PCTE Institute of Pharmacy

Ludhiāna, India

PCTE Institute of Pharmacy

Ludhiāna, India
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Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Diabetes mellitus occurrence has been associated to the modification of the physiological levels of glucose and is often accompanied by several long-term complications, namely neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, cataract, and cardiovascular. Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme of aldoketo reductase super-family that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. In this context, aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received much attention worldwide. Decreased sorbitol flux through polyol pathway by ARIs could be an emerging target for the management of major complications of diabetes. The present review article describes a brief overview of the role of aldose reductase in the diabetic complications, advances achieved on ARIs and their potential use in the treatment and management of the major diabetic complications such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular. The ARIs developed vary structurally, and representative structural classes of ARIs include i) carboxylic acid derivatives (such as Epalrestat, Alrestatin, Zopalrestat, Zenarestat, Ponalrestat, Lidorestat, and Tolrestat), ii) spirohydantoins and related cyclic amides (such as Sorbinil, Minalrestat, and Fidarestat), and iii) phenolic derivatives (related to Benzopyran-4-one and Chalcone). Among these inhibitors, Epalrestat is the only commercially available inhibitor till date. In addition, some other ARIs such as Sorbinil and Ranirestat had been advanced into late stage of clinical trials and found to be safe for human use. The role of various natural ARIs in management of diabetic complications will be discussed. Adapting ARIs could prevent sepsis complications, prevent angiogenesis, ameliorate mild or asymptomatic diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of endotoxemia and other ROS-induced inflammatory diseases. The role of ARIs in non-diabetic diseases will also be discussed. © 2016, Bentham Science Publishers.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2010

Supercritical fluid technologies (SCFT) represent a recent approach for obtaining pharmaceutical materials in pure physical form and the application of supercritical fluids is a superior alternative to conventional precipitation and extraction processes. Supercritical fluid technology (SCFT) offers exciting opportunities to produce and modify pharmaceutical substances and has the potential to revolutionize pharmaceutical processing using simple one-step process to produce micron-size products. Particle and delivery systems design are major developments of supercritical fluids applications. Solute supersaturation causing subsequent precipitation of small particles with a narrow size distribution has been achieved using SCFT. The materials such as nano- and micro- particles of high added value compounds: i.e. an active substance (drugs, but also magnetic substances for diagnostic applications) and a polymer for the preparation of delivery systems have proved better. Current pharmaceutical applications of SCFT include: drug extraction and analysis, drug particle and drug polymorph engineering, improve the solubility of a poorly soluble drug , purification and sterilization of medical components, recrystallize pharmaceuticals to nanosize, preparation of metal nanoparticles, chromatography, coating, convert highly brittle crystalline recipients to amorphous or non-crystalline forms, separate and analyze the drug enantiomers, micronization and preparation of drug delivery systems. Scientists are of the opinion that SCFT have the potential to meet challenges for the development processes of pharmaceutical products for 21st century.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2010

Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is an enabling technology for accelerating drug discovery and development processes. Microwave instruments are used principally in three areas of drug research: the screening of organic drug formulae, peptide synthesis, and DNA amplification. The features of microwave-assisted organic synthesis technology include reduction of time for a chemical reaction, instantaneous and uniform heating, carrying out solvent free reactions and possibility of parallel chemical reactions has proved as a bonanza for the researchers involved in drug discovery and development processes like high-speed combinatorial and medicinal chemistry. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis in aqueous medium has resulted in the development of relatively sustainable and environmentally benign protocols for the synthesis of drugs. Microwave-assisted synthesis under controlled conditions has many applications in the field of medical chemistry and pharmaceutical research. This technology has made an impact in several areas of drug discovery related to organic synthesis. It has been used by pharmaceutical companies in target discovery, screening, pharmacokinetics, production of compound libraries and has found application in peptide synthesis.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2010

The use of supercritical fluids as chromatographic mobile phases provides rapid separations with high efficiency, favoring their use in enantioselective separations. Supercritical fluid technology (SFC) is a versatile tool in the purification, enantioseparation and large-scale production of enantiomers of pharmaceuticals over comparable liquid chromatographic methods and is gaining popularity in pharmaceutical industry. The addition of organic modifiers and additives to the supercritical carbon dioxide mobile phase extends the utility of packed column SFC to polar and even ionic compounds. SFC/MS is employed for detection of impurity and confirmation/identification of enantiomers.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O'-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Ars Pharmaceutica | Year: 2013

Aims: Salt formation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) improve their aqueous solubility, processing at industrial level, safety aspects and sometimes biological properties. The aim of the present review is to consider ionic liquids (ILs) based active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative versatile tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Materials and Methods: ILs are the quaternary salts having melting point below 100 oC. The negative side effects of a given API can be treated by delivering it as an ionic liquid in which the counterion neutralizes the unwanted side effects. Ionic liquid form such as APIs pair for dual treatment therapies with synergistic rather than additive results is another approach. Recently, a major emphasis has been placed on ionic liquids as bearers of desired biological activity. In this context, the properties of the Ionic liquids can be tuned by judicious choice of cation(s) and anion(s). Results: Recent developments have shown that Ionic liquids have potential biological applications in drug delivery, particularly as APIs. Some examples of ionic liquids produced as APIs are described from literature which has at least one pharmaceutical active ion with improved biological activity over the precursor ions. The use of ionogels in sensing platforms clearly has several advantages over current technologies. ILs have considerable potential to provide advances in liquid formulation of protein pharmaceuticals. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical ionic liquids could provide another tool in drug development, design and delivery. Ionic liquid salts as APIs eliminate problems associated with the solid-state and exhibit synergistic physical and biological properties.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2015

Supramolecular chemistry enabling molecules and molecular complexes binding through non-covalent bonds allows nanomedicines to serve their desirable function to deliver drugs at the right time and the right place with minimal invasiveness. Supramolecular nanomedicine is the application of nanosupramolecules to the human health and disease and its main applications include diagnosis and therapy, drug and gene delivery, and tissue engineering. Nanoparticles with different structures obtained by assembling supraamphiphiles are promising candidates for multifunctional therapeutic platforms combining imaging and therapeutic capabilities. Encapsulation in supramolecular nanocarriers such as polymeric micelles, polymeric vesciles, layer-by-layer assembly, and porphysomes has the potential to deliver imaging and therapeutic drugs to the sites of action in the body. Hybrid supramolecular nanostructures of organic and inorganic molecules show promising potential in nanomedicine. Research is progressing towards rapid development on supramolecular nanotheranostic devices. Moreover, supramolecular nanoparticles exhibit low-toxicity, low-immunogenicity, nonpathogenicity, and in vivo degradability. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy | Kamboj S.R.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2010

Inorganic nanomaterials (INMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) are important in our lives because of their use as drugs, imaging agents, and antiseptics. Among the most promising INMs being developed are metal, silica, dendrimers, organic-inorganic hybrids, and bioinorganic hybrids. Gold NPs are important in imaging, as drug carriers, and for thermotherapy of biological targets. Gold NPs, nanoshells, nanorods, and nanowires have the extensive potential to be an integral part of our imaging toolbox and useful in the fight against cancer. Metal NP contrast agents enhance magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound results in biomedical applications of in vivo imaging. Hollow and porous INMs have been exploited for drug and gene delivery, diagnostic imaging, and photothermal therapy. Silver NPs show improved antimicrobial activity. Silica NPs have been used in drug delivery and gene therapy. Biomolecular inorganic nanohybrids and nanostructured biomaterials have been exploited for targeted imaging and therapy, drug and gene delivery, and regenerative medicine. Dendrimers find use as drug or gene carriers, contrast agents, and sensors for different metal ions. From the Clinical Editor: This manuscript is the second part of an extensive review about Inorganic nanomaterials and nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are used as drugs, drug delivery agents, imaging contrast materials and antiseptics. Specific classes with examples are discussed and described. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy | Kamboj S.R.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2010

Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the Clinical Editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Sekhon B.S.,PCTE Institute of Pharmacy
Current Chemical Biology | Year: 2010

Improper allocation of the incorrect metal ion to a metalloprotein can have resounding and often detrimental effects on different aspects of cellular physiology. Enzymes that employ transition metals as co-factors are housed in a wide variety of intracellular locations or are exported to the extracellular milieu. Metallochaperones (much smaller than the cell) are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are a distinct class of proteins which accounts for the incorporation of metal ion cofactors into metalloenzymes / metalloproteins. Metals in the cells are distributed by metallochaperones (intracellular metal ion carriers) and these intracellular metal ion carriers ensure that the correct metal is acquired by a specific metalloenzyme. Metallochaperones act in the intracellular trafficking of metal ions to protect the cell and are a family of soluble metal receptor proteins that bind and protect metal ions/cofactors. The target sites for metal/cofactor delivery include a number of metalloenzymes, or proteins that bind metal ions and use these ions as cofactors to perform essential biochemical reactions such as cellular respiration, DNA synthesis and antioxidant defense. In this review, metallochaperones for various metals such as copper, nickel, zinc, iron, arsenic, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum and vanadium are discussed. In the cell, the specific metal ion is often selected by specific protein-protein interactions between the apoprotein and a metallochaperone and ligand-exchange reactions have been involved in the metal transfer from metallochaperones to cognate apoproteins. The development of chaperone-based medications from medicinal plants has been reported. ©2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

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