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Cuello-Garcia C.A.,McMaster University | Cuello-Garcia C.A.,Monterrey Institute of Technology | Brozek J.L.,McMaster University | Fiocchi A.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background Allergic diseases are considered a health burden because of their high and constantly increasing prevalence, high direct and indirect costs, and undesirable effects on quality of life. Probiotics have been suggested as an intervention to prevent allergic diseases. Objective We sought to synthesize the evidence supporting use of probiotics for the prevention of allergies and inform World Allergy Organization guidelines on probiotic use. Methods We performed a systematic review of randomized trials assessing the effects of any probiotic administered to pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, and/or infants. Results Of 2403 articles published until December 2014 identified in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, 29 studies fulfilled a priori specified inclusion criteria for the analyses. Probiotics reduced the risk of eczema when used by women during the last trimester of pregnancy (relative risk [RR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.84), when used by breast-feeding mothers (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.47-0.69), or when given to infants (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.94). Evidence did not support an effect on other allergies, nutrition status, or incidence of adverse effects. The certainty in the evidence according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Evaluation approach is low or very low because of the risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision of results, and indirectness of available research. Conclusion Probiotics used by pregnant women or breast-feeding mothers and/or given to infants reduced the risk of eczema in infants; however, the certainty in the evidence is low. No effect was observed for the prevention of other allergic conditions. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source


Nusmeier A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Cecchetti C.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu | Blohm M.,Universitatskinderklinik Hamburg Eppendorfs | Lehman R.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: To define near-normal values of extravascular lung water indexed to body weight in children. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter observational study. SETTING: Medical/surgical PICUs of 5 multinational hospitals. PATIENTS: Fifty-eight children with a median age of 4 years (range 1 month to 17 year) with heterogeneous PICU admission diagnoses were included. Extravascular lung water measurements from these children were collected after resolution of their illness. Obtained values were indexed to actual body weight and height and subsequently related to age. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Extravascular lung water indexed to body weight correlated with age (r = 0.7) and could be categorized in three-age groups consisting of significantly different median extravascular lung water indexed to body weight values (5th-95th percentile): less than 1 year, 9-29 mL/kg; 1-5 years, 7-25 mL/kg; and 5-17 years, 5-13 mL/kg. Extravascular lung water indexed to height did not correlate to age and resulted in an age-independent near-normal value of less than 315 mL/m. CONCLUSIONS: Younger children have higher values of extravascular lung water indexed to actual body weight. Age categorized near-normal values of extravascular lung water indexed to body weight are presented for possible clinical use. Furthermore, we suggest to index extravascular lung water to height, which seems to be age independent. Copyright © 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. Source


Orzalesi M.,Foundation Maruzza Lefebvre dOvidio Onlus | Aite L.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2011

The psycho-relational problems in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) are complex and multifaceted and have only recently been properly addressed. Some specific factors make communication in NICU particularly problematic; the baby's clinical condition, the emotional and working conditions of the medical staff, the emotional state of the parents and the setting of the NICU and the interaction of multiple professional figures with the parents. The purpose of communication in NICUs is not only to inform parents of their child's clinical condition; the medical and nursing staff must also educate and guide parents so that they can actively participate in caring for their child and become true "partners" with the medical team in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the staff must also use their communication skills to understand and contain the anxieties and emotions of parents, supporting and comforting them through the most critical moments of their child's illness and possibly even bereavement. Given the number and complexity of the interpersonal exchanges that take place in the NICU, the risk of misunderstanding, misinterpretation and conflict is high. One could say that the interpersonal aspect is an area where the risk of iatrogenesis is elevated. It is recognized that poor staff-family interactions not only reflect negatively on the baby's care and are a source of distress and discontent for the parents, but are also a major cause of medico-legal litigation and increase the incidence of "burnout". Therefore, specific training of the staff in communication is essential if the optimal results, obtained through modern technology, are not to be invalidated. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Cecchetto G.,University of Padua | Ferrari A.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | Bernini G.,Pediatric Hospital Meyer | Alaggio R.,University of Padua | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors (SCST) are rare in childhood and include a variety of neoplasms with different clinical features and biologic behavior. Aim of the analysis was to report the clinical findings and treatment results of a series of patients with SCST of the ovary, registered in a multi-institutional Italian network on rare tumors in children and adolescent between 2000 and 2009. Methods: Data on 23 patients, 5-176 months old, from 13 Centers were reviewed. All patients were grouped on the basis of the results of the first surgical approach, according to the Children Oncology Group staging system. A cisplatin based chemotherapy was recommended in patients with a localized disease, who had undergone an incomplete excision/initial biopsy, and in case of metastatic spread. Results: A frequent symptom was abdominal pain; 9/23 cases had signs of hormonal secretion and two patients were hospitalized for acute pain following ovarian torsion. Twelve patients had a Juvenile-Granulosa Cell tumor, six a Sertoli-Leydig Cell tumor, three a Fibrothecoma, and two a Sclerosing-Stromal tumor. Twenty-one patients maintained the complete remission (follow-up: 9-91 months), 2 with a ST II Sertoli-Leydig Cell tumor relapsed and one of them died. Immonohistochemical studies could be done in 10 cases. Conclusions: Completeness of resection and histology were important prognostic factors; in our series the Sertoli-Leydig Cell tumor was the most aggressive variety. Hormonal signs (precocious puberty, telarca, menarche) were common in younger patients and led to an early diagnosis. Cisplatin based chemotherapy seemed to be effective for locally advanced tumors. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Vollono C.,Neurosciences and Orthopedics Catholic University | Rinalduzzi S.,Neurology Unit | Miliucci R.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu | Vigevano F.,Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesu | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2014

Background and purpose: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disease characterized by recurrent paroxysmal attacks of hemiplegia. The aim of the study was to assess the recovery cycle of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in a group of AHC patients. Methods: Seven AHC patients and 10 control age-matched subjects (CS) were recruited. Right and left median nerve SEPs were recorded. The somatosensory system excitability was assessed by calculating the SEP changes after paired electrical stimuli. All patients were studied during the interictal phase, whilst four patients were studied also during the ictal phase. Results: In AHC patients during the interictal phase, the amplitudes of the cervical N13 and of the cortical N20, P24 and N30 responses showed a faster recovery than in CS. In AHC patients during the ictal phase, the cortical N20 recovery cycle was prolonged compared with the interictal phase. Conclusions: A shortened SEP recovery cycle in AHC during the interictal phase suggests multilevel somatosensory system hyperexcitability in AHC. A partial recovery of this phenomenon during the ictal phase possibly reflects a functional reset of the somatosensory system. Overall, there is a disinhibition of the somatosensory system in AHC, a functional change of brain function associated with a possible involvement of the Na+/K+ channels. This abnormality and its partial recovery during the attacks might be linked to the pathophysiological and genetic mechanisms of the disease. © 2014 EAN. Source

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