Peanut Company of Australia

Kingaroy, Australia

Peanut Company of Australia

Kingaroy, Australia

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Phan-Thien K.-Y.,University of New South Wales | Golic M.,Peanut Company of Australia | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Lee N.A.,University of New South Wales
Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety | Year: 2011

The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate the nutritional quality of peanut kernels has potential applications in plant breeding as a rapid, non-destructive tool for seed/plant selection, and in quality control. We investigated the feasibility of applying NIRS to the estimation of essential mineral composition in peanut kernels using two sample sets: A, comprising 56 diverse genotypes (N = 163); and B, comprising nine genotypes grown in five distinct environments (N = 156). Essential mineral composition was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Calibration models were developed by partial least squares (PLS) regression, and explored a variety of data pre-treatments. Models allowing approximate estimation of K (RPD CV 2. 25, r CV 2 0. 800, RPD P 2. 22) and Mg (RPD CV 2. 24, r CV 2 0. 786, RPD P 1. 74), and to a lesser extent Ca (RPD CV 1. 85, r CV 2 0. 649, RPD P 1. 52) and P (RPD CV 1. 77, r CV 2 0. 634, RPD P 1. 65), were developed for Set B, but poorer calibrations were obtained for Set A. This level of accuracy does not allow accurate prediction, but permits approximate quantification that may be useful in plant improvement programs for screening breeding populations. The results are remarkable because NIRS is rarely applied to analytes present at such low concentrations, especially inorganic constituents that are not inherently NIR-absorbent. Further analysis of more diverse peanut samples is warranted to confirm batch-to-batch accuracy and to improve the robustness of calibrations. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Chauhan Y.S.,Economic Development and Innovation DEEDI | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Holzworth D.,CSIRO | Rachaputi R.C.N.,University of Queensland | Payero J.O.,University of Queensland
Irrigation Science | Year: 2013

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in irrigated production areas of northern Australia. Although the potential pod yield of the crop in these areas is about 8 t ha-1, most growers generally obtain around 5 t ha-1, partly due to poor irrigation management. Better information and tools that are easy to use, accurate, and cost-effective are therefore needed to help local peanut growers improve irrigation management. This paper introduces a new web-based decision support system called AQUAMAN that was developed to assist Australian peanut growers schedule irrigations. It simulates the timing and depth of future irrigations by combining procedures from the food and agriculture organization (FAO) guidelines for irrigation scheduling (FAO-56) with those of the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) modeling framework. Here, we present a description of AQUAMAN and results of a series of activities (i. e., extension activities, case studies, and a survey) that were conducted to assess its level of acceptance among Australian peanut growers, obtain feedback for future improvements, and evaluate its performance. Application of the tool for scheduling irrigations of commercial peanut farms since its release in 2004-2005 has shown good acceptance by local peanuts growers and potential for significantly improving yield. Limited comparison with the farmer practice of matching the pan evaporation demand during rain-free periods in 2006-2007 and 2008-2009 suggested that AQUAMAN enabled irrigation water savings of up to 50% and the realization of enhanced water and irrigation use efficiencies. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia as represented by The Government of Queensland.


Chauhan Y.S.,Economic Development and Innovation DEEDI | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Rachaputi R.C.N.,Economic Development and Innovation DEEDI | Holzworth D.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2010

When exposed to hot (22-35C) and dry climatic conditions in the field during the final 4-6 weeks of pod filling, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can accumulate highly carcinogenic and immuno-suppressing aflatoxins. Forecasting of the risk posed by these conditions can assist in minimizing pre-harvest contamination. A model was therefore developed as part of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) peanut module, which calculated an aflatoxin risk index (ARI) using four temperature response functions when fractional available soil water was <0.20 and the crop was in the last 040 of the pod-filling phase. ARI explained 095 (P≤0.05) of the variation in aflatoxin contamination, which varied from 0 to c. 800 g/kg in 17 large-scale sowings in tropical and four sowings in sub-tropical environments carried out in Australia between 13 November and 16 December 2007. ARI also explained 096 (P≤0.01) of the variation in the proportion of aflatoxin-contaminated loads (>15 μg/kg) of peanuts in the Kingaroy region of Australia during the period between the 1998/99 and 2007/08 seasons. Simulation of ARI using historical climatic data from 1890 to 2007 indicated a three-fold increase in its value since 1980 compared to the entire previous period. The increase was associated with increases in ambient temperature and decreases in rainfall. To facilitate routine monitoring of aflatoxin risk by growers in near real time, a web interface of the model was also developed. The ARI predicted using this interface for eight growers correlated significantly with the level of contamination in crops (r=0.95, P≤0.01). These results suggest that ARI simulated by the model is a reliable indicator of aflatoxin contamination that can be used in aflatoxin research as well as a decision-support tool to monitor pre-harvest aflatoxin risk in peanuts. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Phan-Thien K.-Y.,University of New South Wales | Phan-Thien K.-Y.,University of Sydney | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Lee N.A.,University of New South Wales
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Five peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes with diverse antioxidant capacity were quantitatively profiled for p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, resveratrol, and daidzein. The co-eluting compounds, caffeic/vanillic acid and ferulic/sinapic acid, were quantified on caffeic acid equivalent and ferulic acid equivalent bases, respectively. The HPLC analysis established significant genotypic differences (P<0.05) in free and total phytochemical composition and also demonstrated the importance of the bound (e.g., conjugated and matrix-embedded) fraction. Specifically, the study suggested that 77-93% of the p-coumaric acid, 44-53% of the ferulic/sinapic acid, 71-89% of the salicylic acid, 59-68% of the resveratrol, and 89-97% of the daidzein in raw peanut kernels were present in bound forms. D147-p8-6F and Sutherland were sister-lines (derived from the same F2 plant) that had high foliar disease tolerance, high antioxidant capacity, and similar phytochemical profiles, which was consistent with associations between phytoalexin production and genetically determined disease resistance made by previous researchers. Principal components analysis linked high antioxidant capacity with a combination of phytochemicals that were not directly correlated in bivariate analysis (e.g., resveratrol was negatively correlated with caffeic/vanillic and p-coumaric acid) and that were not delineated by genotype. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Barbour J.A.,University of South Australia | Howe P.R.C.,University of Newcastle | Buckley J.D.,University of South Australia | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | And 2 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2014

Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61 ± 1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84 g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90 g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p <.001 and -17%; p <.01) and over the 4 days (-11%; p <.001 and -9%; p <.01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Agegnehu G.,James Cook University | Bass A.M.,University of Western Sydney | Nelson P.N.,James Cook University | Muirhead B.,Gulf | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effects of biochar and compost, applied individually or together, on soil fertility, peanut yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a Ferralsol in north Queensland, Australia. The treatments were (1) inorganic fertilizer only (F) as a control; (2) 10tha-1 biochar+F (B+F); (3) 25t compost+F (Com+F)ha-1; (4) 2.5t Bha-1+25t Comha-1 mixed on site+F; and (5) 25tha-1 co-composted biochar-compost+F (COMBI+F). Application of B and COMBI increased seed yield by 23% and 24%, respectively. Biochar, compost and their mixtures significantly improved plant nutrient availability and use, which appeared critical in improving peanut performance. Soil organic carbon (SOC) increased from 0.93% (F only) to 1.25% (B amended), soil water content (SWC) from 18% (F only) to over 23% (B amended) and CEC from 8.9cmol(+)/kg (F only) to over 10.3cmol(+)/kg (organic amended). Peanut yield was significantly positively correlated with leaf chlorophyll content, nodulation number (NN), leaf nutrient concentration, SOC and SWC for the organic amendments. Fluxes of CO2 were highest for the F treatment and lowest for the COMBI treatment, whereas N2O flux was highest for the F treatment and all organic amended plots reduced N2O flux relative to the control. Principal component analysis indicates that 24 out of 30 characters in the first principal component (PRIN1) individually contributed substantial effects to the total variation between the treatments. Our study concludes that applications of B, Com, B+Com or COMBI have strong potential to, over time, improve SOC, SWC, soil nutrient status, peanut yield and abate GHG fluxes on tropical Ferralsols. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Rachaputi R.C.N.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2010

Drought during the pre-flowering stage can increase yield of peanut. There is limited information on genotypic variation for tolerance to and recovery from pre-flowering drought (PFD) and more importantly the physiological traits underlying genotypic variation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of moisture stress during the pre-flowering phase on pod yield and to understand some of the physiological responses underlying genotypic variation in response to and recovery from PFD. A glasshouse and field experiments were conducted at Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The glasshouse experiment was a randomized complete block design consisting of two watering regimes, i.e. fully-irrigated control and 1/3 available soil water from emergence to 40 days after emergence followed by adequate water supply, and 12 peanut genotypes. The field experiment was a split-plot design with two watering regimes as main-plots, and 12 peanut genotypes as sub-plots. Measurements of N2 fixation, leaf area (LA) were made in both experiments. In addition, root growth was measured in the glasshouse experiment. Imposition of PFD followed by recovery resulted in an average increase in yield of 24 % (range from 10 % to 57 %) and 12 % (range from 2 % to 51 %) in the field and glasshouse experiments, respectively. Significant genotypic variation for N2 fixation, LA and root growth was also observed after recovery. The study revealed that recovery growth following release of PFD had a stronger influence on final yield than tolerance to water deficits during the PFD. A combination of N2 fixation, LA and root growth accounted for a major portion of the genotypic variation in yield (r = 0.68-0.93) suggesting that these traits could be used as selection criteria for identifying genotypes with rapid recovery from PFD. A combined analysis of glasshouse and field experiments showed that LA and N2 fixation during the recovery had low genotype × environment interaction indicating potential for using these traits for selecting genotypes in peanut improvement programs. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Thorburn P.,CSIRO | Biggs J.S.,CSIRO | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015

With the aim of increasing peanut production in Australia, the Australian peanut industry has recently considered growing peanuts in rotation with maize at Katherine in the Northern Territory - a location with a semi-arid tropical climate and surplus irrigation capacity. We used the well-validated APSIM model to examine potential agronomic benefits and long-term risks of this strategy under the current and warmer climates of the new region. Yield of the two crops, irrigation requirement, total soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were simulated. Sixteen climate stressors were used; these were generated by using global climate models ECHAM5, GFDL2.1, GFDL2.0 and MRIGCM232 with a median sensitivity under two Special Report of Emissions Scenarios over the 2030 and 2050 timeframes plus current climate (baseline) for Katherine. Effects were compared at three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertiliser applied to maize grown in rotations of wet-season peanut and dry-season maize (WPDM), and wet-season maize and dry-season peanut (WMDP). The climate stressors projected average temperature increases of 1°C to 2.8°C in the dry (baseline 24.4°C) and wet (baseline 29.5°C) seasons for the 2030 and 2050 timeframes, respectively. Increased temperature caused a reduction in yield of both crops in both rotations. However, the overall yield advantage of WPDM increased from 41% to up to 53% compared with the industry-preferred sequence of WMDP under the worst climate projection. Increased temperature increased the irrigation requirement by up to 11% in WPDM, but caused a smaller reduction in total SOC accumulation and smaller increases in N losses and GHG emission compared with WMDP. We conclude that although increased temperature will reduce productivity and total SOC accumulation, and increase N losses and GHG emissions in Katherine or similar northern Australian environments, the WPDM sequence should be preferable over the industry-preferred sequence because of its overall yield and sustainability advantages in warmer climates. Any limitations of irrigation resulting from climate change could, however, limit these advantages. © CSIRO 2015.


Phan-Thien K.-Y.,University of New South Wales | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Lee N.A.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The concentrations of 15 essential minerals (B, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Se, and Zn) in kernels of nine diverse peanut genotypes, which were cultivated in five distinct growing environments, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effects of genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions were significant (P > 0.05) for all elements excluding Cr. Genetic control of mineral composition was demonstrated by large (P > 0.05) genotypic differences in Ca, Mo, K, Na, and P contents, and clustering of some genotypes in environment-centered principal components analysis (PCA) along axes comprising both macro (Ca, Mg, P, and K)- and microelements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn). Mo and Na concentrations were strongly influenced (P > 0.05) y the growing environment, with very high levels measured in samples from Bundaberg. The results confirm that that there is breeding potential for several important minerals in peanuts, although significant G × E interactions will complicate the response to selection. From a practical viewpoint, combining genetic improvement with agronomic management may be a useful strategy to consistently achieve desirable mineral concentrations in peanut kernels. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Phan-Thien K.-Y.,University of New South Wales | Wright G.C.,Peanut Company of Australia | Lee N.A.,University of New South Wales
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Validated methods to measure the essential mineral composition of food matrices are needed to satisfy the analytical requirements of product development, quality control, and food regulatory authorities. We investigated the use of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with and without the use of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC), to analyse 15 essential minerals in peanut kernels. We validated methods for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, and Zn analyses; however further tests are needed for validation of the B, Co, Cr, Na, Ni, and Se analyses. ICP-OES was applied to a study of genotypic variation among 56 breeding lines grown in the Australian peanut improvement program. We found promising levels of genotypic variation (>10%) in essential mineral traits, especially Ca (18-23%) and Mn (24%). Further investigation of the plant breeding potential for mineral traits may aid in the future development of peanut cultivars with enhanced micronutrients. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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