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Monza, Italy

Gervasini C.,University of Milan | Russo S.,Laboratory of Medical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics | Cereda A.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Parenti I.,University of Milan | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

We report on the clinical and molecular characterization of eight patients, one male and seven females, with clinical diagnosis of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), who were found to carry distinct mutations of the SMC1A gene. Five of the eight mutations are novel, with two involving amino acid residues previously described as altered in a different way. The other three have been reported each in a single case. Comparison of pairs of individuals with the same mutation indicates only partial overlap of their clinical phenotypes. The following novel missense mutations, all affecting highly conserved amino acid residues, were found: p.R398G in the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, p.V651M in the C-terminal coiled-coil/hinge junction, p.R693G in the C-terminal coiled-coil, and p.N1166T and p.L1189F in the C-terminal ABC cassette. The latter is localized in the H-loop, and represents the first mutation involving a functional motif of SMC1A protein. The effect of the mutations on SMC1A protein function has been predicted using four bioinformatic tools. All mutations except p.V651M were scored as pathogenic by three or four of the tools. p.V651M was found in the only male individual of our cohort, who presented with the most severe phenotype. This raises the issue of gender effect when addressing mutation-phenotype correlation for genes such as SMC1A, which incompletely escapes X-inactivation. Our clinical and molecular findings expand the total number of characterized SMC1A-mutated patients (from 44 to 52) and the restricted repertoire of SMC1A mutations (from 29 to 34), contributing to the molecular and clinical signature of SMC1A-based CdLS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Mari F.,University of Siena | Marozza A.,Genetica Medica | Mencarelli M.A.,University of Siena | Lo Rizzo C.,University of Siena | And 22 more authors.
Brain and Development | Year: 2015

Nicolaides-Baraitser and Coffin-Siris syndromes are emerging conditions with overlapping clinical features including intellectual disability and typical somatic characteristics, especially sparse hair, low frontal hairline, large mouth with thick and everted lips, and hands and feet anomalies. Since 2012, mutations in genes encoding six proteins of the BAF complex were identified in both conditions. Methods and results: We have clinically evaluated a cohort of 1161 patients with intellectual disability from three different Italian centers. A strong clinical suspicion of either Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome or Coffin-Siris syndrome was proposed in 11 cases who were then molecularly confirmed: 8 having de novo missense mutations in SMARCA2, two frame-shift mutations in ARID1B and one missense mutation in SMARCB1. Given the high frequency of the condition we set up a one-step deep sequencing test for all 6 genes of the BAF complex. Conclusions: These results prove that the frequency of these conditions may be as high as the most common syndromes with intellectual deficit (about 1%). Clinical geneticists should be well aware of this group of disorders in the clinical setting when ascertaining patients with intellectual deficit, the specific facial features being the major diagnostic handle. Finally, this work adds information on the clinical differences of the two conditions and presents a fast and sensitive test for the molecular diagnosis. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Source


Bettini L.R.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Locatelli L.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Mariani M.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Cianci P.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex genetic disease with skeletal involvement mostly related to upper limb malformations. We report on three males with clinical and molecular diagnoses of CdLS. Besides typical CdLS features, all showed different cervical spine malformations. To the best of our knowledge, this is an unusual malformation in the CdLS phenotypic spectrum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Prunotto G.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Cianci P.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Cereda A.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Scatigno A.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare microdeletion syndrome associated with a characteristic facial appearance, failure to thrive, psychomotor delays, and various major malformations of internal organs; many medical complications have been described (feeding difficulties, epilepsy, hearing problems). Benign or malignant oncologic problems are not a typical feature of the natural history of these patients. We report on two patients with WHS patients in whom hepatic adenoma (HA) were diagnosed during adolescence. The clinical evolution of liver involvement was different between the two. We discuss the possibility of considering HA as a rare medical problem in the follow-up of WHS patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Cianci P.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Tono V.,Pediatric Genetic Unit | Sala A.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology Unit | Locatelli L.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology Unit | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

This article reports on an association between Burkitt lymphoma and Noonan syndrome (NS) due to a RAF1 gene mutation. The patient was a 7-year-old boy with NS, who was included in the first series reporting the association between Noonan and RAF1, and who later presented with a 2-week history of asymptomatic unilateral tonsillar swelling and ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Histological and biological examinations of the tonsillar biopsy led to the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. While there is a well-established association between NS and solid cell tumors, this is the first case described in the literature of Burkitt lymphoma in a patient with NS, and adds to the growing list of data supporting neoplasia's association with NS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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