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PubMed | Montpellier University, Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit, Reference Center for Inherited Metabolic Disease and Institute, University of Paris Descartes and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and metabolism | Year: 2015

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is very common in mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the preferred treatment for patients with severe MPS I diagnosed early in life. The protective effect of HSCT on the development of long term OSAS is not known.Overnight polysomnography (PSG) and biomarker data were analyzed during the annual follow-up in consecutive MPS I patients treated with HSCT.The data of 13 patients (6 boys) were analyzed. Median age at HSCT was 17 (range 14-19) months, median age at PSG was 9.0 (4.5-14.5) years, and median time elapsed since HSCT was 7.6 (2.4-13.2) years. A significant correlation was observed between time elapsed since HSCT and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, r(2)=0.493, p=+0.003) and the oxygen desaturation index (r(2)=0.424, p=+0.02). Patients older than 10 years of age had a higher mean AHI (25.8/h vs 1.4/h, p=0.0008), a lower mean pulse oximetry (94.7% vs 97.2%, p=0.01) and a higher mean hypopnea index (18.8 vs 0.71/h, p=0.016) as compared to those younger than 10 years of age. No correlation was observed between the AHI and the metabolic clearance, assessed by urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion and residual enzyme activity, although there was a positive trend for the urinary GAG/higher normal value for age ratio (p=0.09).HSCT does not offer long term protection against OSAS in MPS I with OSAS being documented in all patients after a time elapse since HSCT exceeding 10 years. The potential benefit of additional enzyme replacement therapy needs to be assessed.


PubMed | Endocrinology Unit, Childrens Hospital, Nice University Hospital Center, Lung Function and Sleep Unit and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric pulmonology | Year: 2016

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and systematic screening is recommended, especially before growth hormone treatment. The aim of the study was to describe the baseline SDB and therapeutic interventions in a large cohort of patients.Retrospective study.Eighty-eight patients with PWS, median [interquartile range] age of 5.1 [1.0-14.5] years old (range 0.3-44.3), who were followed in three centers (France, Italy).Anthropometrics, polygraphy (PG), and gas exchange data were analyzed.Median body mass index (BMI) was 20 [16-34] kg/m(2), BMI z-score for patients aged 2-20 years old was 2.1 [1.2-2.8] SD, mixed-obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (MOAHI) 1.8 [0.6-5.0] events/hr, and central apnea index (CAI) 0.1 [0.0-0.6] events/hr. Minimum pulse oximetry (SpO2) was 88 [84-91]%, percentage of time with SpO2 <90% 0.1 [0.0-1.0]%, and oxygen desaturation index 2 [1-4]/hr. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 1.5 and 5 events/hr was observed in 53% of children and 41% of adults, respectively. No correlations were observed between MOAHI and anthropometrics data (age, BMI, BMI z-score), while MOAHI significantly correlated with SpO2 indexes. Age and BMI only weakly correlated with SpO2 indexes. Growth hormone could be initiated in 48 patients. Regarding post-PG therapy, 9 patients had upper airway surgery, and noninvasive CPAP/bilevel ventilation was started in 16 patients.Patients with PWS exhibit a high prevalence of SDB. The lack of association between obesity and SDB leads to hypothesize that hypotonia and/or facial dysmorphic features may play a major role in the occurrence of SDB.


PubMed | Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit, Hoffmann-La Roche, University of Paris Descartes, Instituto G Gaslini and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Respiratory medicine | Year: 2016

Expiratory muscle strength is a determinant of cough function. Maximal static expiratory pressure (PEmax) manoeuvres are widely used but are limited by patient motivation and technique. The study hypothesized that whistle mouth (PmW) and cough gastric (PgasCough) pressures might provide additional tests of expiratory muscle strength in children and young adults with neuromuscular disease (NMD).We retrospectively reviewed the data of lung function and respiratory muscle tests of all the patients with NMD followed in our centre between November 2001 and December 2013. PmW and PgasCough were compared to other common tests.Three hundred and four respiratory evaluations were performed in 143 patients, aged 3-29 years old. Seventy-two patients had 2 to 8 evaluations. Median [interquartiles] PEmax (38 [28-54] cmH2O) did not differ significantly from PgasCough (45 [30-60] cmH2O) and both were significantly greater than PmW (30 [19-44] cmH2O). Significant good correlations were observed between all the expiratory muscle parameters. The best correlation was observed between PEmax and PmW (r = 0.812, p < 0.001). Moreover, good correlations were found between the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity and PmW (r = 0.619, p < 0.001) and PgasCough (r = 0.568, p < 0.001). Concerning the whistle test, the non-invasive measurement highly correlated with invasive measurements.PmW and PgasCough are simple and valuable tests to assess expiratory muscle strength in children and young adults with NMD. These tests are particularly useful in children having difficulties to perform PEmax manoeuvre. They have the great advantage of their simplicity, but PgasCough is limited by its invasiveness.


Amaddeo A.,Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit | Amaddeo A.,Institute for Maternal and Child Health | Caldarelli V.,Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria Nuova | Fernandez-Bolanos M.,Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit | And 7 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: Data are scarce on respiratory events during sleep for children treated at home with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The present study aimed to characterize the respiratory events with CPAP during sleep and to analyze their clinical consequences. Patients/Methods: Consecutive polygraphies (PG) performed on stable children treated with CPAP were analyzed and scored using SomnoNIV Group definitions. For every respiratory event, the presence of a 3% oxygen desaturation and/or an autonomic arousal was systematically searched. Nocturnal gas exchange was assessed using summary data of oximetry and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure recordings. Results: Twenty-nine consecutive polygraphies, performed on 26 children (mean age 7.8±6.2 years, mean CPAP use 10.6±14.4 months), were analyzed. The index of total respiratory events was low (median value 1.4/h, range 0-34). The mean number of different types of respiratory events per PG was 2±1 (range 0-4), with always a predominant event. Partial or total upper airway obstruction without a decrease in ventilatory drive was the most frequent event and was the most frequently associated with an oxygen desaturation (in 30% of the events) and an autonomic arousal (in 55% of the events). Weak correlations were observed between nocturnal oximetry and PG results. Conclusions: The index of respiratory events during CPAP treatment for stable children is low. As these events may be associated with an oxygen desaturation or an autonomic arousal, and as nocturnal gas exchange cannot predict PG results, a systematic sleep study seems justified for the routine follow-up of children treated with CPAP. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit, Sleep Unit and AP HP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing | Year: 2015

Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the analysis of sleep architecture but is not always available in routine practice, as it is time consuming and cumbersome for patients. Bispectral index (BIS), developed to quantify the deepness of general anesthesia, may be used as a simplified tool to evaluate natural sleep depth. We objectively recorded sleep architecture in young patients using the latest BIS Vista monitor and correlated BIS values with PSG sleep stages in order to determine BIS thresholds. Patients, referred for the screening of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome or differential diagnosis of hypersomnia were recruited. Overnight PSG and BIS were performed simultaneously. BIS values were averaged for each sleep stage. Pre-sleep wakefulness (W) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were also differentiated. BIS values were discarded for a signal quality index <90%. ROC curves were plotted to discriminate sleep stages from each other. Twelve patients (5.7-29.3years old) were included. Mean BIS values were 838, 7612, 7711, 7010, 4310, and 7510 for W, WASO, N1, N2, N3 and R (REM) stages, respectively. BIS failed to distinguish W, WASO, N1 and R stages. BIS threshold that identified stage N2 was <73 (AUC=0.784, p<0.001) with low sensitivity (75%) and poor specificity (64%). BIS threshold that identified stage N3 was <55 (AUC=0.964, p<0.001) with an 87%-sensitivity and a 93%-specificity. BIS identified stage N3 with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity but is limited by its inability to distinguish REM sleep from wake. Further studies combining BIS with chin electromyogram and/or electrooculogram could be of interest.


PubMed | Imagine Institute, Pediatric Endocrinology, Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit and University of Paris Descartes
Type: | Journal: Sleep medicine | Year: 2016

Central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes are rare in children and data in children over one year of age are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep characteristics, underlying disorders, management, and outcome of children with CSA.A retrospective chart review of all children >1 year of age, diagnosed with CSA on a laboratory sleep study during a 20-month period, was performed. CSA was defined by a central apnea index (CAI)>5events/h. The clinical management and the patients outcome were analyzed.Eighteen of 441 (4.1%) patients recorded during the study period had CSA. The median CAI, pulse oximetry, and oxygen desaturation index were 13/h (range 6-146), 96% (93-98%), and 18/h (6-98), respectively. Neurosurgical pathologies represented the most common underlying disorders with Arnold-Chiari malformation in four and ganglioglioma in three patients. Other underlying disorders were Prader-Willi syndrome (N=3), achondroplasia (N=2), and Down syndrome, with one patient having an achondroplasia and a Down syndrome. The remaining six patients had other genetic diseases. The most common investigation was brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Individualized management with neurosurgery and/or chemotherapy, continuous positive airway pressure (in two patients having associated obstructive events), or noninvasive ventilation resulted in an improvement in CSA and the clinical presentation in 11 patients.CSA is rare in children >1 year of age. Underlying disorders are dominated by neurosurgical disorders. Individualized management is able to improve CSA and the clinical condition in most patients.


Amaddeo A.,Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit | Amaddeo A.,University of Paris Descartes | Amaddeo A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Frapin A.,Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2016

Use of long-term non-invasive ventilation is increasing exponentially worldwide in children of all ages. The treatment entails delivery of ventilatory assistance through a non-invasive interface. Indications for use of non-invasive ventilation include conditions that affect normal respiratory balance (eg, those associated with dysfunction of the central drive or respiratory muscles) and disorders characterised by an increase in respiratory load (eg, obstructive airway or lung diseases). The type of non-invasive ventilation used depends on the pathophysiological features of the respiratory failure. For example, non-invasive ventilation will need to either replace central drive if the disorder is characterised by an abnormal central drive or substitute for the respiratory muscles if the condition is associated with respiratory muscle weakness. Non-invasive ventilation might also need to unload the respiratory muscles in case of an increase in respiratory load, as seen in upper airway obstruction and some lung diseases. Technical aspects are also important when choosing non-invasive ventilation-eg, appropriate interface and device. The great heterogeneity of disorders, age ranges of affected children, prognoses, and outcomes of patients needing long-term non-invasive ventilation underline the need for management by skilled multidisciplinary centres with technical competence in paediatric non-invasive ventilation and expertise in sleep studies and therapeutic education. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit and University of Paris Descartes
Type: Review | Journal: The Lancet. Respiratory medicine | Year: 2016

Use of long-term non-invasive ventilation is increasing exponentially worldwide in children of all ages. The treatment entails delivery of ventilatory assistance through a non-invasive interface. Indications for use of non-invasive ventilation include conditions that affect normal respiratory balance (eg, those associated with dysfunction of the central drive or respiratory muscles) and disorders characterised by an increase in respiratory load (eg, obstructive airway or lung diseases). The type of non-invasive ventilation used depends on the pathophysiological features of the respiratory failure. For example, non-invasive ventilation will need to either replace central drive if the disorder is characterised by an abnormal central drive or substitute for the respiratory muscles if the condition is associated with respiratory muscle weakness. Non-invasive ventilation might also need to unload the respiratory muscles in case of an increase in respiratory load, as seen in upper airway obstruction and some lung diseases. Technical aspects are also important when choosing non-invasive ventilation-eg, appropriate interface and device. The great heterogeneity of disorders, age ranges of affected children, prognoses, and outcomes of patients needing long-term non-invasive ventilation underline the need for management by skilled multidisciplinary centres with technical competence in paediatric non-invasive ventilation and expertise in sleep studies and therapeutic education.


PubMed | Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit and Cidelec
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine | Year: 2016

The recognition and characterization of respiratory events is crucial when interpreting sleep studies. The aim of the study was to validate the Sleep recordings of 20 children with a median age of 7.5 (0.5-16.5) years were analyzed. Scoring of apneas according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines using nasal pressure, oronasal thermal sensor and respiratory efforts by means of respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP), was compared to a scoring using the The percentage of sleep time recording without artifacts was 97%, 97%, 87%, 65%, and 98% for the respiratory flow and SSP from the The


PubMed | Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric pulmonology | Year: 2016

Long term noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are increasingly used in children but limited information is available on the criteria and conditions leading to the initiation of these treatments. The aim of the study is to describe the objective overnight respiratory parameters and clinical situations that led to the initiation of CPAP/NIV in a pediatric NIV unit.Retrospective analysis of the data of all the children discharged on home CPAP/NIV over a 1 year period.Seventy-six patients were started on CPAP (n=64) or NIV (n=12). CPAP/NIV was initiated because of CPAP/NIV weaning failure (Acute group) in 15 patients. None of these patients had an overnight gas exchange or sleep study before CPAP/NIV initiation. In 18 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated on abnormal nocturnal gas exchange alone (Subacute group). These patients had a median of three of the following five overnight gas exchange abnormalities: minimal pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) <90%, maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) >50mmHg, time spent with SpO2 <90% or PtcCO2 >50mmHg 2% of recording time, oxygen desaturation index >1.4/hr. In the last 43 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated after an abnormal sleep study (Chronic group) on a mean of four of the aforementioned criteria and an apnea-hypopnea index >10/hr.In clinical practice, CPAP/NIV was initiated in an acute, subacute and chronic setting with most patients having an association of several abnormal gas exchange or sleep study parameters. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of CPAP/NIV according to the clinical situation and initiation criteria. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:968-974. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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