Toffolo A.,Pediatric Unit |
Ammenti A.,Gemini Medicina Specialistica |
Montini G.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2012
Kidney scarring related to urinary tract infection in childhood has been considered the cause of serious long-term clinical consequences. This assumption is now debated, as the advent of routine antenatal ultrasound in the 1980s has shown that a consistent part of the changes previously attributed to postinfectious scarring is mainly due to congenital malformations. With the aim of determining what is presently known on the long-term clinical consequences of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in childhood, we performed a review of the literature on the relation between UTIs and blood pressure, renal function, growth and pregnancy-related complications. By searching Medline/PubMed and Embase from 1980 to 2011, we identified 20 cohorts of children from 23 papers. Conclusions: Renal function: there are no clear data to establish long-term consequences following UTIs during childhood. Most data seem to show that the outcome of renal function can already be delineated at first presentation or in the initial years of follow-up; only 0.4% of children with normal renal function at start presented a decrease during follow-up. Hypertension: there is a low risk, associated with renal damage. Growth and pregnancy-related complications: the few available data seem to exclude a major influence of UTIs. © 2012 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.
Noubiap J.J.N.,Internal Medicine Unit |
Joko W.Y.A.,Internal Medicine Unit |
Nansseu J.R.N.,Hematology Unit |
Tene U.G.,Pediatric Unit |
Siaka C.,Blood Transfusion Unit
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in sub-Saharan Africa. Blood-borne agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis infections among first-time blood donors at the new hospital-based blood bank in Edéa, Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of blood donor data recorded between December 2011 and May 2012 at the blood bank of the Edéa Regional Hospital. Antibodies to HIV types 1 and 2 were screened with the Determine and ImmunoComb tests. Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HCV were detected using DIASpot test strips. Syphilis was diagnosed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Results: A total of 543 blood donors were included, among whom 349 (64.3%) were family replacement donors. One hundred and fifteen donors (21.2%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rates of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 4.1%, 10.1%, 4.8%, and 5.7%, respectively. We found a total of 26 dual infections. The most common combinations were HBV-HCV and HBV-HIV. There was a significant association between HIV and HBV infections (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.46, 95% CI 1.29-9.39; p=0.014), and between HBV and HCV infections (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.02-10.12; p=0.036). Compared to voluntary donors, family replacement donors were significantly more infected by at least one screened pathogen (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.14-2.88; p=0.013), and more infected specifically by HIV (aOR 3.66, 95% CI 1.07-12.55; p=0.039) and syphilis (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.05-7.46; p=0.039). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that blood safety remains a major problem in Cameroon where hospital-based blood banks and family replacement donors are predominant. There is an urgent need for a national blood transfusion program in Cameroon that will establish a nationally coordinated blood transfusion service based on the principles of voluntary regular non-remunerated blood donation. © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases.
Cimaz R.,Rheumatology Unit |
La Torre F.,Pediatric Unit
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2014
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare genetic disorders of glycosaminoglycan catabolism, caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes required for GAG degradation. Incomplete breakdown of glycosaminoglycans leads to progressive accumulation of these substances in many tissues throughout the body. Different residual enzymatic activity can result in different phenotypes of the same MPS disorder, from severe to attenuated. Musculoskeletal manifestations are common across all forms of MPS. Skeletal and joint abnormalities are prominent features of many MPS disorders, particularly attenuated phenotypes. However, diagnostic delays occur frequently for patients with an MPS, especially those with more attenuated forms of disease. In the absence of appropriate treatment, these conditions are chronic, progressive and often debilitating, but treatment for many types of MPS is now available. Therefore, increasing awareness of MPS among rheumatologists is extremely important. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
De Amici M.,Pediatric Unit
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2012
Adenoids removed for airway obstruction and-or recurrent infections have been studied to identify a possible mechanism to explain chronicity. In this regard, macrophages may play a relevant pathogenic role as well as neutrophils during bacterial infections and eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating some mediators as surrogate markers of inflammation in children who had to undergo to adenoidectomy. Globally, 67 children (25 females, 42 males, mean age 4.9 years), affected by persistent obstruction caused by adenoid hypertrophy were consecutively enrolled into the study. Blood samples were collected from patients and controls to determine serum CD163, Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ECP. There were significant differences between patients and controls for serum CD163 (p less than 0.0001); MPO (p less than 0.0001); serum ECP (p less than 0.0001). This study demonstrated some risk factors for severe AH: apnoea, recurrent respiratory infections, and high serum CD163 levels.
Sabbi T.,Pediatric Unit
La Pediatria medica e chirurgica : Medical and surgical pediatrics | Year: 2011
Helicobacterpylori (Hp) is mainly acquired during childhood and causes one of the most widespread infections worldwide; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World Health Organization. This infection can be diagnosed by invasive techniques requiring endoscopy and biopsy (histological examination, rapid urease test, culture) and by non invasive tests (serology, urea breath test, detection of Hp antigen stool specimen). The gold standard in the eradication of Hp is one-week triple therapy: one proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics (mainly nitromidazoles, macrolides and beta-lactames). It is possible the use of probiotics during this therapy to reduce the adverse effects, to improve tolerability and compliance of multiple antibiotics regimens.