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Manchester, United Kingdom

Rousseau-Nepton I.,Pediatric Endocrinology
Current rheumatology reports | Year: 2013

Glucocorticoids (GC) are a standard treatment for pediatric rheumatic disease. Recent literature highlights skeletal vulnerability in children with rheumatic illness, including vertebral and peripheral fractures and reductions in bone mineral density in longitudinal follow-up. Annual vertebral fracture incidence of 4-6 % in those recently diagnosed and prevalence of 7-28 % in those several years post diagnosis have been reported. The fractures are often asymptomatic, often thoracic in location, and usually of mild, anterior wedge morphology. Diseases with more systemic involvement and severe inflammation (SLE, JDM) seem to be at higher risk. Neither BMD nor GC dose are ideal predictors for risk of fractures. These children also seem to have an increased incidence of long-bone fractures, particularly in the forearm and wrist; in the scant literature, long-bone fractures are not predictive of vertebral fractures. Bone mass accrual is typically suboptimum across time, although the use of potent steroid-sparing anti-inflammatory agents may counteract the effects of GC and active disease. Vitamin D insufficiency warrants ongoing monitoring. Additional targeted studies are justified to increase understanding of bone health risks in this population. Source

Melachuri S.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology | Gandrud L.,Pediatric Endocrinology | Bostrom B.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia has been reported as an unusual side effect in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on maintenance therapy. We evaluated the relation of the red cell 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) metabolite 6-methyl-mercaptopurine (6MMP) with hypoglycemia. Procedure: We retrospectively reviewed charts of three patients with ALL and symptomatic hypoglycemia while fasting who were noted to have high levels of 6MMP. All patients had an empiric trial of switching from evening to morning 6-MP administration, and two patients were subsequently switched to twice daily dosing. Patients also received complex carbohydrates at bedtime. Results: Switching 6-MP from evening to morning administration reduced 6MMP levels yet preserved adequate levels of the active metabolite red cell 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN). All patients had decreased hypoglycemic events when changed from evening to morning dosing. Two patients showed a rebound in 6MMP levels with return of hypoglycemic symptoms. Both were then switched to twice daily 6-MP dosing with one having a decrease in 6MMP and hypoglycemic symptoms. Conclusions: High levels of 6MMP are associated with symptomatic hypoglycemia which may be mitigated by switching to morning or twice daily 6-MP dose administration. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:1003-1006. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Beydoun M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Atilio Canas J.,Pediatric Endocrinology | Beydoun H.A.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Chen X.,Johns Hopkins University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Specific micronutrients, including retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids [α-carotene, β-carotene (cis+trans), β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, and total lycopene], vitamin E, and vitamin C have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects, properties shown to reduce oxidative stress, a process that accompanies the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is still largely unknown whether they are associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adolescent U.S. population. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Other non-MetS outcomes relying on blood measurements were elevated HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyperuricemia. We tested associations between serum antioxidants and MetS outcomes among adolescents aged 12-19 y using cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001-2006 (n = 782-4285). IDF MetS prevalence was estimated at 7% among boys and 3% among girls. In adjusted models, adolescents with MetS had consistently lower carotenoid concentrations compared with their counterparts without MetS. Total carotenoids were also inversely related to HOMA-IR and CRP. Vitamin C was inversely related to uric acid level and MetS binary outcome. Retinol+retinyl esters exhibited an inverse relationship with CRP and a positive relationship with uric acid and HOMA-IR as well as MetS binary outcome. Vitamin E had no association with MetS, particularly after controlling for serum cholesterol and TG. In conclusion, among U.S. adolescents, serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with MetS status, HOMA-IR, and CRP, whereas serum vitamin C was inversely related to MetS status and serum uric acid. Vitamin E had no consistent association with MetS, whereas retinol+retinyl esters had a positive relationship with HOMA-IR, uric acid, and MetS, while being inversely related to CRP. These associations need further study. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Marzelli M.J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Marzelli M.J.,Stanford University | Mazaika P.K.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Barnea-Goraly N.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 12 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2014

Studies of brain structure in type 1 diabetes (T1D) describe widespread neuroanatomical differences related to exposure to glycemic dysregulation in adults and adolescents. In this study, we investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of dysglycemia in very young children with early-onset T1D. Structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were acquired in 142 children with T1D and 68 age-matched control subjects (mean age 7.0 ± 1.7 years) on six identical scanners. Whole-brain volumetric analyses were conducted using voxelbased morphometry to detect regional differences between groups and to investigate correlations between regional brain volumes and measures of glycemic exposure (including data from continuous glucose monitoring). Relative to control subjects, the T1D group displayed decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in bilateral occipital and cerebellar regions (P < 0.001) and increased GMV in the left inferior prefrontal, insula, and temporal pole regions (P = 0.002). Within the T1D group, hyperglycemic exposure was associated with decreased GMV in medial frontal and temporaloccipital regions and increased GMV in lateral prefrontal regions. Cognitive correlations of intelligence quotient to GMV were found in cerebellar-occipital regions and medial prefrontal cortex for control subjects, as expected, but not for the T1D group. Thus, early-onset T1D affects regions of the brain that are associated with typical cognitive development. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Parsa A.A.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Bhangoo A.,Pediatric Endocrinology
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders | Year: 2013

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are associated with dysfunction of many endocrine organs and their axis. HIV infectivity leads to altered metabolism, poor oral intake and increased prevalence of weight loss and wasting which may have a role in thyroid dysfunction. Overt thyroid dysfunction occurs at similar rates as the general population while subclinical disease such as nonthyroidal illness (sick euthyroid syndrome), subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated low T4 levels are more frequent. Moreover, HAART therapy can complicate thyroid function further through drug interactions and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this review we report the common thyroid dysfunctions associated with HIV before and after HAART therapy. We discuss presentation, diagnostic work up, treatment and follow up in each condition. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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