Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company. It has activities in exploration, production, refining and exporting oil, as well as exploration and production of natural gas. Since its founding on 1 January 1976 with the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry, PDVSA has dominated the oil industry of Venezuela, the world's fifth largest oil exporter.Oil reserves in Venezuela are the largest in the world, and the state-owned PDVSA provides the government of Venezuela with substantial funding resources. The government of Venezuela treats PDVSA as a cash-cow, and the company only hires political supporters of the president. Between 2004 and 2010 PDVSA contributed $61.4 billion to the government's social development projects. Around half of this went directly to various Bolivarian Missions, with the remainder distributed via the National Development Fund. Incompetence has led to serious inefficiencies and accidents. Wikipedia.
Pdvsa | Date: 2014-04-15
A method for measuring water content of a mixture of oil and water includes a) generating a medium frequency signal (V_(i)); b) passing the medium frequency signal (V_(i)) through a frequency conversion circuit to produce a first measurement signal at a low frequency (V_(i)); c) passing the medium frequency signal (V_(i)) through the mixture of oil and water to obtain an altered signal (V_(o)); d) passing the altered signal (V_(o)) to a frequency conversion circuit to produce an altered measurement signal at a low frequency (V_(o)); and (e) determining water content of the oil and water mixture based upon amplitude and phase change of the altered measurement signal (V_(o)) as compared to the first measurement signal (V_(i)).
Pdvsa | Date: 2013-10-28
An axial gas-liquid cyclone separator, comprising a housing having a wet gas inlet and a dry gas outlet aligned along an axis of the housing; an internal wall section in the housing and defining, within the housing, a pre-separation chamber and a main liquid separation chamber; an assembly comprising a static mixer and a swirl generator mounted in a tube and extended through the internal wall section; liquid outlets in at least the main chamber for outlet of liquids separated from the wet gas; and a vortex finder mounted between the tube and the dry gas outlet.
Pdvsa | Date: 2015-05-29
An aqueous well completion/workover fluid, including a surfactant, at least one salt and an alkaline material, wherein the surfactant comprises a mixture of a phosphate ester and a non ionic ethoxylated alcohol, wherein the fluid has a pH between 6 and 8, and wherein the fluid generates an interfacial tension with crude oil of less than or equal to 1 dyne/cm. The fluid is not harmful to a formation if it penetrates the formation, and further exhibits an excellent detergency which can be beneficial as well.
Pdvsa | Date: 2015-06-25
A method for upgrading a hydrocarbon using active hydrogen, includes the steps of: feeding a hydrocarbon to a two-compartment cell having a first compartment, a second compartment and a membrane dividing the compartments, wherein the hydrocarbon is fed to the first compartment which functions as a chemical compartment; feeding a source of hydrogen to the second compartment which functions as an electrochemical compartment; and pulsing an electric current or cathodic current across the second compartment.
Pdvsa | Date: 2015-02-05
A regenerable sorbent for the removal of acid gas from a fluid stream. The regenerable sorbent is made from raw materials such as iron mineral, expansive clay and starch. Acid gas is removed from the fluid stream by a process where the raw materials are obtained, crushed, sifted, possibly pelletized, calcined and contacted with the fluid stream containing the acid gas.
Pdvsa | Date: 2014-11-26
A method for improving recovery from an oil-bearing subterranean formation includes the steps of: injecting a surfactant solution into the subterranean formation, wherein the surfactant solution comprises a mixture of fatty acids and salts of the fatty acids with a mild base, whereby oil-water interfacial tension in the formation is reduced; and producing fluids from the formation.
Pdvsa | Date: 2013-10-30
A PVT system for evaluating foamy heavy and extra-heavy hydrocarbons, including a cell having a wall defining an inner space; a floating piston slidable in the inner space; a stirring mechanism slidable into the inner space and operative to mix a hydrocarbon sample in the inner space; a volumetric pump associated with the cell for selectively increasing and decreasing pressure on the floating piston, and communicated with the inner space to control pressure in the space; an oven for heating the cell, wherein the cell is mounted within the oven; an inversion mechanism for inverting the cell at least about 180; and a frame supporting the oven, wherein the wall of the cell and the oven have corresponding elongated transparent sections arranged to allow visual inspection of fluid in the inner space along an entire longitudinal extent of the inner space.
Pdvsa | Date: 2013-03-06
A catalyst composition comprising an emulsion of an aqueous phase in an oil phase, wherein the aqueous phase contains a group 6 metal, and wherein between about 55 and 100 wt% of the group 6 metal is sulfurated. A method for making a catalyst emulsion, comprising the steps of providing an aqueous phase comprising an aqueous solution of a group 6 metal, wherein between about 55 and 100 wt% of the group 6 metal is sulfurated; and mixing the aqueous phase into an oil phase to form an emulsion of the aqueous phase in the oil phase. A hydroconversion process, comprising the steps of contacting the catalyst of claim 1 with a feedstock in a hydroconversion zone under hydroconversion conditions.
Pdvsa | Date: 2014-07-11
A method for increasing mobility of a heavy crude oil includes mixing an additive containing saponins and fatty acids with a heavy crude oil, wherein the saponins are derived from Sapindus Saponaria.
Pdvsa | Date: 2014-01-09
A microgenerator for use in petroleum distribution systems includes a casing defining an interior portion and an exterior portion. The casing has an opposed first support wall and second support wall coupled within an inner diameter of a cylinder containment wall. At least one fluid inlet penetrates the cylinder containment wall. The fluid inlet is fluidly coupled to an energized fluid source. At least one nozzle is fluidly coupled to the fluid inlet. The nozzle is configured to accelerate the fluid into the interior portion. At least one fluid outlet penetrates the cylinder containment wall. The fluid outlet is configured to discharge the fluid from said interior portion of the casing. An impulse turbine is located within the interior portion. The turbine has a first stator coupled to the first support wall and a second stator coupled to the second support wall opposite the first stator. A rotor is rotatably mounted between the first stator and the second stator on a shaft at a central axis of the rotor. The rotor includes an array of turbine blades integral to the rotor at an outer perimeter of the rotor. The nozzle is aligned to direct the fluid against the array of turbine blades to rotate the rotor about the central axis. A set of permanent magnets are fixed into the rotor proximate the turbine blades between the perimeter and the shaft. At least one electromagnetic core and coil assembly is fixed into the first stator arranged in a periphery about the central axis and is electromagnetically coupled to the set of permanent magnets and is configured to generate an electric current in cooperation with the set of permanent magnets.