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Trivedi M.,Pd Hinduja National Hospital And Research Center | Rodriguez C.,P.D. Hinduja National Hospital | Singhal T.,Kokilaben Dhirubhai
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2012

Background: In India where the prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms among gram negative organisms is 60-70% and Ertapenem was unavailable at the beginning of this study, exclusive use of Group 2 Carbapenems (Imipenem and Meropenem) for treatment raises issues of cost and development of resistance. Therefore the role of non-Carbapenem alternatives, chiefly Betalactam + Betalactamase inhibitors (BL-BLI) was explored in this prospective observational study at a private tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients and Methods: 522 consecutive in door patients from the period between June 2006 to March 2007and June 2008 to December 2008, who had true infections with ESBL producing organisms were enrolled in the study. Antimicrobials were prescribed or changed by the treating physicians on the basis of the nature and severity of infection, the susceptibility of the organism and the affordability of the patient. Patients who received a Carbapenem at any time during treatment were considered in the Carbapenem group. Those who never received a Carbapenem at any time during treatment were considered in the non-Carbapenem group. Results: Of the 522 infections, 287 were urinary tract infections, 60 were skin structure infections, 60 were bacteremias, 55 were hospital acquired pneumonias, 31 were intra-abdominal infections and 29 were other infections. There were 351 E. coli, 119 K. pneumoniae, 23 K. oxytoca, 16 Enterobacter aerogenes, 5 Kozoanae, 4 Enterobacter agglomerans, 3 Citrobacter freundi, 1 E.cloacae, 1 Enterobacterspp. and 1 Morgenella morganii isolates. Clinical outcomes were available for 486 patients. 339 patients who were in the non-Carbapenem group and who might have had less serious infections had a clinical success rate of 79.6%. 147 patients who were in the Carbapenem group and who might have had more serious infections had a clinical success rate of 85.71%. Conclusions: It is possible to successfully treat at least the less serious infections due to ESBL producing gram negative organisms with non-Carbapenem antimicrobials. This will not compromise outcomes but will likely result in restricting the use of Carbapenems which may help preserve their efficacy against increasingly resistant organisms. © JAPI. Source

Goletti D.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases Inmi | Raja A.,Tuberculosis Research Center | Ahamed Kabeer B.S.,Tuberculosis Research Center | Rodrigues C.,Pd Hinduja National Hospital And Research Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2010

Objectives: To evaluate whether in vitro response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1 peptides selected by computational analysis, measured by IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-2 or IL-2 production, is associated with active tuberculosis (TB) in a country with a high incidence of TB. Methods: 129 individuals were prospectively enrolled, 41 with active-pulmonary TB and 88 without (household contacts and community controls). A whole blood assay based on RD1 selected peptides was performed. Soluble factors were evaluated by ELISA in plasma harvested at day1-post-culture. Enrolled individuals were also tested by QuantiFERON TB-Gold In tube (QFT-IT) and tuberculin skin tests (TST). Results: IFN-γ response to RD1 selected peptides was significantly higher in active TB patients than in household contacts and community controls. IP-10 and MCP-2 response did not differ between active TB patients and household contacts, although it was higher in these groups compared to community controls; conversely IL-2 response did not differ among the three groups. When IFN-γ response to RD1 selected peptides was scored based on receiver-operator-characteristic analysis, active TB was predicted with 68% sensitivity and 86% specificity. QFT-IT and TST showed a sensitivity for active TB of 90% and 68% and a specificity of 58% and 59%, respectively. Conclusions: IFN-γ (but not IP-10, MCP-2 and IL-2) response to RD1 selected peptides is associated with active TB with a higher specificity than QFT-IT and TST. © 2010 The British Infection Society. Source

Lagrange P.H.,University Paris Diderot | Thangaraj S.K.,bioMerieux | Dayal R.,SN Medical College | Despande A.,Grant Medical College | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of this multicentric prospective study in India was to assess the value of several microbiological tools that contribute to the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) according to HIV status. Methods: Standard microbiological tools on individual specimens were analyzed. Results: Among the 807 patients with active TB, 131 were HIV-infected, 316 HIV-uninfected and 360 had HIV-unknown status. Among the 980 non-active TB subjects, 559 were at low risk and 421 were at high risk of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) exposure. Sensitivity of smear microscopy (SM) was significantly lower in HIV-infected (42.2%) than HIV-uninfected (75.9%) (p = 0.0001) and HIV-unknown pulmonary TB patients (61.4%) (p = 0.004). Specificity was 94.5% in non-TB patients and 100% in health care workers (HCW) and healthy family contacts. Automated liquid culture has significantly higher diagnostic performances than solid culture, measured by sensitivity (74.7% vs. 55.9%) (p = 0.0001) and shorter median time to detection (TTD) (12.0 vs. 34.0 days) (p = 0.0001). Specificity was 100% in HCW and cured-TB patients, but was lower in non-TB patients (89%) due to isolation of Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). TTD by both methods was related to AFB score. Contamination rate was low (1.4%). AccuProbe hybridization technique detected Mtb in almost all culture-positive specimens, but MOTT were found in 4.7% with a significantly higher frequency in HIV-infected (15%) than HIV-uninfected TB patients (0.5%) (p = 0.0007). Pre-test classification significantly increased the diagnostic value of all microbiological tests in pulmonary TB patients (p<0.0001) but to a lesser degree in extrapulmonary TB patients. Conclusions: Conventional microbiological tools led to results similar to those already described in India special features for HIV-infected TB patients included lower detection by SM and culture. New microbiological assays, such as the automated liquid culture system, showed increased accuracy and speed of detection. © 2012 Lagrange et al. Source

Goletti D.,Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases INMI | Raja A.,Tuberculosis Research Center | Kabeer B.S.A.,Tuberculosis Research Center | Rodrigues C.,Pd Hinduja National Hospital And Research Center | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The suboptimal sensitivity of Interferon (IFN)-γ-based in-vitro assays, especially in immunocompromised individuals, emphasizes the need for alternative markers for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2 and interleukin (IL)-2 can be useful biomarkers for evaluating a specific response to RD1 antigens associated to active TB disease in HIV-infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings: The study was carried out in India, the country with the highest TB burden in the world. Sixty-six HIV-infected individuals were prospectively enrolled, 28 with active-pulmonary-TB and 38 without. The whole blood assay based on RD1-selected peptides (experimental test) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In tube (QFT-IT) was performed. Plasma was harvested at day-1-post-culture and soluble factors were evaluated by ELISA. The results indicate that by detecting IP-10, the sensitivity of the experimental test and QFT-antigen (75% and 85.7% respectively) for active TB was higher compared to the same assays based on IFN-γ (42.9% and 60.7% respectively) and was not influenced by the ability to respond to the mitogen. By detecting IP-10, the specificity of the experimental test and QFT-antigen (57.9% and 13.2% respectively) for active TB was lower than what was reported for the same assays using IFN-γ-detection (78.9% and 68.4% respectively). On the other side, in vitro IL-2 and MCP-2 responses were not significantly associated with active TB. Conclusions: HIV infection does not impair RD1-specific response detected by IP-10, while it significantly decreases IFN-γ-mediated responses. At the moment it is unclear whether higher detection is related to higher sensitivity or lower specificity of the assay. Further studies in high and low TB endemic countries are needed to elucidate this. © 2010 Goletti et al. Source

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