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Dhaliwal J.,University of Alberta | Nosworthy N.M.I.,University of Alberta | Holt N.L.,University of Alberta | Zwaigenbaum L.,University of Alberta | And 4 more authors.
Childhood Obesity

Background: A key challenge in managing pediatric obesity is the high degree of program attrition, which can reduce therapeutic benefits and contribute to inefficient health services delivery. Our aim was to document and characterize predictors of, and reasons for, attrition in pediatric obesity management. Methods: We searched literature published until January 2014 in five databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus). Articles were included if they were English, included participants 0-18 years of age, focused on pediatric obesity management, incorporated lifestyle and behavioral changes without pharmacotherapy, provided attrition data, and reported information about predictors of, and/or reasons for, attrition from family-based interventions provided in research or clinical settings. Twenty-three articles (n=20 quantitative; n=2 qualitative; n=1 mixed methods) met our inclusion criteria. Clarity of study aims, objectives, methods, and data analysis were appraised using Bowling's checklist. Results: Attrition varied according to definition (minimum to maximum, 4-83%; median, 37%). There were few consistent predictors of attrition between studies, although dropout was higher among US-based families receiving public health insurance. Older children were also more likely to discontinue care, but sex and baseline weight status did not predict attrition. The most commonly reported reasons for attrition were logistical barriers and programs not meeting families' needs. Conclusions: Developing and evaluating strategies designed to minimize the risk of attrition, especially among families who receive public health insurance and older boys and girls, are needed to optimize the effectiveness of pediatric obesity management. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Salawi H.A.,University of Alberta | Ambler K.A.,University of Alberta | Padwal R.S.,University of Alberta | Mager D.R.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics

Background: Severe obesity (SO) in pediatrics has become increasing prevalent in recent decades.The objective of our study was to examine differences in demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle variables in children and youth with SO versus their less overweight/obese (OW/OB) peers.Methods: A retrospective medical record review of 6-19 year old participants enrolled in an outpatient pediatric weight management clinic was conducted. SO (body mass index [BMI] ≥99th percentile) and OW/OB (BMI ≥85th and <99th percentile) groups were created according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic and lifestyle data reported at baseline (pre-intervention) were retrieved.Results: Of the 345 participants, most were girls (56.2%), Caucasian (78.7%), and had family incomes > $50,000/year (65.7%). The SO group (n = 161) had lower HDL-cholesterol and higher liver enzymes, insulin resistance and blood pressure than the OW/OB group (n = 184; all p < 0.01). They also reported higher total energy intakes, fewer steps/day, less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and more leisure time screen time (all p < 0.02) than their leaner peers. Compared to the OW/OB group, a higher proportion of individuals in the SO group possessed cardiometabolic risk factors, including high triglycerides (45.8% vs 58.5%), alanine aminotransferase (55.4% vs 81.4%), insulin resistance (55.6% vs 82.1%), systolic blood pressure (11.5% vs 27.3%), diastolic blood pressure (17.8% vs 30.0%), and low HDL-cholesterol (44.6% vs 64.6%; all p < 0.02). Aside from the ~75% of participants (groups combined) who met the daily recommended intakes of grain and meat products, <50% of boys and girls met any of the remaining nutrition and physical activity-related recommendations. Compared to the OW/OB group, greater proportions of children and youth in the SO group failed to meet moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (48.4% vs 31.9%) and leisure-time-screen-time recommendations (43.4% vs 28.3%; both p < 0.05).Conclusion: Children and youth with SO have a worse cardiometabolic profile and less favorable lifestyle habits than their OW/OB peers. These differences emphasize the heightened obesity-related health risks associated with SO in the pediatric years. © 2014 Salawi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ball G.D.C.,University of Alberta | Ball G.D.C.,Pediatric Center for Weight and Health | Ambler K.A.,University of Alberta | Chanoine J.-P.,University of British Columbia
International Journal of Pediatric Obesity

Our purpose was to conduct a national environmental scan of pediatric weight management programs in Canada. Data were entered by program representatives regarding the history, structure, and function of their weight management programs using an online survey that our team developed in partnership with the Canadian Obesity Network (www.obesitynetwork.ca). Of the 18 programs that were identified, all included multidisciplinary teams that take a family-centred, lifestyle/behavioural therapeutic approach; health services were accessed primarily through physician referral. Most programs were launched in the past five years with public funding and enrolled ∼125 clients/year into one-on-one and/or group-based weight management care. Although many participated in research and were affiliated with academic institutions, most did not systematically evaluate their obesity-related programming. Based on these observations, recommendations related to program evaluation, health services delivery, and network collaborations are provided to inform future directions for research and clinical care that have both domestic and international relevance. © 2011 Informa Healthcare. Source

Ball G.D.C.,Pediatric Center for Weight and Health | Garcia A.P.,Pediatric Center for Weight and Health | Chanoine J.-P.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit | Morrison K.M.,McMaster University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research

Background: At least two million Canadian children meet established criteria for weight management. Due to the adverse health consequences of obesity, most pediatric weight management research has examined the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions to improve lifestyle behaviors, reduce co-morbidities, and enable weight management. However, little information is available on families' decisions to initiate, continue, and terminate weight management care. This is an important knowledge gap since a substantial number of families fail to initiate care after being referred for weight management while many families who initiate care discontinue it after a brief period of time. This research aims to understand the interplay between individual, family, environmental, and systemic factors that influence families' decisions regarding the management of pediatric obesity. Methods/Design. Individual interviews will be conducted with children and youth with obesity (n = 100) and their parents (n = 100) for a total number of 200 interviews with 100 families. Families will be recruited from four Canadian multi-disciplinary pediatric weight management centers in Vancouver, Edmonton, Hamilton, and Montreal. Participants will be purposefully-sampled into the following groups: (i) Non-Initiators (5 families/site): referred for weight management within the past 6 months and did not follow-up the referral; (ii) Initiators (10 families/site): referred for weight management within the past 6 months and did follow-up the referral with at least one clinic appointment; and (iii) Continuers (10 families/site): participated in a formal weight management intervention within the past 12 months and did continue with follow-up care for at least 6 months. Interviews will be digitally recorded and analyzed using an ecological framework, which will enable a multi-level evaluation of proximal and distal factors that underlie families' decisions regarding initiation, continuation, and termination of care. Demographic and anthropometric/clinical data will also be collected. Discussion. A better understanding of family involvement in pediatric weight management care will help to improve existing health services in this area. Study data will be used in future research to develop a validated survey that clinicians working in pediatric obesity management can use to understand and enhance their own health services delivery. © 2012 Ball et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Prince R.L.,Pediatric Center for Weight and Health | Kuk J.L.,York University | Ambler K.A.,Pediatric Center for Weight and Health | Ambler K.A.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Care

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in children and examine the demographic, adiposity, and lifestyle predictors of MHO status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 8-17 year olds with a BMI ≥85th percentile who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary pediatric weight management clinic from 2005-2010. Demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and cardiometabolic data were retrieved by retrospective medical record review. Participants were dichotomized as either MHO or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) according to two separate classification systems based on: 1) insulin resistance (IR) and 2) cardiometabolic risk (CR) factors (blood pressure, serum lipids, and glucose). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MHO using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: The prevalence of MHO-IR was 31.5% (n = 57 of 181) and MHO-CR was 21.5% ( n = 39 of 181). Waist circumference (OR 0.33 [95% CI 0.18-0.59]; P = 0.0002) and dietary fat intake (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.31-0.95]; P = 0.04) were independent predictors of MHO-IR; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 1.80 [95% CI 1.24-2.62]; P = 0.002) was the strongest independent predictor of MHO-CR. CONCLUSIONS: Up to one in three children with obesity can be classified as MHO. Depending on the definition, adiposity and lifestyle behaviors both play important roles in predicting MHO status. These findings can inform for whom health services for managing pediatric obesity should be prioritized, especially in circumstances when boys and girls present with CR factors. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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