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Idris A.O.,Peace University | Elemam M.B.,Kassala University | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | El-Hag F.M.,Agricultural Research Corporation | Salih A.M.,University of Khartoum
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of supplementation during mating and at late pregnancy on ewes body condition score and lambs growth rate in the dry season. A total of 341 ewes were selected during mating season. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups. Group one was used as a control, the second, third and fourth group were supplemented with rations containing groundnut cake (GNC), groundnut cake and molasses (GNC-M) and Roselle seeds and molasses (RM). All ewes in the three supplemented groups were flushed and steamed-up, while the control group received no supplements. Ewes were offered 450 g / head of the ration every three days at the watering periods and the rams 600 g / head for three days. Body condition score (BCS) of ewes were estimated in breeding, mid pregnancy and lambing period. The lambs were weighed at birth, and each two weeks till day 120 post-partum. The results obtained indicated that, supplementation improved the BCS compared with farmer practice. The study indicated that, the pre-partum supplementation of the dams increased lamb daily growth rate before weaning.


Idris A.O.,Peace University | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | El-Hag F.M.,Agricultural Research Corporation | Salih A.M.,University of Khartoum
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Supplementary feeding experiment was carried out with desert ewes prior to late pregnancy days and during lactation period at Agricultural Research Station, El-Obeid, North Kordofan, Sudan. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementation on body weight of lactating ewes and their lambs in the dry season. The ewes were allocated to one of four treatment groups, one group was the control as in farmer practice and the other three groups were fed with rations composed from ground nut cake, sorghum, molasses and Roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa). The results indicated that, supplementation in late pregnancy and during early lactation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on body weight of dams and their lambs. Body weights were highest for the supplemented dams compared with the control group. Lambs suckling on control dams recorded lowest weights, also supplementary feeding improved lamb weights at birth and the 60 day post-partum.


Idris A.O.,Peace University | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | El-Hag F.M.,Agricultural Research Corporation | Salih A.M.,University of Khartoum
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the effect of diet supplementation on body condition score (BCS) and reproductive performance of Sudanese Desert ewes in comparison with farmer practice without any feed supplementation. A total of 341 ewes aged 1-6 years, were maintained in four groups of similar initial body weight and age. Group 1 (60 ewes) was the control (no feed supplementation). Groups 2 to 4 (92, 97 and 92 ewes, respectively) received feed supplementation containing local available feed resources in amounts of 0.45 kg every three days at watering time during two periods (45 days mating period and 45 days before lambing). Results indicated supplementation improved (P>0.05) BCS, lambing rate, fertility rate, prolificacy, fecundity, pregnancy, weaning rate and decreased abortion rate. Ewes of first parity number had higher (P>0.05) BCS. There were no effects of birth type, sex of lamb and parity number on gestation days. The reproductive performance was improved (P>0.05) as ewe's age increased. This study indicated that a moderate diet supplementation, every three days, is an efficient strategy to reduce nutritional stress in Sudanese desert ewes and increase their reproductive performance.


Ragab H.I.,Peace University | Abdel Ati K.A.,University of Khartoum | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Ibrahim S.,University of Khartoum
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

L. purpureus is considered to substitute some of conventional plant protein sources in poultry diets. In 12 weeks feeding trial the processed L. purpureus seeds were investigated for its impacts on laying performance, egg quality and serum constituents of Hisex White hens. Diets contain 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% L. purpureus were allotted randomly following completely randomized design to 25 units of three birds each. Hen day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR and weight gains were significantly (p<0.01) high up to 10% L. purpureus. Shell percentage and thickness were significantly (p<0.05) high in control and 20% L. purpureus groups. 15 and 20% L. purpureus dietary groups were of high egg albumin index and percentage. The utmost (p<0.05) yolk index and percentage were shown in 15 and 10% L. purpureus groups, respectively. Comparable high Haugh units were shown in different treatment groups. 15% L. purpureus groups, recorded significant (p<0.01) high serum total protein and globulin. All L. purpureus treatment groups were of significant (p<0.05) low serum albumin. Serum glucose was significantly (p<0.01) lowered in L. purpureus groups, while serum cholesterol was insignificantly (p>0.05) reduced due to L. purpureus inclusion. The 20 and 10% L. purpureus groups when compared to control were found of low serum P and Ca, respectively. In conclusion, up to 10% dietary inclusion of L. purpureus is appropriate to provide similar laying performance as the standard layers diet. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.


Idris A.O.,Peace University | Ahmed M.M.M.,University of Khartoum | Almansoury Y.H.,Veterinary Research Laboratories | Salih A.M.,University of Khartoum | Elemam M.B.,Kassala University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Two experiments were done in north Kordofan state to evaluate the effect of concentrate supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of grazing nomadic Fuga cows during different periods of the year. In the first experiment 36 cows were selected from nomadic herd. Animals were divided at random into three groups, group So-G was supplemented with a high-energy, high-protein feed, group So received a medium-energy medium-protein supplement, and group SB-RE received a low-energy low-protein concentrate mixture. The trial was carried out during the late dry season. Results indicated that cows supplemented with So-G had the highest milk yield, highest body weight and body condition. In the second experiment, the same groups of animals used in the first experiment were mode used. They were supplemented with the same experimental rations as in the first experiment. The trial was carried out after the rainy season, when the cows were at their mid-lactation. The results obtained indicated differences in milk yield among the experimental groups. The progesterone profile showed variation in days from calving to ovulation and to conception within and between the experimental groups. The study also showed that cows supplemented with So-G and So conceived in shorter intervals.


Ragab H.I.,Peace University | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Abdel Ati K.A.,University of Khartoum | Danier J.,TU Munich
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Three local legumes seeds produced in Sudan were subjected in their two preliminary forms (whole and decorticated seeds) to different traditional processing and then analyzed for their composition of nutrients, minerals and amino acids. All seeds were found as good source of protein and digestible carbohydrate which support their supplementation approach in poultry diets. They show as well substantial quantities of minerals with an abundance of potassium and phosphorus. Amino acid analysis revealed high lysine, leucine, phenylalanine and arginine while sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine were found deficient. Decortications and its further following processing were of worse effect mainly upon mineral contents, in addition to their impact on somewhat wastefulness of nutrient components owing to the inefficiency of dehulling, besides its cost effects. Roasting in spite of its negligible effects was inferior to both of germination and boiling of pre-soaked whole seeds with regard to amino acids. Boiling of presoaked whole seeds was found appropriate to all studied legumes while the 72 hour germination of presoaked seeds was superior to boiling for L purpureus seeds. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Johan Galtung, a Nobel Peace Prize-nominated sociologist who predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union, warned that US global power will collapse under the Donald Trump administration. The Norwegian professor at the University of Hawaii and Transcend Peace University is recognized as the 'founding father' of peace and conflict studies as a scientific discipline. He has made numerous accurate predictions of major world events, most notably the collapse of the Soviet Empire. Back in 2000, Galtung first set out his prediction that the "US empire" would collapse within 25 years. Galtung has also accurately predicted the 1978 Iranian revolution; the Tiananmen Square uprising of 1989 in China; the economic crises of 1987, 2008 and 2011; and even the 9/11 attacks—among other events, according to the late Dietrich Fischer, academic director of the European University Center for Peace Studies. Back in 2000, Galtung first set out his prediction that the "US empire" would collapse within 25 years. After the election of President Bush, though, he revised that forecast five years forward because, he argued, Bush's policies of extreme militarism would be an accelerant. After the election of Trump, I thought it might be prudent to check in with Galtung to see how he was feeling about the status of his US forecast. Galtung told Motherboard that Trump would probably continue this trajectory of accelerated decline—and may even make it happen quicker. Of course, with typical scientific caution, he said he would prefer to see what Trump's actual policies are before voicing a clear verdict. Galtung has doctoral degrees in both sociology and mathematics, and some decades ago developed a theory of "synchronizing and mutually reinforcing contradictions", which he used to make his forecasts. The model was based on comparing the rise and fall of 10 historical empires. In 1980, Galtung used his theoretical model to map the interaction of various social contradictions inside the Soviet empire, leading him to predict its demise within 10 years. "Very few believed him at the time", writes Dietrich Fischer in the main biography and anthology of Galtung's works, Pioneer for Peace, "but it occurred on November 9, 1989, two months before his time limit, 1990." For the USSR, Galtung's model identified five key structural contradictions in Soviet society which, he said, would inevitably lead to its fragmentation—unless the USSR underwent a complete transformation. The model works like this: the more those contradictions deepen, the greater the likelihood they will result in a social crisis that could upend the existing order. In the case of the USSR, the main structural contradictions were as follows: the working class was increasingly repressed and unable to self-organise through trade unions (ironic given the country's Communist pretensions); the wealthier 'bourgeoisie' or elite had money to spend, but nothing to buy from domestic production, leading to economic stagnation; Russian intellectuals wanted more freedom of expression; minorities wanted more autonomy; and peasants wanted more freedom of movement The model works like this: the more those contradictions deepen, the greater the likelihood they will result in a social crisis that could upend the existing order. Eventually, as the highly centralised structures of the Soviet empire were unable to accommodate these intensifying pressures, the top-down structures would have to collapse. Galtung later began to apply his model to the United States. In 1996, he wrote a scientific paper published by George Mason University's Institute for Conflict Analysis & Resolution warning that "the USA will soon go the same way as [previous] imperial constructions… decline and fall." But the main book setting out Galtung's fascinating forecast for the US is his 2009 book, The Fall of the American Empire—and then What? The book sets out a whopping 15 "synchronizing and mutually reinforcing contradictions" afflicting the US, which he says will lead to US global power ending by 2020—within just four years. Galtung warned that during this phase of decline, the US was likely to go through a phase of reactionary "fascism". He argued that American fascism would come from a capacity for tremendous global violence; a vision of American exceptionalism as the "fittest nation"; a belief in a coming final war between good and evil; a cult of the strong state leading the fight of good against evil; and a cult of the "strong leader". Galtung warned that during this phase of decline, the US was likely to go through a phase of reactionary "fascism". All of which, Galtung said, surfaced during the Bush era, and which now appear to have come to fruition through Trump. Such fascism, he told Motherboard, is a symptom of the decline—lashing out in disbelief at the loss of power. Among the 15 structural contradictions his model identifies as driving the decline, are: Galtung's book explores how the structural inability to resolve such contradictions will lead to the unravelling of US political power, both globally, and potentially even domestically. Trump has made clear that he thinks US troops are still needed in Iraq and Afghanistan, and even proposed sending more troops to Iraq. He also said that we should have 'grabbed' the country's oil. But he has also heavily (and incoherently) criticized US military policies. Domestically, Trump has promised to deport 11 million illegal migrants, build a wall between the US and Mexico, compel all American Muslims to sign up to a government register, and ban all Muslim immigration to the US. On the one hand, Trump might well offer an opportunity to avoid potential conflicts with great power rivals like Russia and China—on the other, he may still, stupidly, fight more unilateral wars and worsen domestic contradictions relating to minorities. For Galtung, Trump's incoherent policy proposals are evidence of the deeper structural decline of US power: "He [Trump] blunts contradictions with Russia, possibly with China, and seems to do also with North Korea. But he sharpens contradictions inside the USA", such as in relation to minority rights. On the one hand, Galtung said, Trump might well offer an opportunity to avoid potential conflicts with great power rivals like Russia and China—on the other, he may still, stupidly, fight more unilateral wars and worsen domestic contradictions relating to minorities. Motherboard asked Galtung whether he thinks Trump would speed up his forecast of "collapse", or slow it down. Even if we give Trump the benefit of the doubt, he said, and assume that he "prefers solving underlying conflicts, particularly with Russia, to war—in other words for the US not be imperial—then yes, that still speeds up the decline from above, and from the center… Of course, what he does as a President remains to be seen." But what exactly is collapsing? "An empire is more than violence around the world," said Galtung. "It is a cross-border structure with a center, the imperial country, and a periphery, the client countries. The point about imperialism is to make the elites in the periphery do the jobs for the center." The center country may be a dictatorship or a democracy. So for Galtung, the collapse of the US empire comes "when the periphery elites no longer want to fight US wars, no longer want to exploit for the center." For Galtung, a key sign of collapse would be Trump's attitude to NATO. The President-elect has said he would be happy to see NATO break-up if US allies aren't willing to pay their dues. Trump's 'go it alone' approach would, Galtung said, accelerate and undermine US global empire at the same time. "The collapse has two faces," said Galtung. "Other countries refuse to be 'good allies: and the USA has to do the killing themselves, by bombing from high altitudes, drones steered by computer from an office, Special Forces killing all over the place. Both are happening today, except for Northern Europe, which supports these wars, for now. That will probably not continue beyond 2020, so I stand by that deadline." But this global collapse, also has potential domestic implications. Galtung warned that the decline of American power on the world stage would probably have a domestic impact that would undermine the internal cohesion of the United States: "As a trans-border structure the collapse I am thinking of is global, not domestic. But it may have domestic repercussion, like white supremacists or even minorities like Hawaiians, Inuits, indigenous Americans, and black Americans doing the same, maybe arguing for the United States as community, confederation rather than a 'union'." Galtung warned that the decline of American power on the world stage would probably have a domestic impact that would undermine the internal cohesion of the United States. Galtung is not pessimistic about his forecasts, though. Having always seen the collapse of the "US empire" as inevitable—much like the collapse of the Soviet empire—he argues that there is real opportunity for a revitalization of the "American republic." The American republic is characterised by its dynamism, its support for the ideals of freedom and liberty, its productivity and creativity, and its cosmopolitanism toward the 'other.' Might Trump help revitalize the American republic? Galtung's answer is, perhaps, revealing: "If he manages to apologize deeply to all the groups he has insulted. And turn foreign policy from US interventions—soon 250 after Jefferson in Libya 1801—and not use wars (killing more than 20 million in 37 countries after 1945): A major revitalization! Certainly making 'America Great Again'. We'll see." Get six of our favorite Motherboard stories every day by signing up for our newsletter.

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