Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit

Petah Tikvah, Israel

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit

Petah Tikvah, Israel
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Averbuch D.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Koplewitz B.Z.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Simckes A.M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Engelhard D.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Engelhard D.,Monash University
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent severe bacterial infection in infants. Up to 31% of infants with UTI have bacteremia. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all infants aged 0-2 months who were managed in our hospital with UTI during a 1-year period. Those with bacteremia were compared with those without bacteremia, according to the following variables: ethnicity, age, gender, white blood cell and polymorphonuclear counts, C-reactive protein, urinalysis and blood creatinine values as related to age-appropriate norms, imaging and outcome. RESULTS: We identified 81 infants with 82 episodes of UTI. Most occurred in males (72.8%) and 35 (42.7%) were in infants of non-Jewish origin. In 14/81 (17.3%) of episodes, Escherichia coli was cultured from blood. In multivariate analysis, increased blood creatinine levels (P = 0.004) and non-Jewish origin (P = 0.006) were associated with bacteremia. Time to defervescence was significantly longer in bacteremic versus nonbacteremic children (P = 0.018). Duration of hospitalization was longer in bacteremic infants - 10 (7-17) days in bacteremic versus 7 (1-14) days in nonbacteremic children (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In infants aged 0-2 months with UTI, increased blood creatinine value at admission was associated with bacteremia. This value provides an additional clue on admission, independent of personal judgment, to help identify infants at higher risk for bacteremia, prolonged hospitalization and possible complications. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

PubMed | Emek Medical Center, Bar - Ilan University, Infectious Diseases Unit, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Two parallel outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection occurred in 2014 in two geographical areas in Israel. In two medical centers in northern Israel and one medical center in Jerusalem, 102 patients (58 children, 47 adults) were diagnosed with brucellosis. Most patients (N = 76, 72%) were Muslim Arabs, 28 (27%) were Druze, and one was Jewish. The source of infection was often traced to cheese from the Palestinian Authority. Biovar-1 was evident in 98% in northern Israel but only in 42% in Jerusalem. Most common manifestations were fever (82%) and osteoarticular symptoms (49%). The major differences between the geographic areas were ethnicity and duration until diagnosis. Compared with adults, children had higher rates of hospitalization (93% versus 64%, P = 0.001), osteoarticular symptoms (60% versus 36%, P = 0.05), elevated alanine aminotransferase (12% versus 0%, P = 0.01), and lower C-reactive protein (2.28 2.08 versus 5.57 6.3l mg/dL, P = 0.001). Two unrelated brucellosis outbreaks occurred in 2014 in two different geographic areas of Israel and were limited to sections of the Arab and Druze populations. Most of the demographic and clinical aspects of patients were not affected by geographic variability. Clinical and laboratory differences were found between children and adults emphasizing the nonuniformity of the disease in different age groups. Effective control of unpasteurized dairy foods, health education programs, and improved regional cooperation are required to control brucellosis in Israel.

Koren A.,Tel Aviv University | Koren A.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Tasher D.,Tel Aviv University | Tasher D.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The incidence and the clinical characteristics of neonatal herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infection in Israel are unknown. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of NHSV cases who were born between January 2001 and December 2007 in 5 medical centers located in central Israel. Cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes. In addition, parents of survivors were interviewed by telephone. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 22 cases of NHSV were identified (an incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 live births). Most patients (77.2%, 17 cases) manifested as skin, eye and/or mouth infection, 13.6% (3 cases) as localized central nervous system disease and 9.1% (2 cases) as disseminated disease. Most (76.4%) herpes viruses typed in our series were HSV-1. None of the mothers had documented intrapartum visible genital HSV lesions or a previous history of genital herpes. Ritual circumcision was the source of HSV-1 transmission in 7 infants (31.8% of cases). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NHSV infection in Israel was found to be similar to the lower part of the scale reported in the United States, however higher than the incidence reported in Canada or in Europe. Similar to more recent reports, our series demonstrates the shift toward the predominance of HSV-1 in NHSV infection. In addition, none of the mothers in our series had a previous history of genital herpes. This study emphasizes the need for awareness of HSV infection in Israeli neonates. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Cheng D.R.,Monash University | Crawford N.W.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Crawford N.W.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Crawford N.W.,University of Melbourne | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Recurrent benign 6 th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines.Case presentation: A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6 th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review.Conclusions: The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis. © 2012 Cheng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Stein M.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Stein M.,Tel Aviv University | Cohen R.,Maccabi Health Services | Bromberg M.,Israel Center for Diseases Control | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2012

Background: This study was performed during an era of partial vaccination with varicella vaccine in Israel to characterize ambulatory pediatric herpes zoster (HZ) cases in a population with partial varicella vaccination coverage. Methods: Data were collected from computerized databases of a population of 114,000 children. Records of children aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with HZ during 2006 to 2008 were reviewed by pediatric infectious diseases experts. Telephone interviews were done with a sample of the parents to get further clinical details. Results: Of 692 medical records reviewed, 450 cases were approved for analysis, and 77 interviews were conducted. Incidence of HZ was 130 of 100,000 person life-years. Peak incidence was detected in children aged 9-11 years (222/100,000 person life-years). Pain and fever accompanied 52% and 13% of episodes, respectively. Higher risk for HZ was found in children who had varicella during their first year of life (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 13.5[9.6-18.8]; P < 0.001), and in children who had varicella during the second year of life (relative risk = 2 [1.5-2.6]; P < 0.001). Vaccination was found to be protective against HZ (relative risk = 0.42 [0.33-0.55]; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The epidemiology of HZ seems to be changing in a population with partial varicella vaccination rate. Our results may suggest that children who contracted chicken pox in their first year of life may benefit from varicella vaccination. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

PubMed | Infectious Diseases Unit, Tel Aviv University, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit and Maccabi Health Services
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from skin and soft tissue infections in the community in Israel and to document the sensitivity patterns for commonly used antimicrobial agents.The susceptibilities of S. aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections in the community in Israel were reviewed to determine the appropriate empirical therapy for these infections.A total of 7221 isolates were collected during the period 2009-2012; 39% were from children (age 0-18 years). In children, S. aureus oxacillin resistance dropped from 8.4% to 3.8% (p=0.073). While inducible clindamycin resistance increased slightly from 20% to 25%, there was a prominent increase in constitutive clindamycin resistance from 0.1% to 26.8% (p=0.012). In adults, oxacillin resistance increased from 16% to 23% (p<0.001) and constitutive clindamycin resistance increased notably from 5% to 29% (p<0.001). These findings demonstrate a dramatic increase in clindamycin resistance among S. aureus isolates and suggest against the usage of clindamycin as empirical treatment for suspected S. aureus infections in Israel.Beta-lactam anti-staphylococcal agents may be given as empirical treatment for children, but should be considered according to risk factors for adults in Israel.

Rodriguez-Fanjul X.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Noguera A.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Vicente A.,University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Ensenat M.A.,University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2010

Exposure to varicella-zoster virus in utero or during the first months of life is the main risk factor for the development of herpes zoster (HZ) in healthy children. We report a case series of 16 infants and toddlers who presented with HZ after early exposure to varicella-zoster virus. Two patients had recurrences. Despite the severity of the rash in some cases, the benign course and the long-term good prognosis of HZ in healthy children is noteworthy. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Megged O.,Tel Aviv University | Shalit I.,Tel Aviv University | Yaniv I.,Tel Aviv University | Fisher S.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of the antibiotic lock technique (ALT) in conjunction with systemic antibiotics for the salvage of long-term central venous catheter (CVC)-associated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children. A retrospective study of children with CVC-associated CONS BSIs treated with systemic vancomycin and ALT with vancomycin was carried out. The primary outcome was the immediate and 3-month success rate of salvage of the CVC. During the study period, 23 patients had persistent CONS bacteremia and were treated with ALT and systemic vancomycin. Of the 23 vancomycin lock treatments, eight catheters were removed during the acute event because of persistent bacteremia, six had relapse of CONS bacteremia within 30 days, and two had relapse within 90 days. Only seven CVCs (30%) were salvaged. Long-term transcutaneous CVCs (Hickman CVCs) were significantly associated with higher salvage rates than implantable ports (75% vs. 18%, P=0.05). ALT with vancomycin for CVC-associated bacteremia has a limited long-term effectiveness, especially with implantable ports. Larger prospective studies are needed for the long-term evaluation of this technique. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Megged O.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Stein J.,Tel Aviv University | Ben-Meir D.,Tel Aviv University | Shulman L.M.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: BK-virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (BK-HC) is a serious complication in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data of BK-HC in children undergoing HSCT are still limited. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcome of children with BK-HC after HSCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all children aged 0 to 20 years, who underwent HSCT at Schneider Children's Medical Center between 2000 and 2008 and were diagnosed with BK-HC, were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and microbiological data. Patients in whom BK-HC had developed were compared with patients in whom it did not. RESULTS: Seventeen children (5.3%) acquired BK-HC at 10 to 180 days after HSCT (mean, 57 d); 9 had grade 3 to 4 disease. Bleeding lasted for 4 to 42 days (mean, 14). All patients but 1, who died of unrelated causes, recovered. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 91 months (mean, 35 months). Acute myeloid leukemia, use of cyclophosphamide in the conditioning regimen, unrelated donor, and older age were associated with the development of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of BK-HC in children after HSCT is relatively low. Its rate of successful resolution is very high. Further prospective studies are required to determine optimal therapy. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Berezin E.N.,Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit | Solorzano F.,Hospital Of Pediatria Centro Medico Nacional Siglo Xxi
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

In order to review the epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (PICUs and NICUs) of Latin America a systematic search of PubMed and targeted search of SciELO was performed to identify relevant articles published since 2005. Independent cohort data indicated that overall infection rates were higher in Latin American PICUs and NICUs versus developed countries (range, 5%-37% vs 6%-15%, respectively). Approximately one third of Latin American patients with an acquired PICU or NICU infection died, and crude mortality was higher among extremely low-birth-weight infants and those with an infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In studies reporting > 100 isolates, the frequency of Gram-negative pathogens varied from 31% (Colombia) to 63% (Mexico), with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli the predominant pathogens in almost all countries, and Acinetobacter spp. and Serratia spp. isolated sporadically. The activity of quinolones and third-generation cephalosporins against P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteria was seriously compromised, coincident with a high prevalence of circulating extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Furthermore, we identified two observational studies conducted in Chile nd Brazil reporting infections by P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in PICUs, demonstrating resistance to carbapenems, and two outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in Colombia and Brazil. The endemicity of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections in Latin American PICUs and NICUs is punctuated by intermittent clonal outbreaks. The problem may be alleviated by ensuring ICUs are less crowded, increasing staffing levels of better-trained health care personnel, and implementing antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance programs. © 2014 Berezin et al.

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