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PubMed | Royal Perth Hospital, Siriraj Hospital, Changi General Hospital, Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of antimicrobial agents | Year: 2016

A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained 48 h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most -lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial.


PubMed | University of Cape Town, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Pd Hinduja National Hospital And Medical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can provide a comprehensive analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutations that cause resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. With the deployment of bench-top sequencers and rapid analytical software, WGS is poised to become a useful tool to guide treatment. However, direct sequencing from clinical specimens to provide a full drug resistance profile remains a serious challenge. This article reviews current practices for extracting M. tuberculosis DNA and possible solutions for sampling sputum. Techniques under consideration include enzymatic digestion, physical disruption, chemical degradation, detergent solubilization, solvent extraction, ligand-coated magnetic beads, silica columns, and oligonucleotide pull-down baits. Selective amplification of genomic bacterial DNA in sputum prior to WGS may provide a solution, and differential lysis to reduce the levels of contaminating human DNA is also being explored. To remove this bottleneck and accelerate access to WGS for patients with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis, it is suggested that a coordinated and collaborative approach be taken to more rapidly optimize, compare, and validate methodologies for sequencing from patient samples.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, University of Calcutta and Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research AcSIR
Type: | Journal: Neuroscience letters | Year: 2016

Primary Dystonia is a common movement disorder manifested by dystonic symptoms only. DYT6, a major genetic factor, plays a significant role in primary pure dystonia pathogenesis. In this study we analyzed THAP1 (DYT 6) gene in primary pure dystonia patients, which has been widely studied in other populations but not in Indians.The study cohort contained 227 index primary pure dystonia patients with the involvement of cervical region and 254 neurologically control individuals collected from East Indian population. All three exons of THAP1 and their flanking sequences, including exon-intron boundaries, were screened by PCR, DNA sequencing and/or RFLP analysis.A total of three nucleotide variants were detected, which include a reported missense mutation (c.427 A>G; p.Met143Val) in a juvenile onset generalized dystonia patient, a novel frameshift deletion mutation (c.208-209 AA; p.K70VfsX15) in a juvenile onset cervical dystonia patient and a rare variant in 3 UTR of THAP1 (c.*157 T>C) in an adult-onset blepharospasm patient. In addition, two SNPs (rs71521601 and rs111989331) were detected both in the patients and controls with the major allele of the latter being significantly over represented in the patients.Our study suggests that the THAP1 is likely to have a causative role in the pathogenesis of Indian primary pure dystonia patients. Though the phenotypic spectrum is extensively diverse, the cervical involvement with dystonic tremor and speech problem is common amongst the patients harboring mutations.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

Coronary constriction, proliferation of smooth muscle cells and arrhythmia are involved in the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease and its complications such as myocardial infarction and sudden death. All these effects are favoured by high angiotensin II levels. Angiotensin II is the main effector molecule of the renin angiotensin system and it acts through angiotensin II type receptors. Genetically determined differences in the expression of the components of this system could adversely affect angiotensin II concentration and subsequently heart. Consequently each component of this system represents a potential candidate in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. In this article we review the variation of the angiotensin I converting enzyme, angiotensin II type I receptor and angiotensinogen genes and their association with cardiovascular disease.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

The central role of the laboratory scientist is to aid the clinician, in interpreting observed values, by providing relevant reference values in a convenient and practical form. In India, reference values used in laboratories have been established in the western population. But these can be questioned due to differences in genetic load, lifestyle, and diet. This review highlights the approach for establishing reference values in our population using the IFCC guidelines and our observations from our data as compared to the reported values in our laboratory.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

Apolipoprotein E genotypes and lipid and lipoprotein levels were determined in hypercholesterolemic and angiographically vertified CHD subjects and compared against 90 normolipidemic controls. The 4 allele was significantly prevalent in the hypercholesterolemic and CHD subjects. Significant increase in total cholesterol levels in apo 4 containing subjects were observed in the hypercholesterolemic and CHD group. The study suggests that the 4 allele by influencing the lipid levels could act as a risk factor for CHD.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

Determination of plasma total homocysteine by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) usually requires reduction of protein bound or free homocysteine-disulphides into thiols by a reducing agent and the liberated thiols are then derivatized by a fluorescent marker. In this study we have standardized the HPLC method for homocysteine measurement using dithiothreitol (DTT) as reductant.The results of plasma total homocysteine values obtained by HPLC were compared with IMx method. The difference between the two means was statistically insignificant [P=0.616847 (two tail)] Linear regression analysis showed strong correlation between the two methods (r=0.983). Using this method we have analyzed 132 controls and 130 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) patients for plasma total homocysteine, wherein, the mean plasma total homocysteine levels were 10.518.36 and 11.5110.06 mol/L respectively. Our research study suggests that DTT method is a simple and inexpensive assay for homocysteine determination in human plasma for research application.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India | Year: 2012

Castlemans disease, also known as angiofollicular hyperplasia, is a disease of unsettled complexity and morbidity, usually occurs in the mediastinum and less frequently in the neck as a solitary mass and is often associated with other illnesses. Two variants have been recognized, the hyaline vascular type which is mare common and the less common plasma cell type with a third hybrid or intermediate type that shares features with both. It has been described with AIDS and Kaposis sarcoma as well as follicular dendritic cell tumours.We report a case of Castlemans disease of the hyaline vascular type arising in the left supra-clavicular region in 41 year old male without any associated systemic illness. The neck is an uncommon location for this rare disease.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India | Year: 2012

Spontaneous CSF otorrhea specially in older age is a rare condition. Congenital inner ear malformation is one of the commonest causes in pediatric age group and either because of trauma or spontaneously it comes out into middle ear. In pediatric age group usual presentation is with history of meningitis while adult patients may present as watery discharge from nose or ear. This is a case, presented with conducted deafness with negative middle ear pressure. Grommet was put presuming secretory otitis media but B2-transferrin levels of the secretion confirmed it as a CSF otorrhea. He was operated with past aural transmasioid approach. The defect was sealed in layers. Patient is in regular follow up is asymptomatic and without any recurrence.


PubMed | Pd Hinduja National Hospital & Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB | Year: 2012

Preanalytical errors contribute to a large proportion of total laboratory errors. In order to achieve continuous laboratory improvement, it is important to focus on all phases of patient specimen testing i.e. preanalytical, analytical and post-analytical. With large variations in the way venous blood specimens are collected using diverse devices in the country, the effect of such practices on specimen quality is not known. The purpose of this study was to monitor fourteen specimen preanalytical quality indicators in order to compare the usage of evacuated blood collection devices with needle and syringe open collection using either disposable tubes or re-washed glass vials. The study involved 26638 patient specimens assessed over a period of 6 months. The results demonstrated that evacuated closed blood collection resulted in an approximate 100-fold reduction in the incidence of hemolysis in samples. Similarly, there was a 200-fold reduction in incidence of insufficient specimen quantity while using evacuated collection system. It was also found that incidence of specimen contamination, improper volume of sample collected, and specimen spillage was also lower when the evacuated collection system was used. Further, it was also observed that the facility with a laboratory information system demonstrated much lower specimen identification and related errors. The observed results clearly demonstrate that the usage of the evacuated blood collection system resulted in improvement of preanalytical specimen quality as compared to needle and syringe usage.

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