knowledge on probiotics and their potential occurrence in human breast milk. Source

Matousovic K.,Transplantacni Centrum FN Motol | Spatenka J.,Transplantacni Centrum FN Motol | Foltynova E.,Transplantacni Centrum FN Motol | Dusek J.,Pediatricka Klinika UK 2. LF A FN Motol | And 6 more authors.
Aktuality v Nefrologii | Year: 2012

Background: Transplantation of a large kidney parenchyma mass may positively influence the post-transplant graft function. Aim: To find, if a size of the kidney graft correlates with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) level in the early and late post-transplant period. Methods: Fifty seven kidney grafted children with uncomplicated post-transplant courses and with surviving grafts at the end of follow-up (5.42 ± 2.42 y after transplantation) were included in the study. We calculated the estimated (eGFR) and absolute (absGFR) glomerular filtration rates from serum creatinine levels by the Schwartz formula. We evaluated relationships between the transplanted kidney parenchyma mass and GFR with regard to: a) the individual ratio between the donor and the recipient body mass as a measure of the relative kidney parenchyma mass transplanted (D/P index); b) the donor body mass as an equivalent of the absolute quantity of transplanted kidney parenchyma; c) the recipient body mass as a measure of the recipient metabolic demands. We used the donor body weight as a marker of the transplanted kidney mass. We evaluated the kidney function at three periods: a) at discharge from the hospital after transplantation; b) one year after transplantation; c) at the end of follow-up. Results: We documented the significant direct relation between D/P index in the three evaluated post-transplant periods (r = 0.6064; 0.5599; 0.3146; P < 0.001; 0.001; 0.05 for the three periods). We found an indirect non-linear relation between index D/P and absGFR (r = 0.6035; 0.6291; 0.1720; P < 0.001; 0.001; N.S). The donor body mass displayed only minor or none effect on eGFR and was not related to the absGFR level. We found a significant indirect non-linear relation between the recipient body mass and eGFR (r = 0.6417; 0.6036; 0.4084; P < 0.001; 0.001, 0.01) and the linear relation between the recipient body mass and absGFR (r = 0.6637; 0.7395; 0.4173; P < 0.001; 0.001, 0.01). Conclusions: The transplanted kidney mass influenced the graft function only negligibly, both in the early and late post-transplant periods. The recipient eGFR and absGFR were determined by the recipient body mass. Source

Pleskacova J.,Pediatricka Klinika UK 2. LF A FN Motol | Snajderova M.,Pediatricka Klinika UK 2. LF A FN Motol | Lebl J.,Pediatricka Klinika UK 2. LF A FN Motol
Diabetologie Metabolismus Endokrinologie Vyziva | Year: 2011

Disorders of sex development (DSD) are very diverse in ethiology. Last classification of the disorders was created in 2005. DSD bring some specific issues, e.g. a higher risk of gonadal germ cell tumor development in patients who carry Y chromosome material in their karyotype. Germ cell tumors are represented by seminoma and nonseminomas in testicular tissue and dysgerminoma and nondysgerminomas in dysgenetic gonad. Their noninvasive precursors are termed as carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma, respectively. Neoplastic germ cells are derived from fetal germ cells which were arrested in their development. These cells express factors (e.g. OCT3/4, NANOG) which provide them with ability of pluripotency and proliferation and, therefore, take a part in pathogenesis of the tumors. Possibly, so do TSPY and SCF. Estimated prevalence of germ cell tumors varies among DSD subgroups. It ranges from 0.8% in complete androgen insensitivity, through 30% in gonadal dysgenesis in common, to 60% in Frasier syndrome. Therefore, the current management guidelines still propose prophylactic gonadectomy as a first choice in most of the cases. Source

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