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Druckman A.,University of Surrey | Buck I.,PE International | Hayward B.,University of Surrey | Hayward B.,University of Canterbury | Jackson T.,University of Surrey
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

In order to meet the UK's challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, behaviour change will be necessary in addition to changes in technology. Traditionally this has been approached from the angle of shifting the goods people purchase towards lower impact options. But an equally valid angle is through changing the way people use their time. This study explores the GHG emissions per unit time for different types of activities. It focuses on 'non-work' time, and examines how different activities, such as household chores and leisure pursuits, give rise to varying amounts of household carbon emissions. We do this first for an average British adult, and then examine how time use varies within households, and how this impacts on resulting carbon emissions. We find, for example, that leisure activities are generally associated with lower carbon emissions than non-leisure activities, and that a higher proportion of an average man's carbon footprint is due to leisure than an average woman's. In the discussion we explore the implications of our findings for the varying roles carried out within different types of household, we investigate the concept of carbon as a potential marker for social justice, and discuss the implications for work-time reduction policies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Margallo M.,University of Cantabria | Aldaco R.,University of Cantabria | Irabien A.,University of Cantabria | Carrillo V.,PE International | And 3 more authors.
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2014

In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.


PubMed | Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, University of Cantabria, Escola Superior de Comerc Internacional ESCI UPF and PE International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA | Year: 2016

In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction.


Pascale A.,Murdoch University | Urmee T.,Murdoch University | Moore A.,PE International
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

Rural electrification and the provision of low cost, low emission technology in developing countries require decision makers to be well informed on the costs, appropriateness and environmental credentials of all available options. While cost and appropriateness are often shaped by observable local considerations, environmental considerations are increasingly influenced by global concerns which are more difficult to identify and convey to all stakeholders.Life cycle assessment is an iterative process used to analyse a product or system. This study iteratively applies life cycle assessment (LCA) to a 3 kW community hydroelectric system located in Huai Kra Thing (HKT) village in rural Thailand. The cradle to grave analysis models the hydropower scheme's construction, operation and end of life phases over a period of twenty years and includes all relevant equipment, materials and transportation.The study results in the enumeration of the environmental credentials of the HKT hydropower system and highlights the need to place environmental performance, and LCA itself, in a proper context. In the broadest sense, LCA results for the HKT hydropower system are found to reflect a common trend reported in hydropower LCA literature, namely that smaller hydropower systems have a greater environmentally impact per kWh - perform less well environmentally - than larger systems. Placed within a rural electrification context, however, the HKT hydropower system yields better environmental and financial outcomes than diesel generator and grid connection alternatives. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Nemry F.,European Commission | Uihlein A.,European Commission | Colodel C.M.,University of Stuttgart | Wetzel C.,CalCon Deutschland AG | And 7 more authors.
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

A typology of buildings representative of the building stock for the EU-25 was developed characterizing 72 building types in terms of their representativity, geographical distribution, size, material composition, and thermal insulation. The life cycle impacts of the building types were calculated for different environmental impact categories both at building and EU-25 level. The use phase of buildings, dominated by the energy demand for heating is by far the most important life cycle phase for existing and new buildings. The environmental impacts were allocated to single building elements. Ventilation, heat losses through roofs and external walls are important for a majority of single- and multi-family houses. Three improvement options were identified: additional roof insulation, additional façade insulation and new sealings to reduce ventilation. The measures yield a significant environmental improvement potential, which, for a majority of the buildings types analyse represent at least 20% compared to the base case. The major improvement potentials at EU-level lie with single-family houses, followed by multi-family houses. Smaller reductions are expected for high-rise buildings due to the smaller share in the overall building stock. For both roof insulation and reduced ventilation, the measures were shown to be economically profitable in a majority of buildings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lasvaux S.,Joseph Fourier University | Gantner J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics | Wittstock B.,PE International | Bazzana M.,Joseph Fourier University | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014

Conclusions and recommendations: This paper can be viewed as a contribution to the ongoing efforts to improve the consistency and harmonisation in LCA studies for building products and buildings. Further contributions are now needed to improve building LCA guidance and to strengthen links between research, standardisation and implementation of LCA in the construction practice.Purpose: The objective of the paper is to discuss the role of a new guidance document for life cycle assessment (LCA) in the construction sector available as an online InfoHub.Methods: This InfoHub derives from the EeBGuide European project that aimed at developing a guidance document for energy-efficient building LCA studies. The InfoHub is built on reference documents such as the ISO 14040-44 standards, the EN 15804 and EN 15978 standards as well as the ILCD Handbook. The guidance document was filled with expertise and knowledge of several experts. The focus was put on providing scientifically sound, yet practical guidance.Results: The EeBGuide InfoHub is an online guidance document, setting rules for conducting LCA studies and giving instructions on how to do this. The document has a section on buildings—new and existing—and a section on construction products. It is structured according to the life cycle stages of the European standards EN 15804 and EN 15978, covering all aspects of LCA studies by applying provisions from these standards and the ILCD handbook, wherever applicable. The guidance is presented for different scopes of studies by means of three study types. For the same system boundaries, default values are proposed in early or quick assessment (screening and simplified LCA) while detailed calculation rules correspond to a complete LCA. Such approach is intended to better match the user needs in the building sector. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Bol D.,Catholic University of Louvain | De Vos J.,Catholic University of Louvain | Hocquet C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Botman F.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 4 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2012

The vision of the Internet of Things with ambient intelligence calls for the deployment of up to a trillion connected wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). Minimizing the carbon footprint of each node is paramount from the sustainability perspective. In ultra-low-power applications, the life-cycle carbon footprint results from a complex balance between both embodied and use-phase energies [1]. The embodied energy arises mainly from CMOS chip manufacturing, and is essentially proportional to die area. Use-phase energy depends on both active and sleep-mode power, because of long stand-by periods in WSNs. In this paper, we present an ultra-low-power 25MHz microcontroller SoC that fully exploits the versatility of a 65nm CMOS process with a low-power/general-purpose (LP/GP) transistor mix (dual-core oxide) to obtain: i) 7μW/MHz active power consumption due to a 0.4V ultra-low-voltage (ULV) thin-core-oxide (GP) CPU supplied by a 78%-efficiency embedded DC/DC converter; ii) 0.66mm 2 die area for low embodied energy due to a compact converter design and a dual-V DD architecture, enabling the use of the foundry's 1V high-density 6T SRAM bitcell; and, iii) 1.5μW sleep-mode power due to body-biased sleep transistors embedded into the converter and thick-core-oxide (LP) MOSFETs for retentive SRAM and always-on peripherals (AOP). Moreover, an on-chip adaptive voltage scaling (AVS) system controlling the converter ensures safe 25MHz operation at ULV for all PVT conditions. A multi-V t clock tree is also proposed to achieve reliable timing closure with low-power SoC features. Finally, a glitch-masking instruction cache (I$) is implemented to reduce the access power of the 1V program memory (PMEM). © 2012 IEEE.


Schmincke E.,PE International
CESB 2013 PRAGUE - Central Europe Towards Sustainable Building 2013: Sustainable Building and Refurbishment for Next Generations | Year: 2013

The European standards EN 15804 and EN 15978 constitute a harmonised framework for providing basic environmental information for sustainable construction by using Type III environmental product declarations (EPD) based on LCA on the product and building level. The standards are built on a broad European consensus in the construction sector. They are voluntary and their implementation in real life practice is coordinated on a voluntary basis by the ECO Platform, which is an association of European EPD program operators in the construction sector. The objective of the ECO Platform is to support the provision of unbiased, credible and scientifically sound information in form of a type III Environmental Product Declaration for construction products.


Bol D.,Catholic University of Louvain | De Vos J.,Catholic University of Louvain | Hocquet C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Hocquet C.,National Instruments | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2013

Integrated circuits for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) targeting the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm require ultralow-power consumption for energy-harvesting operation and low die area for low-cost nodes. As the IoT calls for the deployment of trillions of WSNs, minimizing the carbon footprint for WSN chip manufacturing further emerges as a third target in a design-for-the-environment (DfE) perspective. The SleepWalker microcontroller is a 65-nm ultralow-voltage SoC based on the MSP430 architecture capable of delivering increased speed performances at 25 MHz for only 7 μW/MHz at 0.4 V. Its sub-mm2 die area with low external component requirement ensures a low carbon footprint for chip manufacturing. SleepWalker incorporates an on-chip adaptive voltage scaling (AVS) system with DC/DC converter, clock generator, memories, sensor and communication interfaces, making it suited for WSN applications. An LP/GP process mix is fully exploited for minimizing the energy per cycle, with power gating to keep stand-by power at 1.7 μW. By incorporating a glitch-masking instruction cache, system power can be reduced by up to 52%. The AVS system ensures proper 25-MHz operation over process and temperature variations from-40 °C to +85°C$, with a peak efficiency of the DC/DC converter above 80%. Finally, a multi-Vt clock tree reduces variability-induced clock skew by 3× to ensure robust timing closure down to 0.3 V. © 1966-2012 IEEE.

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