Croese S.,Stellenbosch University |
Cirolia L.R.,University of Cape Town |
Habitat International | Year: 2016
The 'challenge of slums' is a global challenge, but particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa where in 2001 71.9% of the urban population lived in slums. This article reviews the housing programmes of a selected number of African countries (Angola, Namibia, Ethiopia and South Africa) to argue that while until recently African shelter policies at least in name continued to be mostly in line with international enabling and participatory approaches to dealing with the challenge of slums, in practice mass scaled supply-driven approaches to housing provision are on the rise. The article situates this practice historically and seeks to provide insight into some of the perceptions and factors that have underpinned and enabled its emergence. While noting a number of shortcomings of this supply-driven approach, it concludes that with Habitat III on the horizon it is important to confront the disjuncture between global policy and local practice in African cities. © 2015 The Authors.
Climate Policy | Year: 2010
There is consensus that carbon pricing is required to support a lower carbon pathway for South Africa. However, a debate remains on the most appropriate mechanism to introduce such a price. Although theoretically similar under restrictive assumptions, carbon taxes and emissions trading have very different environmental and economic implications in practice. The differences between price and quantity instruments remain fundamental, but there are other important criteria when comparing instruments. On the basis of a broad set of public policy criteria, carbon taxation appears to have many merits for a middle-income developing country like South Africa. The concentrated market structure of the country's energy sector raises concerns about the ability to construct a competitive and efficient emissions trading market and further supports taxation as the more appropriate instrument for the country. Other considerations are the relative political credibility, welfare impacts and long-term stability of each instrument. A comparison of the instruments should not, however, be treated as an either/or choice, as much depends on the design of each instrument. The evaluation of the instruments in South African circumstances suggests potential criteria for evaluation and instrument modifications, which may also be useful for other developing countries. © 2010 Earthscan.