Pediatric Radiology Unit

Milano, Italy

Pediatric Radiology Unit

Milano, Italy
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Nathanson S.,Pediatric Unit | Kwon T.,Pediatric Nephrology Unit | Elmaleh M.,Pediatric Radiology Unit | Charbit M.,Pediatric Nephrology Unit | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

Background and objectives: Neurologic involvement is the most threatening complication of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We report a retrospective multicenter series of 52 patients with severe initial neurologic involvement that occurred in the course of D+HUS. Results: Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection was documented in 24. All except two patients had acute renal failure that required peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or both techniques. A first group of eight patients remained with normal consciousness; five of them had protracted seizures. A second group of 23 patients had stuporous coma; five of these had protracted severe seizures, and 18 had a neurologic defect including pyramidal syndrome, hemiplegia or hemiparesia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. A third group of 21 patients had severe coma. Plasma exchanges were undertaken in 25 patients, 11 of whom were treated within 24 hours after the first neurologic sign; four died, two survived with severe sequelae, and five were alive without neurologic defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 29 patients showed that (1) every structure of the central nervous system was susceptible to involvement; (2) no correlation seemed to exist between special profile of localization on early MRI and the final prognosis; and (3) MRI did not exhibit any focal lesions in three patients. The overall prognosis of the series was marked by the death of nine patients and severe sequelae in 13. Conclusions: Neurologic involvement is associated with a severe renal disease but does not lead systematically to death or severe disability. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Gali S.,Pediatric Radiology Unit | Anat I.,Pediatric Radiology Unit
Journal of Clinical Ultrasound | Year: 2015

Purely cystic neuroblatomas are often discovered prenatally. As the main differential diagnosis is adrenal hemorrhage, follow-up sonography is warranted after birth. Cystic neuroblastomas are expected to evolve into lesions of mixed echogenicity with cystic and solid components. We present a rare case of a purely cystic left-sided adrenal lesion in a newborn, suggesting an adrenal hemorrhage, which on follow-up sonography evolved into a purely solid mass with poor vascularization, diagnosed as a cystic neuroblastoma. We suggest that even purely cystic adrenal masses in the newborn should be closely followed up with sonography, as they may represent purely cystic neuroblastomas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

Faundez T.,Child and Adolescent | Klee P.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit | Hanquinet S.,Pediatric Radiology Unit | Schwitzgebel V.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

Diabetic striatopathy is a well-known complication of diabetes in adults. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in children. We here report the case of a teenager in whom diabetic striatopathy was revealed by the subacute appearance of hemichorea-hemiballism in the context of weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia. Glycemia control allowed rapid clinical recovery despite established striatal lesions documented on MRI. We also discuss current hypotheses about pathophysiological processes underlying this entity. © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Shofty B.,Dana Childrens Hospital | Ben-Sira L.,Pediatric Radiology Unit | Constantini S.,Dana Childrens Hospital | Freedman S.,Dana Childrens Hospital | Kesler A.,Neuro Ophthalmology Unit
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: IIH is a disorder associated with increased intracranial pressure with no clinical, laboratory, or radiologic evidence of an intracranial space-occupying lesion. The aim of this study was to establish ONSD standards of healthy pediatric subjects and compare the normal measurements with those of patients with IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen MR imaging studies of children 4 months to 17 years of age were blinded and reviewed by a pediatric neuroradiologist. A total of 230 optic nerves were measured. Eighty-six MR imaging examinations were performed in apparently healthy subjects. This control group included subjects who underwent MR imaging for various reasons, and their MR imaging findings were interpreted as normal. Twenty-nine MR imaging examinations were performed in patients with documented IIH. The ONSD was measured 1 cm anterior to the optic foramina on an axial T2 sequence. For statistical analysis, both patients and controls were stratified into 4 age groups (I, 0-3 years; II, 3-6 years; III, 6-12 years; IV, 12-18 years). RESULTS: The mean ONSD of the control group in all age groups (I, 3.1 mm; II, 3.41 mm; III, 3.55 mm; IV, 3.56 mm) was significantly smaller than the mean ONSD of patients (I, 4.35 mm; II, 4.37 mm; III, 4.25 mm; IV, 4.69 mm). A positive correlation between age and ONSD (r = 0.414, P < .01) was found in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: According to our study, in pediatric patients with IIH, the ONSD is significantly larger than that in healthy controls regardless of age group and sex. This measurement might prove to be an auxiliary tool in the diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure in pediatric patients.

Ricco M.,Provincia Autonoma di Trento (Italy) | Thai E.,University of Parma | Cella S.,Pediatric Radiology Unit
Industrial Health | Year: 2016

A 68-yr-old male, smoker, is admitted for proteinuria (2,800 mg/24 h) and reduced renal function (serum creatinine 2 mg/dl, GFR 35 ml/min). Renter, he started working 20-yr-old as a sandstone cave miner. Despite the high levels of silica dusts, he reported no mandatory use of airways protection devices during the first 25 yr of activity. No clinical or radiological signs of silicosis or pneumoconiosis where reported until the year of retirement (1997). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (91 mm/h) and C reactive protein (35 mg/l) suggested a pro-inflammatory status. High serum IgA was found (465 mg/dl). A renal biopsy identified glomerular sclerosis with IgA deposition, signs of diffuse vasculitis and tubular atrophia suggesting a diagnosis of IgA nephropathy. Chest X-Rays showed emphysema and diffuse nodularity suggesting diagnosis of silicosis. Chest tomography was also positive for mild signs of silicosis with silicotic nodules and without honeycombing. IgA nephropathy is the most common type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. Several clues suggest a genetic or acquired abnormality of immune system as a trigger of the increased production of IgA. In our case report, simultaneous kidney and pulmonary disease could suggest same triggers (e.g. exposure to virus, bacteria or environmental agents) inducing IgA synthesis and pulmonary immune system activation. © 2016 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.

Esposito S.,University of Milan | Daleno C.,University of Milan | Tagliabue C.,University of Milan | Scala A.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

This study of 592 children seen in our Emergency Department with radiographically confirmed communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) was designed to evaluate the role of rhinoviruses (RVs) in the disease. The respiratory secretions of each child were assayed using RVP Fast in order to detect 17 respiratory viruses, and the RV-positive samples were characterised by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RVs were identified in 172 cases (29.0%): 48/132 children aged <1 year (36.3%), 80/293 aged 1-3 years (27.3%), and 44/167 aged ≥4 years (26.3%). Sequencing demonstrated that 82 RVs (49.1%) were group A, 17 (10.1%) group B, and 52 (31.1%) group C; 21 (12.2%) were untyped. RVs were found as single agents in 99 cases, and together with two or more other viruses in 73 (40.7%). There were only marginal differences between the different RV groups and between single RV infection and RV coinfections. RV CAP is frequent not only in younger but also in older children, and RV-A is the most common strain associated with it. The clinical relevance of RV CAP seems to be mild to moderate without any major differences between the A and B strains and the recently identified RV C. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Esposito S.,University of Milan | Daleno C.,University of Milan | Prunotto G.,University of Milan | Scala A.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2013

Background Little is known about the prevalence of viral infections in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objectives To describe the clinical and virological data collected from children with radiographically confirmed CAP in whom 17 respiratory viruses were sought in respiratory secretion samples during the acute phase of the disease. Patients and methods The study involved 592 children with radiographically confirmed CAP whose respiratory secretion samples were tested using the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel Fast assay, which simultaneously detects influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-A and -B, parainfluenzavirus-1, -2, -3, and -4, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1, enterovirus/rhinovirus, and bocavirus. A real-time PCR assay was used to identify the rhinovirus in the enterovirus/rhinovirus-positive samples. Results A total of 435 children (73·5%) were positive for at least one virus: the most frequently detected was RSV, which was found in 188 (31·7%), followed by rhinovirus (n=144, 24·3%), bocavirus (n=60, 10·1%), influenza viruses (n=57, 9·6), and hMPV (n=49, 8·2%). Viral co-infections were found in 117 children (19·7% of the enrolled children; 26·9% of those with viral infections). Marginal differences were found between the infections owing to a single virus. Co-infections showed radiographic evidence of alveolar pneumonia significantly more frequently than single infections (OR 1·72, 95% CI 1·05-2·81). Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the importance of respiratory viruses (mainly RSV and rhinovirus) in children with CAP and show the characteristics of both the single infections and co-infections associated with the disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | Pediatric Radiology Unit, Unit of Pneumology and University of Brescia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical immunology | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of early detection of pulmonary fungal infections by lung CT scan in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).A retrospective study on 14 patients affected with CGD for a total of 18 infectious episodes was performed. Revision of clinical data and CT scan analysis before and after treatment was performed.The presence of lung nodules <30mm was evaluated in 18 infectious episodes in 14 patients. A total of 125 nodules in 18 CT scans were identified. Identification of the infectious agent through biopsy and in vitro culture resulted positive only in 3/18 cases. The remaining cases received clinical/radiologic diagnosis of suspected pulmonary fungal infection. In all cases, the introduction of empirical antifungal treatment resulted in reduction in size or complete resolution of the pulmonary lung nodules in all patients affected with CGD.Lung CT scan allows for early detection of pulmonary fungal infection in CGD. Pulmonary nodules (<30mm), single or multiple, uni- or bilateral, with or without a halo sign may represent the first radiologic sign of pulmonary fungal infection in CGD.

PubMed | Pediatric Radiology Unit and Rambam Medical Healthcare Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU | Year: 2016

Pancreatic tumors are uncommon in children and rarely result in biliary obstruction. Primary pancreatic Burkitts lymphoma is an exceptionally rare entity with only a few cases described in the literature. We present a case of a bifocal primary pancreatic Burkitts lymphoma in a 4-year-old child presenting with jaundice. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2016.

PubMed | Pediatric Radiology Unit, Radiology Unit and University of Milan
Type: | Journal: Italian journal of pediatrics | Year: 2016

Rib osteomyelitis is a rare entity, occurring in approximately 1 % or less of all cases of haematogenous osteomyelitis. Given its rarity and clinical heterogeneity, the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis can be challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. We present a case of acute osteomyelitis of the rib due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which occurred in an otherwise healthy 3-month-old infant and mimicked an epigastric hernia at first.An otherwise healthy 3-month-old female infant was sent by her primary care paediatrician to the paediatric emergency department for possible incarcerated epigastric hernia because for 2 days, she had suffered from mild to moderate fever, irritability, poor feeding, and tender epigastric swelling. Ultrasonographic imaging excluded epigastric hernia, and transthoracic echocardiography ruled out endocarditis. However, clinical assessment combined with laboratory criteria classified the child into the high-risk group for having severe bacterial infection. Consequently, awaiting the definitive diagnosis, she was immediately treated with a broad-spectrum regimen of intravenous antibiotic therapy based on vancomycin (40 mg/kg/die in 3 doses) and meropenem (100 mg/kg/die in 3 doses). Three days after admission, the blood culture result was positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin remained as antibiotic therapy. On day 3, a second swelling appeared at the level of the seventh left rib, 2 cm-wide, non-erythematous, mildly painful. Ultrasonography of the left chest wall on this occasion showed an image consistent with an acute osteomyelitis of the anterior osteo-chondral region of the 7th rib and associated adjacent periosteal and soft tissue collection and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the osteomyelitis of the anterior middle-distal part of the 7th left rib, near the costochondral junction. Vancomycin was continued up to a total of 6 weeks of therapy, and at the end, the child was discharged in good condition with no relapse during the follow-up.This is one of the few reported cases of paediatric rib osteomyelitis caused by community-acquired MRSA. Timely identification associated with prompt and targeted antibiotic therapy may allow full recovery.

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