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Ward L.M.,University of Ottawa | Ward L.M.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Rauch F.,McGill University | Matzinger M.A.,University of Ottawa | And 3 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2010

Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifest low bone mass; the cause remains unclear. We performed transilial bone biopsies in 20 IBD children at diagnosis and found a mild cortical bone deficit and slow bone turnover. It is possible that low mechanical stimulation due to inadequate muscle mass contributes to the bone deficit. Introduction: Children with newly diagnosed IBD can have low bone mineral density and disturbed bone metabolism, but the tissue level characteristics of the bone involvement in pediatric IBD have not been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the skeletal status, including static histomorphometry on transiliac bone samples, in 20 patients (age range 8.4 to 17.7 years, 12 boys) with newly diagnosed IBD and compared results to published normative data. Results: Despite normal height (mean Z-score 0.04, SD 1.2), areal bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was moderately low (mean age- and sex-specific Z-score -0.8, SD 1.1). Total body bone mineral content and lean mass were low for age and sex as well (mean Z-scores -1.2, SD 0.9 and -2.0, SD 0.9, respectively). Biochemical bone markers indicated low bone formation and resorption activity. Bone histomorphometry revealed a slightly low cortical width (mean 23%, SD 25%, below the result expected for age) but a normal amount of trabecular bone. The percentage of trabecular bone surface covered by osteoid or osteoclasts was low, suggesting that both bone formation and bone resorption were suppressed. Conclusions: Our results indicate that young patients manifest a mild cortical bone deficit at the iliac crest and slow trabecular bone turnover even at diagnosis, in the setting of IBD. © 2009 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Feber J.,University of Ottawa | Gaboury I.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario | Ni A.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario | Alos N.,University of Montreal | And 18 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2012

Summary: Eighty children with nephrotic syndrome underwent lumbar spine densitometry and vertebral morphometry soon after glucocorticoid initiation. We found an inverse relationship between glucocorticoid exposure and spine areal bone mineral density (BMD) Z-score and a low rate of vertebral deformities (8%). Introduction: Vertebral fractures are an under-recognized complication of childhood glucocorticoid-treated illnesses. Our goal was to study the relationships among glucocorticoid exposure, lumbar spine areal BMD (LS BMD), and vertebral shape in glucocorticoid-treated children with new-onset nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Lateral thoracolumbar spine radiography and LS BMD were performed in 80 children with nephrotic syndrome (median age 4.4 years; 46 boys) within the first 37 days of glucocorticoid therapy. Genant semiquantitative grading was used as the primary method for vertebral morphometry; the algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method was used for secondary vertebral deformity analysis. Results: Six of the 78 children with usable radiographs (8%; 95% confidence interval 4 to 16%) manifested a single Genant grade 1 deformity each. All deformities were mild anterior wedging (two at each of T6, T7, and T8). Four of the 78 children (5%; 95% confidence interval 2 to 13%) showed one ABQ sign of fracture each (loss of endplate parallelism; two children at T6 and two at T8). Two of the children with ABQ signs also had a Genant grade 1 deformity in the same vertebral body. None of the children with a Genant or ABQ deformity reported back pain. An inverse relationship was identified between LS BMD Z-score and glucocorticoid exposure. Conclusions: Although we identified an inverse relationship between steroid exposure and LS BMD soon after glucocorticoid initiation for childhood nephrotic syndrome, there was only a low rate of vertebral deformities. The clinical significance of these findings requires further study. © 2011 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Sbrocchi A.M.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Rauch F.,Genetics Unit | Lawson M.L.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Hadjiyannakis S.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Objective: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia resulting from selective renal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). One autosomal dominant form of PHP type 1b (PHP-Ib) is most frequently caused by a maternally inherited 3-kb deletion within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16. To date, increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been described only in PHP type 1a, and there is a lack of detailed information on bone histomorphometry in PHP-Ib. The objective of this report was to present trans-iliac static and dynamic histomorphometry in two brothers with the 3-kb deletion in the STX16 region and elevated BMD. Design: Observational study of two brothers (age 18.0 and 22.7 years) with the 3-kb STX16 deletion and increased BMD. Results: The brothers had elevated PTH (146 pg/ml (15.6 pmol/l) and 102 pg/ml (10.9 pmol/l); normal: 10-64 pg/ml (1.1-6.8 pmol/l)) and striking osteosclerosis (lumbar spine areal BMD Z-scores: +5.4 and +4.9). Bone histomorphometry showed marked elevations in cortical width for both brothers (241 and 209% of the mean result expected for age), with elevations in the bone formation rate on the endocortical (119 and 260% of the healthy mean) and trabecular (220 and 190% of mean) surfaces. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PTH in this PHP-Ib genotype can increase cortical thickness due to its anabolic effect on endocortical bone, and underscore the heterogeneity in the skeletal phenotype among patients with PHP-Ib. © 2011 European Society of Endocrinology.

Ward L.M.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Ward L.M.,University of Ottawa | Konji V.N.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Ma J.,Pediatric Bone Health Clinical and Research Programs | Ma J.,University of Ottawa
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2016

Summary: This article reviews the manifestations and risk factors associated with osteoporosis in childhood, the definition of osteoporosis and recommendations for monitoring and prevention. As well, this article discusses when a child should be considered a candidate for osteoporosis therapy, which agents should be prescribed, duration of therapy and side effects. Abstract: There has been significant progress in our understanding of risk factors and the natural history of osteoporosis in children over the past number of years. This knowledge has fostered the development of logical approaches to the diagnosis, monitoring, and optimal timing of osteoporosis intervention in this setting. Current management strategies are predicated upon monitoring at-risk children to identify and then treat earlier rather than later signs of osteoporosis in those with limited potential for spontaneous recovery. On the other hand, trials addressing the prevention of the first-ever fracture are still needed for children who have both a high likelihood of developing fractures and less potential for recovery. This review focuses on the evidence that shapes the current approach to diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of osteoporosis in childhood, with emphasis on the key pediatric-specific biological principles that are pivotal to the overall approach and on the main questions with which clinicians struggle on a daily basis. The scope of this article is to review the manifestations of and risk factors for primary and secondary osteoporosis in children, to discuss the definition of pediatric osteoporosis, and to summarize recommendations for monitoring and prevention of bone fragility. As well, this article reviews when a child is a candidate for osteoporosis therapy, which agents and doses should be prescribed, the duration of therapy, how the response to therapy is adjudicated, and the short- and long-term side effects. With this information, the bone health clinician will be poised to diagnose osteoporosis in children and to identify when children need osteoporosis therapy and the clinical outcomes that gauge efficacy and safety of treatment. © 2016, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Huber A.M.,Dalhousie University | Huber A.M.,Health Center | Gaboury I.,University of Ottawa | Cabral D.A.,University of British Columbia | And 67 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2010

Objective. Vertebral fractures are an under-recognized problem in children with inflammatory disorders. We studied spine health among 134 children (87 girls) with rheumatic conditions (median age 10 years) within 30 days of initiating glucocorticoid therapy. Methods. Children were categorized as follows: juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 30), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 28), systemic lupus erythematosus and related conditions (n = 26), systemic arthritis (n = 22), systemic vasculitis (n = 16), and other conditions (n = 12). Thoracolumbar spine radiograph and dual x-ray absorptiometry for lumbar spine (L-spine) areal bone mineral density (BMD) were performed within 30 days of glucocorticoid initiation. Genant semiquantitative grading was used for vertebral morphometry. Second metacarpal morphometry was carried out on a hand radiograph. Clinical factors including disease and physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, cumulative glucocorticoid dose, underlying diagnosis, L-spine BMD Z score, and back pain were analyzed for association with vertebral fracture. Results. Thirteen vertebral fractures were noted in 9 children (7%). Of these, 6 patients had a single vertebral fracture and 3 had 2-3 fractures. Fractures were clustered in the mid-thoracic region (69%). Three vertebral fractures (23%) were moderate (grade 2); the others were mild (grade 1). For the entire cohort, mean ± SD L-spine BMD Z score was significantly different from zero (-0.55 ± 1.2, P < 0.001) despite a mean height Z score that was similar to the healthy average (0.02 ± 1.0, P = 0.825). Back pain was highly associated with increased odds for fracture (odds ratio 10.6 [95% confidence interval 2.1-53.8], P = 0.004). Conclusion. In pediatric rheumatic conditions, vertebral fractures can be present prior to prolonged glucocorticoid exposure. © 2010, American College of Rheumatology.

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