Cincinnati, OH, United States
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Deshpande A.K.,Hofstra University | Tan L.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Research Foundation | Lu L.J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Research Foundation | Lu L.J.,University of Cincinnati | And 2 more authors.
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2016

Objectives: Despite the positive effects of cochlear implantation, postimplant variability in speech perception and oral language outcomes is still difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of postimplant speech perception and oral language performance in children with hearing loss who receive a cochlear implant. The authors hypothesized positive correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in brain regions related to auditory language processing and attention and scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Early Speech Perception Test for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children (ESP), in children with congenital hearing loss. Design: Eleven children with congenital hearing loss were recruited for the present study based on referral for clinical MRI and other inclusion criteria. All participants were <24 months at fMRI scanning and <36 months at first implantation. A silent background fMRI acquisition method was performed to acquire fMRI during auditory stimulation. A voxel-based analysis technique was utilized to generate z maps showing significant contrast in brain activation between auditory stimulation conditions (spoken narratives and narrow band noise). CELF-P2 and ESP were administered 2 years after implantation. Because most participants reached a ceiling on ESP, a voxel-wise regression analysis was performed between preimplant fMRI activation and postimplant CELF-P2 scores alone. Age at implantation and preimplant hearing thresholds were controlled in this regression analysis. Results: Four brain regions were found to be significantly correlated with CELF-P2 scores. These clusters of positive correlation encompassed the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, areas in the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus. For the story versus silence contrast, CELF-P2 core language score demonstrated significant positive correlation with activation in the right angular gyrus (r = 0.95), left medial frontal gyrus (r = 0.94), and left cingulate gyrus (r = 0.96). For the narrow band noise versus silence contrast, the CELF-P2 core language score exhibited significant positive correlation with activation in the left angular gyrus (r = 0.89; for all clusters, corrected p < 0.05). Conclusions: Four brain regions related to language function and attention were identified that correlated with CELF-P2. Children with better oral language performance postimplant displayed greater activation in these regions preimplant. The results suggest that despite auditory deprivation, these regions are more receptive to gains in oral language development performance of children with hearing loss who receive early intervention via cochlear implantation. The present study suggests that oral language outcome following cochlear implant may be predicted by preimplant fMRI with auditory stimulation using natural speech. © Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium and New York University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Parent-child reading is widely advocated to promote cognitive development, including in recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics to begin this practice at birth. Although parent-child reading has been shown in behavioral studies to improve oral language and print concepts, quantifiable effects on the brain have not been previously studied. Our study used blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between home reading environment and brain activity during a story listening task in a sample of preschool-age children. We hypothesized that while listening to stories, children with greater home reading exposure would exhibit higher activation of left-sided brain regions involved with semantic processing (extraction of meaning).Nineteen 3- to 5-year-old children were selected from a longitudinal study of normal brain development. All completed blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging using an age-appropriate story listening task, where narrative alternated with tones. We performed a series of whole-brain regression analyses applying composite, subscale, and individual reading-related items from the validated StimQ-P measure of home cognitive environment as explanatory variables for neural activation.Higher reading exposure (StimQ-P Reading subscale score) was positively correlated (P < .05, corrected) with neural activation in the left-sided parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex, a hub region supporting semantic language processing, controlling for household income.In preschool children listening to stories, greater home reading exposure is positively associated with activation of brain areas supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension, controlling for household income. These neural biomarkers may help inform eco-bio-developmental models of emergent literacy.


Horowitz-Kraus T.,Literacy Discovery Center | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Hutton J.S.,Literacy Discovery Center
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2015

The ability to comprehend language is uniquely human. Behavioural and neuroimaging data reinforce the importance of intact oral language as foundational for the establishment of proficient reading. However, proficient reading is achieved not only via intact biological systems, but also a stimulating Home Literacy Environment. Conclusion Behavioural and neuroimaging correlates for linguistic ability and literacy exposure support the engagement of neural circuits related to reading acquisition. © 2015 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Horowitz-Kraus T.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Holland S.K.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center
Annals of Dyslexia | Year: 2015

The Reading Acceleration Program is a computerized program that improves reading and the activation of the error-detection mechanism in individuals with reading difficulty (RD) and typical readers (TRs). The current study aims to find the neural correlates for this effect in English-speaking 8–12-year-old children with RD and TRs using a functional connectivity analysis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected during a lexical decision task before and after 4 weeks of training with the program, together with reading and executive functions measures. Results indicated improvement in reading, visual attention, and speed of processing in children with RD. Following training, greater functional connectivity was observed between the left fusiform gyrus and the right anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and between the left fusiform gyrus and the left anterior cingulate cortex in TRs. The change in functional connectivity after training was correlated with increased behavioral scores for word reading and visual attention in both groups. The results support previous findings of improved monitoring and mental lexicon after training with the Reading Acceleration Program in children with RD and TRs. The differences in laterality of the anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and the presumable role of the cingulo-opercular control network in language processing are discussed. © 2015, The International Dyslexia Association.


Holland S.K.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Holland S.K.,University of Cincinnati | Altaye M.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Altaye M.,University of Cincinnati | And 7 more authors.
NeuroImage: Clinical | Year: 2014

Purpose To address the question of the safety of MRI for research in normal, healthy children. We examined MRI, neurocognitive and biometric data collected in a group of healthy, normally developing children who have participated in a 10 year longitudinal fMRI study. Materials and methods Thirty-one healthy children ranging in age from 5 to 7 years were enrolled between 2000 and 2002 and were tested yearly as part of a longitudinal study of normal language development. Twenty-eight of these children have completed multiple neuroimaging, neurocognitive and biometric exams. These children ranged in age from 5 to 18 years during the course of the study and were exposed to up to 10 annual MRI scans. Linear regression of the IQ (WISC-III) (Wechsler, 1991), executive function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al., 2002), and language (OWLS) (Carrow-Woolfolk, 1995) measures was performed against the number of years of exposure to MRI in the study. Body mass index (BMI) (Ogden et al., 2006) was also examined as a function of years and compared with normative values. Results The WISC-III Full Scale (FSIQ) in our longitudinal cohort was higher than the average at baseline. There was no significant change over time in mean FSIQ p = 0.80, OWLS p = 0.16, or BRIEF p = 0.67. Similarly, over 10 years there were no significant changes in the Coding subtest of WISC III and height and body mass index did not deviate from norms (50th percentile). Conclusions Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18 years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children. © 2014 The Authors.


Sun M.,MLC 2016 | Yuan W.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Hertzler D.A.,MLC 2016 | Cancelliere A.,MLC 2016 | And 2 more authors.
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2012

Purpose: To compare a pediatric population diagnosed with benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) to normal age-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques. Methods: We retrospectivelyidentified 17 BEH patients by specific clinical and neuroimaging criteria. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values obtained from DTI scans were compared to a population of age-matched controls andgroup differences were examined by mixed model analysis. A longitudinal comparison was completed on a subset that underwent multiple scans (n = 8). Results: In the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC), six of 15 BEH children had an FA value above the upper limit of 95% prediction interval, nine of 15 BEH children had MD values below the lower limit of 95% prediction interval. A similar trend applied to the other regions of interest (ROIs): splenium of the corpus callosum (sCC), ALIC, and PLIC. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in FA within the gCC, sCC, and PLIC and in MD within the sCC between BEH patients and controls given (P = 0.05). No statistical differences were identified at any ROIs at the later scans. Conclusions: We found a significant increase in FA and decrease in MD in children with BEH compared with normal children in specific white matter (WM) ROIs, notably in the gCC and sCC; furthermore, in longitudinal comparison, DTI parameters normalized over time. The current study further demonstrates the ability of DTI to distinguish between subtle diffusion changes in periventricular white matter andestablishes preliminary objective radiographic parameters for watchful observation of patients with BEH. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Hutton J.S.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium | Horowitz-Kraus T.,Communication science Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parent-child reading is widely advocated to promote cognitive development, including in recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics to begin this practice at birth. Although parent-child reading has been shown in behavioral studies to improve oral language and print concepts, quantifiable effects on the brain have not been previously studied. Our study used blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between home reading environment and brain activity during a story listening task in a sample of preschool-age children. We hypothesized that while listening to stories, children with greater home reading exposure would exhibit higher activation of left-sided brain regions involved with semantic processing (extraction of meaning). METHODS: Nineteen 3-to 5-year-old children were selected from a longitudinal study of normal brain development. All completed blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging using an age-appropriate story listening task, where narrative alternated with tones. We performed a series of whole-brain regression analyses applying composite, subscale, and individual reading-related items from the validated StimQ-P measure of home cognitive environment as explanatory variables for neural activation. RESULTS: Higher reading exposure (StimQ-P Reading subscale score) was positively correlated (P <.05, corrected) with neural activation in the left-sided parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex, a "hub" region supporting semantic language processing, controlling for household income. CONCLUSIONS: In preschool children listening to stories, greater home reading exposure is positively associated with activation of brain areas supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension, controlling for household income. These neural biomarkers may help inform eco-bio-developmental models of emergent literacy. © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


PubMed | University of Cincinnati, Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium and University of Arizona
Type: | Journal: Brain research | Year: 2014

The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders.


PubMed | Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology | Year: 2013

Hydrocephalus is a severe pathologic condition in which WM damage is a major factor associated with poor outcomes. The goal of the study was to investigate tract-based WM connectivity and DTI measurements in children with hydrocephalus by using the probabilistic diffusion tractography method.Twelve children with hydrocephalus and 16 age-matched controls were included in the study. Probabilistic diffusion tractography was conducted to generate tract-based connectivity distribution and DTI measures for the genu of the corpus callosum and the connectivity index. Tract-based summary measurements, including the connectivity index and DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity), were calculated and compared between the 2 study groups.Tract-based summary measurement showed a higher percentage of voxels with lower normalized connectivity index values in the WM tracts in children with hydrocephalus. In the genu of the corpus callosum, the left midsegment of the corticospinal tract, and the right midsegment of the corticospinal tract, the normalized connectivity index value in children with hydrocephalus was found to be significantly lower (P < .05, corrected). The tract-based DTI measures showed that the children with hydrocephalus had significantly higher mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum, left midsegment of the corticospinal tract, and right midsegment of corticospinal tract and lower fractional anisotropy in the genu of the corpus callosum (P < .05, corrected).The analysis of WM connectivity showed that the probabilistic diffusion tractography method is a sensitive tool to detect the decreased continuity in WM tracts that are under the direct influence of mechanical distortion and increased intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus. This voxel-based connectivity method can provide quantitative information complementary to the standard DTI summary measures.


PubMed | Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium, University of Alabama at Birmingham and University of Arizona
Type: | Journal: NeuroImage. Clinical | Year: 2014

To address the question of the safety of MRI for research in normal, healthy children. We examined MRI, neurocognitive and biometric data collected in a group of healthy, normally developing children who have participated in a 10year longitudinal fMRI study.Thirty-one healthy children ranging in age from 5 to 7years were enrolled between 2000 and 2002 and were tested yearly as part of a longitudinal study of normal language development. Twenty-eight of these children have completed multiple neuroimaging, neurocognitive and biometric exams. These children ranged in age from 5 to 18years during the course of the study and were exposed to up to 10 annual MRI scans. Linear regression of the IQ (WISC-III) (Wechsler, 1991), executive function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al., 2002), and language (OWLS) (Carrow-Woolfolk, 1995) measures was performed against the number of years of exposure to MRI in the study. Body mass index (BMI) (Ogden et al., 2006) was also examined as a function of years and compared with normative values.The WISC-III Full Scale (FSIQ) in our longitudinal cohort was higher than the average at baseline. There was no significant change over time in mean FSIQ p=0.80, OWLS p=0.16, or BRIEF p=0.67. Similarly, over 10years there were no significant changes in the Coding subtest of WISC III and height and body mass index did not deviate from norms (50th percentile).Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children.

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