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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Leach J.L.,University of Cincinnati | Holland S.K.,University of Cincinnati | Holland S.K.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium
Pediatric Radiology | Year: 2010

Functional MRI has become a critical research tool for evaluating brain function and developmental trajectories in children. Its clinical use in children is becoming more common. This presentation will review the basic underlying physiologic and technical aspects of fMRI, review research applications that have direct clinical relevance, and outline the current clinical uses of this technology. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Wilke M.,University of Tubingen | Wilke M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Rose D.F.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Holland S.K.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Leach J.L.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n=10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n=401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Allendorfer J.B.,University of Cincinnati | Storrs J.M.,University of Cincinnati | Szaflarski J.P.,University of Cincinnati | Szaflarski J.P.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Purpose: In this study, we examine whether an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol called intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the affected left hemisphere leads to changes in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected in 8 aphasic stroke patients before and after 10 daily iTBS treatments. Alignment of structural and DTI data and derivation of diffusion index maps were performed using Analysis of Functional NeuroImages software followed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics using FMRIB Software Library. Paired t-tests were performed to compare pre- to post-rTMS changes in FA. Results: There were significant (p < 0.001) left-hemispheric FA increases near the inferior and superior frontal gyri and anterior corpus callosum. FA also increased in the right midbrain and bilaterally near temporal, parietal and posterior cingulate regions. FA decreased bilaterally near the fusiform gyrus and in left cerebellum. Conclusions: Overall, left-hemispheric regions that showed increased FA corresponded to areas previously shown to have increases in fMRI language activation after iTBS. The increased white matter integrity near the stimulation sites may reflect improvements in cortical function mediated by excitatory rTMS through its ability to facilitate synaptic connections. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Donnelly K.M.,University of Cincinnati | Allendorfer J.B.,University of Cincinnati | Szaflarski J.P.,University of Cincinnati | Szaflarski J.P.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy adults demonstrate involvement of a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions during a variety of semantic processing tasks. While these areas are believed to be fundamental to semantic processing, it is unclear if task performance is correlated with differential recruitment of these or other brain regions. The objective of this study was to identify the structures underlying improved accuracy on a semantic decision task. We also investigated whether extra-scanner performance on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), neuropsychological measures of semantic retrieval, is correlated with specific areas of activation during the semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) fMRI task. Fifty-two healthy, right-handed individuals performed a block-design SDTD task. Regression analyses revealed that increased performance on this task was associated with activation in the right inferior parietal lobule. Higher SFT performance resulted in greater recruitment of right frontal regions; improved performance on BNT was associated with more widespread activation in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex bilaterally, although this activation appeared to be stronger in the right hemisphere. Overall, our results suggest that improved performance on both intra- and extra-scanner measures of semantic processing are associated with increased recruitment of right hemispheric regions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Yuan W.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Yuan W.,University of Cincinnati | Wade S.L.,University of Cincinnati | Wade S.L.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2015

The traumatic biomechanical forces associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) typically impart diffuse, as opposed to focal, brain injury potentially disrupting the structural connectivity between neural networks. Graph theoretical analysis using diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess injury-related differences in structural connectivity between 23 children (age 11-16 years) with mTBI and 20 age-matched children with isolated orthopedic injuries (OI) scanned within 96 h postinjury. The distribution of hub regions and the associations between alterations in regional network measures and symptom burden, as assessed by the postconcussion symptom scale score (PCSS), were also examined. In comparison to the OI group, the mTBI group was found to have significantly higher small-worldness (P<0.0001), higher normalized clustering coefficients (P<0.0001), higher normalized characteristic path length (P=0.007), higher modularity (P=0.0005), and lower global efficiency (P<0.0001). A series of hub regions in the mTBI group were found to have significant alterations in regional network measures including nodal degree, nodal clustering coefficient, and nodal between-ness centrality. Correlation analysis showed that PCSS total score acquired at the time of imaging was significantly associated with the nodal degree of two hubs, the superior frontal gyrus at orbital section and the middle frontal gyrus. These findings provide new evidence of acute white matter alteration at both global and regional network level following mTBI in children furthering our understanding of underlying mechanisms of acute neurological insult associated with mTBI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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