Peaker Services Inc.

Brighton, MI, United States

Peaker Services Inc.

Brighton, MI, United States

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Bohac S.V.,University of Michigan | Feiler E.,Peaker Services Inc. | Bradbury I.,Peaker Services Inc.
Proceedings of the Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division | Year: 2012

This study investigates how injection timing affects combustion, NO x, PM mass and composition from a 2-stroke turbocharged locomotive diesel engine fitted with an early-development Tier 0+ emissions kit. The objective of the work is to gain insight into how injection timing affects combustion and emissions in this family of engines, modified to meet the newly implemented Tier 0+ emissions requirements, and to identify areas of potential future emissions reduction. For a range of injection timings at a medium load (notch 5) operating condition, the majority of PM mass is comprised of insolubles (81-89%), while the soluble component of PM (SOF) accounts for a smaller fraction (11-19%) of total PM mass. The SOF is 66-80% oil-like C 22-C30+ hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C9-C21 hydrocarbons. A heat release analysis is used to elucidate how injection timing affects combustion by calculating mass fraction burn curves. It is observed that retarding injection timing retards combustion phasing, decreases peak cylinder pressure and temperature, and increases expansion pressure and temperature. Results show that insolubles and fuel-like hydrocarbons increase and oil-like hydrocarbons decrease with later injection timing. Analysis suggests that insolubles and fuel-like HC increase due to lower peak combustion temperature, while oil-like HC, which are distributed more widely throughout the cylinder, decrease due to higher expansion temperatures. The net result is that total PM mass increases with retarded combustion phasing, mostly due to increased insolubles. Considering the high fraction of insoluble PM (81-89%) at all injection timings tested at notch 5, steps taken to reduce PM elemental carbon should be the most effective path for future reductions in PM emissions. Further reductions in oil consumption may also reduce PM, but to a smaller extent. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.


Bohac S.V.,University of Michigan | Feiler E.,Peaker Services Inc. | Bradbury I.,Peaker Services Inc.
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2012

This study presents a detailed exhaust emission characterization of a 2-Stroke turbocharged line haul locomotive diesel engine fitted with an early-development Tier 0 emissions kit. The objective of this work is to use emissions characterization to gain insight into engine operation and mechanisms of pollutant formation for this family of engine, and identify areas of potential future engine emissions improvement. Results show that at the notches tested (notches 3-8) the largest contributor to particulate matter (PM)mass is insolubles (mostly elemental carbon), but that the soluble component of PM, comprising 14-32 of PM, is also significant. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of the soluble portion shows that it is composed of 55-77 oil-like C 22-C 30 hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C 9-C 21 hydrocarbons. The emissions characterization suggests that advancing combustion timing should be effective in reducing PM mass by reducing the insoluble portion (elemental carbon) of PM at all notches. NO x will likely increase, but the current level of NO x is sufficiently below Tier 0 limits to allow a moderate increase. Reducing engine oil consumption should also reduce PM mass at all notches, although to a smaller degree than measures that reduce the insoluble portion of PM. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Bohac S.V.,University of Michigan | Feiler E.,Peaker Services Inc. | Bradbury I.,Peaker Services Inc.
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2013

The effects of injection timing on combustion, NOx, PM mass and composition from a 2-stroke turbocharged Tier 0+ locomotive diesel engine are investigated in this study. Results provide insight into how injection timing affects combustion and emissions in this family of engine and identifies areas of potential future emissions reduction. For a range of injection timings at a medium load (notch 5) operating condition, the majority of PM mass is insolubles (81-89%), while the soluble component of PM (SOF) accounts for a smaller fraction (11-19%) of total PM mass. The SOF is 66-80% oil-like C22-C30+ hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C9-C21 hydrocarbons. A heat release analysis is used to calculate mass fraction burned curves and elucidates how injection timing affects combustion. Retarding injection timing retards combustion phasing, decreases peak cylinder pressure and temperature, and increases expansion pressure and temperature. Results show that insolubles and fuel-like hydrocarbons increase, and oil-like hydrocarbons decrease with later injection timing. Analysis suggests that insolubles and fuel-like HC increase due to lower peak combustion temperature, while oil-like HC, which are distributed more widely throughout the cylinder, decrease due to higher expansion temperatures. The net result is that total PM mass increases with retarded combustion phasing, mostly due to increased insolubles. Considering the high fraction of insoluble PM (81-89%) at all injection timings tested at notch 5, steps taken to reduce PM elemental carbon should be the most effective path for future reductions in PM emissions. Further reductions in oil consumption may also reduce PM, but to a smaller extent. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Trademark
Peaker Services Inc. | Date: 2013-11-15

Electronic control systems for industrial engines and turbines consisting of onboard computers which monitor and optimize the other component parts of the systems, namely, electronic ignition, injectors, camshafts, turbochargers, aftercoolers, and power assemblies, all monitored and optimized by an onboard computer all for the purpose of modernizing existing high horse-power engine and turbine applications in locomotive, propulsion, power generation, compression and other mechanical drive applications and for optimizing the performance of these machines with respect to fuel efficiency, emissions, reliability, availability, maintenance and safety.


Bohac S.V.,University of Michigan | Feiler E.,Peaker Services Inc. | Bradbury I.,Peaker Services Inc.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE | Year: 2011

This study presents a detailed exhaust emission characterization of an EMD 2-Stroke turbocharged line haul locomotive diesel engine fitted with an early-development Tier 0+ emissions kit. The objective of this work is to use emissions characterization to gain insight into engine operation and mechanisms of pollutant formation for this family of engine, and identify areas of potential future engine emissions improvement. Results show that at the notches tested (notches 3-8) the largest contributor to PM mass is insolubles (mostly elemental carbon), but that the soluble component of PM, comprising 14-32% of PM, is also significant. GC-FID analysis of the soluble portion shows that it is composed of 55-77% oillike C22-C30+ hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C9-C21 hydrocarbons. The emissions characterization suggests that advancing combustion timing should be effective in reducing PM mass by reducing the insoluble portion (elemental carbon) of PM at all notches. NOx will likely increase, but the current level of NOx is sufficiently below Tier 0+ limits to allow a moderate increase. Reducing engine oil consumption should also reduce PM mass at all notches, although to a smaller degree than measures that reduce the insoluble portion of PM. © 2011 by ASME.

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