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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Perez de Diego R.,University Institute of La Paz | Sanchez-Ramon S.,San Carlos Clinical Hospital | Lopez-Collazo E.,University Institute of La Paz | Martinez-Barricarte R.,Rockefeller University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor κB in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of eachof the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Conley M.E.,Rockefeller University | Casanova J.-L.,Rockefeller University | Casanova J.-L.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Casanova J.-L.,University of Paris Descartes | Casanova J.-L.,Pediatric Hematology Immunology Unit
Current Opinion in Immunology

Many patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of primary immunodeficiency do not have a gene specific diagnosis. The use of next generation sequencing, particularly whole exome sequencing, has given us an extraordinarily powerful tool to identify the disease-causing genes in some of these patients. At least 34 new gene defects have been identified in the last 4 years. These findings document the striking heterogeneity of the phenotype in patients with mutations in the same gene. In some cases this can be attributed to loss-of-function mutations in some patients, but gain-of-function mutations in others. In addition, the surprisingly high frequency of autosomal dominant immunodeficiencies with variable penetrance, and de novo mutations in disorders with a severe phenotype has been unmasked. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Itan Y.,Rockefeller University | Casanova J.-L.,Rockefeller University | Casanova J.-L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Casanova J.-L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology

Germline genetic mutations underlie various primary immunodeficiency (PID) diseases. Patients with rare PID diseases (like most non-PID patients and healthy individuals) carry, on average, 20,000 rare and common coding variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. It is thus a major challenge to select only a few candidate disease-causing variants for experimental testing. One of the tools commonly used in the pipeline for estimating a potential PID-candidate gene is to test whether the specific gene is included in the list of genes that were already experimentally validated as PID-causing in previous studies. However, this approach is limited because it cannot detect the PID-causing mutation(s) in the many PID patients carrying causal mutations of as yet unidentified PID-causing genes. In this study, we expanded in silico the list of potential PID-causing candidate genes from 229 to 3,110. We first identified the top 1% of human genes predicted by the human genes connectome to be biologically close to the 229 known PID genes. We then further narrowed down the list of genes by retaining only the most biologically relevant genes, with functionally enriched gene ontology biological categories similar to those for the known PID genes. We validated this prediction by showing that 17 of the 21 novel PID genes published since the last IUIS classification fall into this group of 3,110 genes (p < 10-7). The resulting new extended list of 3,110 predicted PID genes should be useful for the discovery of novel PID genes in patients. © 2015 Itan and Casanova. Source

Ciancanelli M.J.,Rockefeller University | Abel L.,Rockefeller University | Abel L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Abel L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
Current Opinion in Immunology

Influenza viruses cause mild to moderate respiratory illness in most people, and only rarely devastating or fatal infections. The virulence factors encoded by viral genes can explain seasonal or geographic differences at the population level but are unlikely to account for inter-individual clinical variability. Inherited or acquired immunodeficiencies may thus underlie severe cases of influenza. The crucial role of host genes was first demonstrated by forward genetics in inbred mice, with the identification of interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible Mx1 as a canonical influenza susceptibility gene. Reverse genetics has subsequently characterized the in vivo role of other mouse genes involved in IFN-α/β and -λ immunity. A series of in vitro studies with mouse and human cells have also refined the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of protection against influenza viruses. Population-based human genetic studies have not yet uncovered variants with a significant impact. Interestingly, human primary immunodeficiencies affecting T and B cells were also not found to predispose to severe influenza. Recently however, human IRF7 was shown to be essential for IFN-α/β- and IFN-λ-dependent protective immunity against primary influenza in vivo, as inferred from a patient with life-threatening influenza revealed to be IRF7-deficient by whole exome sequencing. Next generation sequencing of human exomes and genomes will facilitate the analysis of the human genetic determinism of severe influenza. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Feske S.,New York University | Picard C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Picard C.,University of Paris Descartes | Fischer A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Immunology

Lymphocyte activation requires Ca2+ influx through specialized Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane. In T cells the predominant Ca2+ channel is the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel encoded by the gene ORAI1. ORAI1 is activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 that is localized in the ER where it senses the concentration of stored Ca2+. Following antigen binding to immunoreceptors such as the TCR, ER Ca2+ stores are depleted, STIM1 is activated and ORAI1-CRAC channels open resulting in what is referred to as store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Mutations in ORAI1 and STIM1 genes in human patients that lead to expression of non-functional ORAI1 or complete lack of ORAI1 or STIM1 protein are associated with a unique clinical phenotype that is characterized by immunodeficiency, muscular hypotonia and anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia, as well as, in the case of STIM1 deficiency, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease. The immunodeficiency in these patients is due to a severe defect in T cell activation but not in lymphocyte development. This review describes the immunological and non-immunological phenotypes of patients with defects in SOCE and CRAC channel function and discusses them in the context of similar immunodeficiency diseases and animal models of ORAI1 and STIM1 function. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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