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Denburg A.E.,The Hospital for Sick Children | Joffe S.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Gupta S.,The Hospital for Sick Children | Howard S.C.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2012

Uneven strides in research and care have led to discrepancies in childhood cancer outcomes between high and low income countries (LICs). Collaborative research may help improve outcomes in LICs by generating knowledge for local scientific communities, augmenting knowledge translation, and fostering context-specific evaluation of treatment protocols. However, the risks of such research have received little attention. This paper investigates the relationship between pediatric oncology research in LICs and four core issues in the ethics literature: standard of care, trial benefits, ethics review, and informed consent. Our aims are to highlight the importance of this field and the need for further inquiry. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

de Ruiter M.A.,Emma Childrens Hospital AMC | Meeteren A.Y.N.S.,Pediatric Oncology | van Mourik R.,VU University Amsterdam | Janssen T.W.P.,VU University Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor.Methods/Design: Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35) or placebo training (n=35). Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once.Discussion: If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922. © 2012 de Ruiter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bergman R.,Pediatric Oncology
American Journal of Dermatopathology | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT:: Bone involvement has been described in tumors with melanocytic differentiation such as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, and very rarely in cellular blue nevi and neurocristic cutaneous hamartoma. We present an unusual case of facial congenital melanocytic tumor that involved the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and led to unilateral blindness. A newborn with a large red bluish patch with peripheral brown and black macules overlying marked swelling on the left side of his face was presented. The tumor was shown by magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and histopathology to invade the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and to compress the left eyeball resulting in blindness. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, morphometric computerized microscopy, molecular genetic mutation analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were more congruent with a melanocytic nevus. An 8.5-year follow-up was uneventful, with spontaneous partial shrinkage of the tumor. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Marjerrison S.,University of Toronto | Antillon F.,National Pediatric Oncology Unit | Fu L.,Pediatric Oncology | Martinez R.,Hospital Mario Catarino Rivas | And 4 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Outcomes for relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have not been documented in resource-limited settings. This study examined survival after relapse for children with ALL in Central America. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed and included children with first relapse of ALL in Guatemala, Honduras, or El Salvador between 1990 and 2011. Predictors of subsequent event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. RESULTS: There were 755 children identified with relapsed disease. The median time from diagnosis to relapse was 1.7 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.1 years). Most relapses occurred during (53.9%) or following (24.9%) maintenance chemotherapy, and the majority occurred in the bone marrow (63.1%). Following the initial relapse, subsequent 3-year EFS (± standard error) and OS were 22.0% ± 1.7%, and 28.2% ± 1.9%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, worse postrelapse survival was associated with age ≥ 10 years, white blood cell count ≥ 50 × 109/L, and positive central nervous system status at the original ALL diagnosis, relapse that was not isolated central nervous system or testicular, and relapse < 36 months following diagnosis. Site and time to relapse were used to identify a favorable risk group whose 3-year EFS and OS were 50.0% ± 8.9% and 68.0% ± 8.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis after relapsed ALL in Central America is poor, but a substantial number of those with favorable risk features have prolonged survival, despite lack of access to stem cell transplantation. Stratification by risk factors can guide therapeutic decision-making. Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source

Kostadinov R.,Pediatric Oncology | Maley C.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Kuhner M.K.,University of Washington
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2016

When multiple samples are taken from the neoplastic tissues of a single patient, it is natural to compare their mutation content. This is often done by bulk genotyping of whole biopsies, but the chance that a mutation will be detected in bulk genotyping depends on its local frequency in the sample. When the underlying mutation count per cell is equal, homogenous biopsies will have more high-frequency mutations, and thus more detectable mutations, than heterogeneous ones. Using simulations, we show that bulk genotyping of data simulated under a neutral model of somatic evolution generates strong spurious evidence for non-neutrality, because the pattern of tissue growth systematically generates differences in biopsy heterogeneity. Any experiment which compares mutation content across bulk-genotyped biopsies may therefore suggest mutation rate or selection intensity variation even when these forces are absent. We discuss computational and experimental approaches for resolving this problem. © 2016 Kostadinov et al. Source

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