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Abdel-Moneim A.S.,Taif University | Abdel-Moneim A.S.,Beni Suef University | Kamel M.M.,Taif University | Kamel M.M.,Cairo University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently discovered in children with respiratory distress and/or diarrhea. To our knowledge, no previous study has reported the existence of bocavirus in Saudi Arabia. Swabs samples from 80 children with respiratory tract infections were examined for the presence of HBoV. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used as a sensitive method to detect the HBoV. Direct gene sequencing was used to determine the genotype of the detected virus isolates. HBoV was detected in 22.5% of the examined patients. The NP1 partial gene sequence from all patients showed that the circulated strains were related to HBoV-1 genotype. Most of HBoV infected patients showed evidence of mixed coinfection with other viral pathogens. The current study clearly demonstrated that genetically conserved HBoV1 circulates in Saudi Arabia. Interestingly, most of the HBoV1 infected cases were associated with high rates of co-infections with other viruses. © 2013 Abdel-Moneim et al.


Abdalla A.,Pediatric Hospital | Fathy A.,Pediatric Hospital | Megahed A.,Pediatric Hospital
Skeletal Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter for detection of vertebral bone marrow infiltration in children with Gaucher's disease type I and III. Material and methods: Prospective study was conducted on 20 infants and children (14 M, 6 F; aged 31-61 months; mean age 46 months) with Gaucher's disease type I (n = 13) and III (n = 7), and 20 age and sex matched controls. They underwent routine and diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the lumbar spine using echo planar imaging with b value of 0, 500 and 1000 sec/mm2. The ADC value of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow was compared in different phenotypes and genotypes; and correlated with bone marrow burden score (BMB), chitotriosidase level, hemoglobin and platelet count. Results: The mean ADC value of marrow infiltration in patients with Gaucher's disease (0.39 ± 0.06 × 10-3 mm2/s) was significantly lower (P = 0.001) than that of vertebral bone marrow in controls (0.54 ± 0.05 × 10-3 mm2/s). The cut-off ADC value used to differentiate patients with Gaucher's disease from controls was (0.47 × 10-3 mm2/s); with sensitivity of 95 %; specificity of 95 % and area under the curve of 0.986. The L444P/L444P mutation had significantly lower ADC value compared to other mutations (P = 0.001). The mean ADC value of the bone marrow negatively correlated with BMB (r = -0.831; P = 0.001), and biomarkers of disease activity including chitotriosidase (r = -0.542; P = 0.014), hemoglobin (r = -0.727; P = 0.001) and platelets (r = -0.698; P = 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that there is significant difference in the ADC value of vertebral bone marrow between children with Gaucher's disease and controls, and the ADC value correlated well with genotyping and some biomarkers of disease activity. © 2012 ISS.


Lopez-Alarcon M.,Pediatric Hospital | Martinez-Coronado A.,Pediatric Hospital | Velarde-Castro O.,Pediatric Hospital | Rendon-Macias E.,Pediatric Hospital | Fernandez J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2011

Background and Aims: Supplementation with n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) appears to affect body weight, adipokines, and insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals. However, it is unclear whether the effect on IR is independent of weight loss and if the same effect is observed in children. We undertook this study to analyze the effect of supplementation with n3-LCPUFA on adipokine concentration and IR of prepubertal and pubertal children, independent of weight loss. Methods: Included were 76 children, 9- to 18-years of age. Subjects were overweight and insulin resistant, but otherwise healthy. They were randomly assigned to receive 900 mg n3-LCPUFA daily (Omega III, Salmon Oil, GNLD) or placebo for 1 month. No dietary intervention was conducted. Dietary information, anthropometry, and blood samples to measure adipokines and IR were obtained at baseline. Anthropometry and measurement of biochemical parameters were repeated at the end of follow-up. For analysis, children were stratified by treatment (placebo and n3-FA) and according to changes in body weight (increase, decrease, unchanged). Results: Twenty seven children received placebo and 49 received the n3-LCPUFA. Despite no differences at baseline, only the n3-FA group decreased fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (p <0.010). Significant differences between groups were observed for changes in TNF-α, leptin and adiponectin after supplementation (p <0.050). At the end of the 1-month period, 16 children lost weight and 27 children gained weight. Multiple analysis demonstrated that supplementation with n3-LCPUFA decreased HOMA-IR by 15% after adjusting for puberty, treatment adherence, changes in adipokines, and weight loss. Interaction between supplementation and weight loss was significant (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Supplementation with n3-LCPUFA is a potential beneficial tool for obese at-risk children. © 2011 IMSS.


Martinez-Lopez J.L.E.,Federico Gomez Childrens Hospital of Mexico | Martinez-Lopez J.L.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Torres J.,Pediatric Hospital | Camorlinga-Ponce M.,Pediatric Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2014

Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Baena-Cagnani C.E.,Catholic University of Córdoba | Baena-Cagnani C.E.,LIBRA Foundation | Teijeiro A.,Catholic University of Córdoba | Teijeiro A.,Pediatric Hospital | Canonica G.W.,University of Genoa
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Allergic asthma, which is the most frequent asthma phenotype, is mainly a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by elevated serum IgE levels and specific-IgE against common allergens. A significant group of asthmatic children have uncontrolled moderate/severe symptoms despite the use of medium/high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with another controller. Asthma guidelines suggest omalizumab as an add-on therapy in these children and recent evidence has shown the efficacy and safety of this mAb against IgE. Recent findings Asthma cannot be cured and current available treatments are unable to modify the natural course of the disease. Recent studies have shown positive effects of omalizumab in reducing airway inflammation and remodelling. Herein, a 4-year follow-up of a group of children with moderate/severe uncontrolled asthma taking part in a randomized double blind placebo control with omalizumab is shown. After discontinuation of anti-IgE, children were followed up for 4 years. During the first 3 years of follow-up, they were completely free of asthma symptoms without any need of ICS or rescue medication. Summary The new evidence published and the clinical observation described herein generate the hypothesis that treatment with omalizumab could potentially modify the natural course of asthma. However, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Castro-Manrreza M.E.,Oncology Research Unit | Castro-Manrreza M.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mayani H.,Oncology Hospital | Monroy-Garcia A.,Oncology Research Unit | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2014

Bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have immunosuppressive properties and have been used in cell therapies as immune regulators for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease. We have previously characterized several biological properties of MSCs from placenta (PL) and umbilical cord blood (UCB), and compared them to those of BM - the gold standard. In the present study, we have compared MSCs from BM, UCB, and PL in terms of their immunosuppressive properties against lymphoid cell populations enriched for CD3+ T cells. Our results confirm the immunosuppressive potential of BM-MSCs, and demonstrate that MSCs from UCB and, to a lesser extent PL, also have immunosuppressive potential. In contrast to PL-MSCs, BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8 + activated T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner. Such a reduced proliferation in cell cocultures correlated with upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 on MSCs and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated Ag-4 (CTLA-4) on T cells, and increased production of interferon-γ, interleukin-10, and prostaglandin E2. Importantly, and in contrast to PL-MSCs, both BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs favored the generation of T-cell subsets displaying a regulatory phenotype CD4+CD25+CTLA-4+. Our results indicate that, besides BM-MSCs, UCB-MSCs might be a potent and reliable candidate for future therapeutic applications. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Pacifico L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Nobili V.,Pediatric Hospital | Anania C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Verdecchia P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Chiesa C.,National Research Council Italy
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in he absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.


Matos H.,Pediatric Hospital | Trindade A.,New University of Lisbon | Noruegas M.J.,Pediatric Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objectives: The objective of this study was to obtain a normal value for liver shear wave velocities (SWVs) in healthy paediatric patients and to investigate variations concerning age, sex, and different approaches, depths, and lobes of measurements.Methods: A total of 150 healthy children (2 months-17 years) were examined with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology by an experienced paediatric radiologist, after receiving an informed consent. Measurements obtained were divided according to group age (n=50, 0-5 years; n=50, 6-11 years; n=50, 12-17 years); sex (male- female); lobe (right-left lobe); approach (intercostal-subcostal), and depth of measurements (1-5 and 5-6 cm for the youngest group; 2-6 to 6-8 cm for the 2 other groups). Comparative analyses were performed with measurements obtained at right and left lobes, with different depths and approaches. Differences between age and sex were also analysed.Results: Mean SWV in the right liver lobe was 1.07±0.10 m/s. No significant differences were found according to sex or among different probe locations. SWVs were, however, significantly higher within left lobe in comparison with right liver lobe (1.07±0.10 m/s, right; 1.21±0.16 m/s, left). Depth of measurements also influenced SWV values obtained, being slightly lower at deeper locations. Regarding the age significant differences were found for children <6 years old compared with other age groups.Conclusions: ARFI analysis seems to be influenced by age, depth, and lobe of measurements. A mean SWV value of 1.07±0.10 m/s for healthy paediatric population with the possibility of reaching 1.12 m/s in the case of younger children was found. ARFI values were more consistently obtained analysing right liver lobe and depths lower than 5 to 6 cm. Copyright © 2014 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.


Nieves-Ramirez M.E.,Pediatric Hospital | Partida-Rodriguez O.,Pediatric Hospital | Alegre-Crespo P.E.,Displasia Clinic Hospital Venados | Tapia-Lugo M.C.,Displasia Clinic Hospital Venados | Perez-Rodriguez M.E.,Pediatric Hospital
Translational Oncology | Year: 2011

Development of cervical cancer is a long process of abnormal cancerous cell growth in the cervix and is primarily the result of infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and lymphotoxin α (LTA) have an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and have the ability to induce the regression or promote the development of human tumors. Biologically important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur within the TNFα and LTA genes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the SNPs in the TNFα promoter region (-163, -238, -244, -308, -376, -857, -863, and -1031) and in the first intron of LTA (+252) in women with precursor lesions of cervical cancer. Overall, we studied 396 women from Mexico City. A total of 191 patients with HPV infection and precursor cervical lesions were subdivided in two groups: those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 132) and those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 59). Women (n = 205) negative for HPV and without cervical lesions were also included in the study. DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells and from cervical samples, and detection of biallelic polymorphisms of TNFα and LTA was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques, respectively. We demonstrated that risk is associated with the genotype G/A (odds ratio = 2.48) and that protection is associated with the genotype G/G of SNP TNFα -376 (odds ratio = 0.37). © 2011 Neoplasia Press, Inc.


Partida-Rodriguez O.,Pediatric Hospital | Torres J.,Pediatric Hospital | Flores-Luna L.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Cuernavaca | Camorlinga M.,Pediatric Hospital | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) are important molecules in inflammatory, infectious and tumoral processes. The genes codifying these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to disease. Gastric cancer is associated with an Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic Inflammatory response. The aim of this work was to analyze whether polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with the development of gastric cancer. We studied 447 Mexican adult patients Including 228 with non-atrophic gastritis, 98 with intestinal metaplasia, 63 with gastric cancer and 58 with duodenal ulcer, and 132 asymptomatic individuals as well. DNA from peripheral white blood celts was typed for the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) -308 of TNF-α, +252 of TNF-β, +190 of HSP70-1, +1267 of HSP70-2 and +2437 of HSP70-HOM. Compared with the asymptomatic group, we found a significant association of TNF-β*A and HSP70-1*C alleles with gastric cancer (OR 5.69 and 3.76, respectively) and HSP70-1*C with duodenal ulcer (OR 3.08). Genotype TNF-β G/G showed a significant gene-dose effect with gastric cancer (OR 0.09); whereas HSP70-1 C/G showed significant association with both, gastric cancer (OR 13.31) and duodenal ulcer (OR 16.19). Polymorphisms in TNF and HSP70 showed a significant severity-dose-response as risk markers from preneoplastic lesions to gastric cancer in Mexican population, probably because of their association with an intense and sustained Inflammatory response. © 2009 UICC.

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